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Freeman Peak in the Bitterroot Range of the Beaverhead Mountains. 

Dale Ford photo 


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Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2011 with funding from 
Brigham Young University-Idaho 





Volume I 


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Compiled by 

Lemhi County History Committee 
Hon. Fred Snook, Chairman 
Salmon, Idaho 8346 7 

pop. 6,899 

design - D. Krasowski '92 
over design - Robert Wilkerson 

Copyright 1992 

Lemhi County History Committee 

Hon. Fred Snook, Chairman 

To order copies of this publication contact; 

Judge Fred Snook 

206 Courthouse Drive 

Salmon, Idaho 83467 


Editorial Board 

Fred Snook, Chairman 

Marilyn Alford, Vice Chairman 

Doris Brown 

Phyllis Caples 

Ramona Combs-Stauffer 

Bob Loucks 

Janice Neal 

Shirley Parmenter 

Karen Whitworth 


Marilyn Alford, coordinator 

Candace Burns, publicity 

Ramona Combs-Stauffer, proof editor 

Harold Heidemann, co-treasurer 

Sharon Hoffman, correspondence 

Sharon Infanger, co-treasurer 

Ann Loucks, publicity and sales 

Laura Morton, book orders 

MarRue Simmons, sales 

Jo Whitcomb, indexing 

Family Histories 

Shirley Parmenter, chairman 

Marilyn Alford 

Phoebe Bird 

Doris Brown 

Kay Guth 

Jean Marchand 

Doris Morton 

Julia Randolph 

Karen Whitworth 


Marilyn Alford 
Denise Bender 
Phoebe Bird 

Ramona Combs-Stauffer 
Kathleen Cramer 
Martha Edgar 
Laura Gough 
Chrie Gould 
Kay Guth 

Laura Hendricks 
Ann Loucks 
Betty Morton 
Martha Nyborg 
Dorothy Olson 
Shirley Parmenter 
Karen Whitworth 
Clair Wiley 
Jackie Winterowd 

Our sincere gratitued is extended to the many others who helped either directly or 
indirectly in completing this publication. Special thanks to Dale Ford for photographic 


by Fred Snook 

Chairman, History Book Committee 

This Centennial History of Lemhii County was the idea 
of an inspirational, dedicated, community minded per- 
son; the late Barbara Young. Barbara was the Chair- 
man of the Lemhi County Centennial Committee and 
in that position organized the "best" County Centen- 
nial Organization in the State. Though stricken with 
cancer midway through the Centennial, she inspired 
the best from all of us who worked with her. 

In my position as Centennial History Chairman, Bar- 
bara spoke with me often of the challenge of a Lemhi 
County family and general history book. Options were 
considered; perhaps hiring an "expert" to come in and 
do the project; perhaps contracting with some local 
writer to do the project; among other ideas. However, 
the press of the other Centennial projects, and there 
were many, always resulted in the book idea being 
pushed aside. 

Due to her illness, Barbara's activities became lim- 
ited and another wonderful person, Mona Van Overen 
quietly took the reins, working diligently on completing 
many Centennial tasks. Mona was interested in the 
idea of a Centennial book, but had many other projects 
to complete. Unbelievably, Mona was stricken with 
cancer soon after taking over the Centennial. 

Barbara passed away May 25, 1990. Mona passed 
away July 14, 1990. We miss them and wish them ev- 
erlasting peace. 

The Centennial came to a close and our History Com- 
mittee was about to disband when another person rose 
to the occasion. Her name; Shirley Parmenter. Shirley 
contacted me and again mentioned the challenge of a 
Centennial history book. I told her of our past efforts, 
and that we had no money, no staff and no encour- 
agement to proceed. Shirley would not quit, and with 
her pushing and shoving, we were back in business. 

A meeting was held and Fred Snook was the unofficial 
chairman. Interested persons were contacted and the 
unofficial committee decided to "go for it". Our goal 
was to collect five hundred family histories, which would 
mean enough interest to finance the publication of the 
book. Our neighbors in Beaverhead County, Montana, 
led by Salmon native Ann Hirschy, came to give us a 
training seminar on their completed project, and we 
were off and running. 

With Shirley leading the way and being joined by many 
devoted volunteers, especially Doris Brown and Phoe- 
be Bird, more than eleven hundred family histories, 
together with priceless photographs were collected. 
Several instructional sessions were conducted by Jean 

Marchand to assist the public in preparing their indi- 
vidual histories. 

Meanwhile, our main stumbling block was the lack 
of a computer coordinator. Again magic struck when 
Tower Creek resident, Marilyn Alford became inter- 
ested and joined the party. Shirley and Marilyn made 
quite a team and truly have worked full time at this 
project for more than a year. They deserve the com- 
munity's praise for their sacrifice and efforts. As Chair- 
man my main job was to schedule the meetings, stay 
out of the way, and let the staff continue their efforts. 
My other job was to coordinate as many feature stories 
as space would allow. 

One large problem. We had no money to finance the 
book. It would have to be a pay as you go process, 
which had a big blank in the middle until the finished 
product could be received; ready to be sold. We ap- 
preciate the seven hundred prepublication orders that 
were paid for in advance to partially finance the pro- 
ject. So certain of success were we, that only one per- 
son was called upon to sign the $80,000 guarantee to 
the publishing company. 

Our next problem? We did not have a real editor. 
The alternative was to edit by committee. Eight people 
served: Karen Whitworth, the Pahsimeroi Connection; 
Bob Loucks, Lemhi County Agent; our Vice Chairman 
and Computer Coordinator, Marilyn Alford; our Family 
History Chairperson, Shirley Parmenter; Lemhi County 
native, teacher, and ranch wife, Janice Neal; Lemhi 
County native and former English teacher, Phyllis Ca- 
ples; Salmon City Librarian, Ramona Combs- Stauffer; 
longtime resident, Doris Brown; and Chairman, Mag- 
istrate Judge Fred Snook. 

I think it worked. Though difficult, it was a true labor 
of love. Many decisions to be made, friendly arguments 
and disagreements, deadlines to meet, assignments to 

Two main decisions: Should we have a Pioneer sec- 
tion for those people born before 1890 or a straight 
alphabetical arrangement? The majority vote was for 
straight alphabetical listing. Issue two: Should there be 
a specific dedication to a group of real persons rep- 
resenting our 185 years of recorded history, or a non- 
controversial, generic dedication? The decision: Al- 
ways avoid controversy. 

One other important item was the cost. The Com- 
mittee sincerely feels that the price of the three vol- 
ume set is extremely low for a book of this quality. 
Comparable publications sell for $100 to $150, so our 

published price is another tribute to everyone volun- 
teering their efforts. No one was paid for their work 
on the Centennial History. Profits, if any, will be do- 
nated to worthwhile Lemhi County historical projects. 

After all the information was collected, the real work 
began. Ramona Combs-Stauffer, Marilyn Alford, and 
Ann Loucks, assisted by many others, worked day after 
day in physically laying out the entire three volumes; 
page by page. It was tedious, difficult work. Double 
checking all photos for correct captions and matching 
them to the right story, on the right page. There may 
be errors in the final product, but I hope the public 
realizes how difficult it was to coordinate this much 
information with an all volunteer staff. Bear in mind 
that the staff also had to carry on with their day to 
day occupations, other activities and families during 
this two year project. 

The final result? Barbara and Mona would be proud. 
It is the best, most complete history of the past 185 
years in Lemhi County ever produced. Volume One 
contains many feature stories: Sacajawea, The Lemhis, 
Lewis and Clark, Leesburg, Pioneers, Miners, The Chi- 
nese, Schools, Churches and much, much more. Vol- 
ume Two and Three contain the many interesting fam- 
ily histories and photographs that were submitted, and 
also the history of the Pahsimeroi and its people. It is 
the best history of Lemhi County ever Written. Why? 
Because it was written by the people. More than eight 
hundred different authors contributed information to 
the book and that is what makes it so very special. 

It is said that memory is what makes life so special, 
and forgetfulness is what makes daily life possible. That 
is the case here. Most people wrote the best about 
their ancestors. Everyone has a right to be proud of 
their heritage. What was received was not scrutinized 
by the committee. If a person said that their Grand- 
mother was the best cook in Lemhi County, we did not 
dispute it. No two people ever remember the exact 
same thing, and some of what is printed here may not 
be absolutely correct. You, the reader, shall judge the 
credibility of each story. 

In conclusion, I have been very fortunate to serve 
my neighbors in Lemhi County in many public posi- 
tions. I truly feel that contributing to this endeavor was 
the most important and gratifying of all. 

Read on! We hope you will enjoy reading it as much 
as we have enjoyed producing it. 

A. i;\ij l.u ,,A. MJN H'viW, IDA 


by Sam McKinney 

Lemhi County native, rancher, and past County Commissioner 

\ The history of any western county is primarily determined by the heritage 

I of its people, who came west and established a new life on the wild frontier. 

Lemhi County is a stronghold of the western spirit, the passageway for Lewis 
and Clark, the native land of Sacajawea, Chief Tendoy and the peaceful Lemhi 
: Indian tribe. 

I This Centennial History is respectfully dedicated to the Native Americans 

[ who treasured this land before us, the courageous pioneers, and their de- 

scendants. It is dedicated also to the followers and builders who discovered 
the beauty and opportunity of this area, developed it, and hopefully will main- 
l tain and preserve Lemhi County's natural grandeur. 



They came to an unknown land 1-47 
























SALMON CITY 1880'S 25 






They came long ago 


They came from far away 

49- 65 






67- 75 



They came to build a better life 76-211 























THE GUARDIAN OF LEESBURG - Historian, Orion E. Kirkpatrick 126 


















LEMHI LODGE #11, A.F. & A.M. l^g 





















1940 to the present 212 - 281 







COBALT, IDAHO - 1981 227 













IDAHO 2L 1 AND 2L 2 248 
















FIFTY YEARS OF PROGRESS - 1940 to 1990 264 

PEOPLE AND PLACES - 1940 to 1990 272 


INDEX 285 

Old advertisements and local news items seen in these three volumes were reproduced from several early Salmon newspapers. 


They Came 

To An Unknown Land 

Photo Dale Ford 





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by J. Wilmer Rigby 

The first event recorded in the history of Lemhi 
County and the State of Idaho occurred August 12, 
1805 with the passage of four members of the Lewis 
and Clark expedition over the Continental Divide at 
Lemhi Pass. Captain Meriwether Lewis, George Drouil- 
lard, John Shields and Hugh McNeal, in advance of the 
main party, were searching for the Shoshone Indians; 
Sacajawea's people. Contact with her people was es- 
sential to the success of the expedition because the 
Indians owned horses which had to be purchased for 
the portage over the mountains to the waters of the 
Columbia River Drainage. The Continental Divide 
marked both the western border of the recently ac- 
quired Louisiana Territory, and the United States. Lem- 
hi County and the entire northwest was unclaimed land 
at that time. 

Descending to the head of Agency Creek, the party 
drank from the waters of the Columbia, climbed a very 
steep draw out of the canyon, and camped for the night 
at a spring which feeds Flume Creek. Next morning 
they began their search for the Shoshone. Lewis was 
anxious because a lone Indian encountered earlier on 
Horse Prairie would not let them approach, and Lewis 
was concerned that the Indian might have alarmed his 
people causing them to hide. The party soon encoun- 
tered two women and a man with some dogs, but was 
not allowed to come near them. This group fled to the 
village, causing much concern and a band of armed 
warriors set out to intercept the intruders. A little later 
the explorers came upon three women; so suddenly 
that the women could not flee. Lewis befriended them 
with presents, and while the women were leading them 
to the village, the band of about sixty warriors ap- 
peared, traveling near full speed. The women informed 
the warriors, led by Chief Cameahwait, that the new- 
comers were friendly. Cameahwait accepted them as 
friends, taking them to his village and treating them 
with as much hospitality as was possible, considering 
the tribe's impoverished condition. The village was lo- 
cated near the mouth of Kenney Creek. Consider- 
able persuasion was required before the Indians would 
accompany the party, with horses, back to the "forks 
of the Missouri", the present site of Clark Canyon Res- 
ervoir. The Indians were suspicious of strangers, with 
good reason, as they had been attacked that spring 
by raiders from the Blackfeet Nation, with heavy loss 
of life and property. The year before, many Shoshone 
had been killed in a battle on the upper western part 
of Horse Prairie. The Indians returned with Lewis to 
the main expedition, which was being lead up the Beav- 
erhead River in canoes by William Clark . They met at 
the forks (north of and below the island in the present 
Clark Canyon Reservoir) where an emotional and dra- 
matic reunion occurred when Clark arrived and Sa- 

cajawea was reunited with her people. Chief Cameah- 
wait proved to be her brother. 

The Indians were awed by Captain Clark's black slave, 
York, as well as the "sagacity" of Lewis's dog. A council 
was held; the pipe was smoked, greetings and wel- 
comes extended and geography discussed. Plans for 
trade were reviewed and gifts distributed to Cameah- 
wait, his subchiefs, and principle warriors. The con- 
versation then turned to the logistics of the great port- 
age ahead of them. 

The Shoshone said the Salmon River could not be 
navigated, and the other option would be to travel north 
on a mountain trail traveled by the Nez Perce. They 
urged the Captains to winter with them, and to pursue 
the journey to the coast in the spring. Lewis and Clark 
suspected that the Indians might wish to detain them 
as protection from their enemies. It was decided that 
Clark would lead a detachment to ascertain the con- 
ditions of the Salmon River and the terrain bordering 
it. They would carry sufficient tools to construct dugout 
canoes, find timber to make the canoes and appraise 
the availability of game to sustain them. Lewis would 
remain east of the Divide to cache all equipment not 
needed, pack the remainder for travel by horse, buy 
horses and build pack saddles. He would later come 
with the men and baggage to meet Clark on his return 
from the proposed reconnaissance. 

Captain Clark left on August 18th with eleven men 
and two horses loaded with boat building tools and 
what baggage they could carry. Traveling with them 
were Sacajawea, her husband Toussaint Charbonneau, 
their six month old baby, and all but four of the Indians. 
The Charbonneaus were to encourage members of the 
village to return with sufficient horses to accommodate 
the portage. The detachment camped on Pattee Creek 
the night of the 19th, arriving the following day at the 
upper Indian village. This village had been moved about 
two miles south of the previous site, to a place just 
above Warm Springs road, on the valley floor. There 
were about thirty-two lodges, all made of brush except 
one, constructed of skins. After a short council, Clark 
obtained a guide, Toby, and departed at 3 o'clock, leav- 
ing Pierre Cruzatte at the village to purchase a third 
horse and overtake them later. They moved down the 
east side of the river, crossing just below Seventeen 
Mile Creek to the west side of the valley and camped 
at Withington Creek. 

The morning of August 21 they arrived at a small 
salmon fishing village, about half way between With- 
ington Creek and the forks of the Salmon and Lemhi 
Rivers. The village, which was the place where Toby 
lived, consisted of a few brush lodges inhabited by about 
seven families. The villagers were very friendly and gave 
them as much boiled salmon as they could eat plus 

dried salmon to use later. Clark described and sketched, 
in great detail, the fish weirs near there, before pro- 
ceeding to cross the Lemhi River and Kirtley Creek, to 
continue through the foothills northeast of Salmon. This 
route, leaving the valley bottoms, avoided crossing the 
Salmon River. Entering the Carmen Creek drainage near 
the present Grange building, one of the men shot a 
large salmon; consequently they named this stream 
Salmon Creek. The Indian road from there carried them 
directly to the Tower Creek bluffs by an island. They 
were able to pass around the end of the mountain spur 
and encamped under the first bluff. This was Clark's 
first encounter with the main Salmon River, which he 
named Lewis's River, "... in justice to Capt Lewis who 
was the first white man ever on this fork of the Colum- 
bia .. . ". The Lemhi was named the East Fork of Lew- 
is's River, and the present Salmon River, the West Fork 
of Lewis's River. When the expedition arrived at the 
area near Lewiston, Idaho, the present Snake River 
was called Lewis's River because they recognized it as 
part of this drainage. Years later the Snake became 
known as the South Fork of Lewis's River, and the 
Salmon the North Fork of Lewis's River. 

Clark's journal of August 22: 

We set out early passed a small creek (Tower Creek) 
on the right at one mile and the points of four mountains 
verry steap high & rockey, the assent of three was so 
steap that it is incredable to describe the rocks in ma- 
ney places loose & sliped from those mountains and is 
a (solid) bed of rugid loose white and dark brown loose 
rock for miles. The Indian horses pass over those Clifts 
hills sids & rocks as fast as a man, the three horses 
with me do not detain me any on account of those 
difficuelties, passed two bold runs. Streams on the right 
and a Small river . . . 

Captain Clark here describes Fourth of July Creek, Wa- 
gonhammer Creek, and the Northfork of the Salmon 
River respectively. 

Arriving at the mouth of the North Fork, which Clark 
named Fish Creek, they surprised a small fishing vil- 
lage, terrifying them. Clark and two hunters, traveling 
in advance of the others, did not have their guide, To- 
by, to reassure these people. 

They offered everything they possessed (which was ver- 
ry little) to us, some run off and hid in the bushes The 
first offer of theirs were Elks tuskes from around their 
Childrens necks, sammon &c. my guide attempted pas- 
sifyed thos people and they set before me berres, & 
fish to eate, I gave a fiew Small articles to those fritened 
people which added verry much to their pasification but 
not entirely as some of the women & Childn. Cried dure- 
ing my Stay of an hour at this place, . . . 

One man accompanied the party on down the river, 
and they camped that evening on a small island in 
Deadwater because there was no other level place 
nearby. Sometime during the day's travel, Clark dis- 
covered and described the Clark's Nutcracker, Nuci- 
fraga Columbiana, thus 

... a bird of the wood pecker kind which fed on Pine 
burs its bill and tale white the wings black every other 
part of a light brown, and about the Size of a robin. 

August 23rd was the day of truth as the hostility of 

the terrain became apparent to them. Sergeant Patrick 
Gass's journal states, "We preoceeded down the river 
through dreadful narrow, where the rocks were in some 
places breast high, and no path or trail of any kind." 
Clark writes, 

We set out early proceed on with great dificuelty as 
the rocks were so Sharp large and unsettled and the 
hill sides Steep that the horses could with the greatest 
risque and dificulty get on, no provisions as the 5 Sam- 
mons given us yesterday by the Indians were eaten last 
night . . . 

It was necessary to go into the river in order to pass 
around some cliffs half way between Dump Creek and 
Moose Creek. The water was described as very rapid 
and deep for a short distance forcing the horses to 
swim. The many sharp rocks so impaired the horses' 
feet that the animals were left, with eight men, on a 
flat across from the mouth of Moose Creek. The men 
were left with instructions to hunt and fish, while Clark, 
Toby and three men continued down the canyon to 
Indian Creek, which Clark named Berry Creek. Having 
had nothing to eat that day, they spent two hours 
catching some small fish, picking berries, and writing 
in his journal. Three things were observed here that 
caused Clark to continue with his exploration. First, 
there was a well beaten trail on Indian Creek and Squaw 
Creek with evidence of recent travel and camping, so 
the Captain knew the expedition could reach this point 
with horses. Secondly, an abundance of timber was 
being seen for the first time on the north side of the 
river. Thirdly, in communicating with Toby, which could 
only be done in sign language, he learned of a sizable 
flat a few miles below on the river. He could very well 
have thought that the terraine was changing for the 

Continuing on the trail up Squaw Creek to escape 
the terrible mountainside bordering the river, they 
traveled to where Papoose Creek intersects and Squaw 
Creek begins to bend northward away from the river. 
Here they passed over a low saddle on the ridge to the 
left, and on to the river, passing through a well tim- 
bered bottom (the River of No Return Ranch). Lewis 

They passed this bottom and asscended a steep and 
elivated point of a mountain, from whence the guide 
shewed him the brake of the river through the moun- 
tains for about twenty miles further. 

The mountain spur they climbed is the one through 
which Transfer Gulch passes, and is located a short 
distance above Spring Creek. 

Speaking in sign language, Toby informed them that 
the country below is much more difficult than that 
through which they had just passed. He went on to say 
that if Captain Clark wished, he would take him to that 
place where the mountains open and the river passes 
through, where the mountains are not like those al- 
ready seen, but straight up and down like the sides of 
a tree, and the water of the river rushes viciously from 
one side to the other. This is descriptive of Pine Creek 
Rapids. It would require one day to get there and an- 

other to return. Clark could see, in the distance, Dome 
Mountain, a part of the Crags, covered with snow and 
one of the loftiest he had ever seen. He was now sat- 
isfied that this route, whether by land or water, was 
impractical. Clark told Toby that they would now return 
to the village from whence they had set out, where he 
expected to meet Captain Lewis and the rest of the 
party, meaning the upper village near Warm Springs. 
They camped that night near the mouth of Papoose 
Creek arriving an hour after dark. There was no moon 
and no supper to give them comfort. Clark's group 
left early next day, stopping at the mouth of Squaw 
Creek to carve Clark's initials on a pine tree, pick some 
berries and catch a few fish for breakfast. Continuing 
back to the flat where he had left the other men and 
horses, he arrived a 4 p.m. He he wrote a letter to 
Captain Lewis recommending that the party not travel 
the river, but take a road up Fish Creek out of the valley 
northward to the Lolo Trail, which they should travel 
through the mountains westward. He dispatched John 
Colter (the man who later discovered Yellowstone Park 
and the Teton Valley) on horseback with the letter to 
Lewis. Colter was waiting for Lewis when he arrived at 
the upper Indian village on August 26. Lewis was very 
uneasy, as the natives were becoming reluctant to sell 
horses, claiming horses were needed for the buffalo 
hunt. The Indians were eager to leave in order to as- 
semble with other bands for protection as they trav- 
eled into the dangerous country of the Blackfeet, in 
pursuit of their game. The season was late, and it was 
with difficulty that Lewis was able to persuade the Sho- 
shone not to abondon the explorers and move to the 
hunting grounds. As fewer Indians were willing to sell 
their horses, the price began to rise, and bartering and 
negotiations became stiffer. Lewis wrote: 

. . . matter being thus far arranged I directed the fiddle 
to be played and the party danced very merily much 
to the amusement and gratification of the natives, 
though I must confess that the state of my own mind 
at thei moment did not well accord with the prevailing 
mirth as I somewhat feared that the caprice of the In- 
dians might suddenly induce them to withhold their 
horses from us without which my hopes of prosicuting 
my voyage to advantage was lost . . 
This was the last time he wrote in his journal that 
year on a regular basis. 

At Clark's camp on the river, shortly alter Colter's 
departure on the night of the 24th, he and his men 
followed, experiencing much difficulty rounding the cliffs 
above camp. They had to swim the horses upstream, 
soaking their bedding. They camped, wrapping them- 
selves in damp blankets and went to bed supperless. 
On the evening of August 25th Clark's reconnsiss- 
ance party camped below the Tower Creek bluff. Next 
day they returned by way of the forks of the Salmon 
and Lemhi River: probably to inspect the big fishing 
operation and possibly hoping to purchase some fish 
from the natives there. Arriving at the lower village 
near the weirs, they encamped there. The men, hungry 
and discouraged, complained continually. Clark kept 

them busy hunting but without success, except for one 
Salmon shot. The men complained that they would 
surely perish in this great mountain desert. The Indians 
gave them salmon eggs which they dried, pounded, 
and made into a soup. A native from the upper village 
arrived early on the 27th with news that Lewis would 
be there about noon. 

Clark waited, but when Lewis failed to arrive he dis- 
patched Gass the next day on horseback. Gass re- 
turned that evening with news that Clark was needed 
to help purchase horses. Clark left the next day, August 
29, leaving Gass and one other man behind to watch 
the baggage and build pack saddles. 

When he was delayed Clark went to join him. With 
the two captains now traveling together, the expedi- 
tion, consisting of thirty horses and thirty-four people, 
departed the upper village at 2 p.m. on August 30, and 
the Indians left immediately afterwards. The party 
camped that night about a mile above the weirs, to 
take advantage of better grazing for the horses. The 
following day they began their exodus from the valley 
following the same trail Clark had pursued down the 
river as far as Tower Creek. Here they traveled up 
Tower Creek eastward, taking the north fork. They not- 
ed the peculiar rock formation to the left at the turn 
of the trail and so named the run Tower Creek. About 
two miles above where the trail leaves the creek for 
the high country, on August 31st, they spent the night 
in some abandoned brush lodges. The open areas of 
the valley were reported to be on fire that day for the 
purpose of attracting surrounding bands to assemble 
for the fall buffalo hunt. Snow could be seen on the 
peaks of the Beaverheads. 

They left early, September 1st, climbing to the head 
of Kriley Gulch, where they drank from a spring and 
continued on to Fourth of July Creek. Crossing that 
stream and the next. Little Fourth of July Creek, and 
then Wagonhammer Creek, they pressed on, probably 
up Thompson Gulch, across the head of Burns Gulch, 
through the upper areas of Big Silverlead and Little 
Silverlead Creeks and down, in the vicinity of Trail Gulch 
to Fish Creek (Northfork). Moving north to about Hull 
Creek, they made camp during a rain storm, and two 
men were sent back to the mouth of Fish Creek to buy 
fish from the Indians there. 

Next morning they proceeded to the forks of the 
Northfork River and Dahlonega Creek. Here the main 
Indian road went east up the Dahlonega drainage. 
Wishing to travel westward, they chose the left fork of 
these merging streams. This was a fateful decision. 
With no trail to follow, they soon found themselves 
thrashing through the thick brush bordering the stream 
in the narrow canyon. At other times they clambered 
over steep, talus slopes, into thick timber and over and 
around dead fall. Often the horses tumbled backwards, 
severely injuring themselves and damaging their cargo. 
Much controversy exists at this writing as to the exact 
route followed over the higher terraine. Hence the 

name, Lost Trail Pass. The exact locations of the camps 
those nights is still open to conjecture and may never 
be known. On September 3, they camped near the 
summit in two inches of snow and a rain which dete- 
riorated into sleet. Toby was lost! The next morning 
they reported an inch of ice on the water containers. 
Their guide managed to locate the desired drainage 
that took them down to Ross's Hole, where they 
camped for two days with the Flathead Indians. They 
purchased and traded with these people for horses, 

upgrading their badly stressed herd. 

In conclusion, Sacajawea opted to remain with the 
expedition, traveling with them to the Pacific. Upon 
their return in 1806, the captains separated at Lolo, 
Montana. Lewis traveled north ot explore the Marias 
River country and Clark went south to retrieve the 
caches and the canoes before returning by way of the 
Yellowstone River. He did not pass through the Salmon 
River Valley on his return, but went through the Big 
Hole Valley. 


by Richard M. Young 

The most prominent individual to ever come from 
Lemhi County was a Lemhi Shoshoni Indian woman 
named Sacajawea (Sacagawea). Her fame and recog- 
nition for legendary accomplishments far exceeded 
those of her actual role. Without this Shoshone squaw, 
however, Lewis and Clark may never have accom- 
plished the difficult task of getting to the Pacific Ocean 
and back. Very little is actually known of her real life, 
but a powerful mythology has grown concerning her 

She was a Lemhi Shoshoni Indian born around 1788 
between Kenney Creek and Agency Creek near Ten- 
doy, Idaho. During the fall of 1800, while the Lemhi 
Indian tribe was wintering near the three forks of the 
Missouri River, in what is now Montana, they were at- 
tacked by a band of Minnetaree Indian raiders from 
the Hidatsa village. Several Shoshoni prisoners were 
taken, including Sacajawea. Between 1800 and 1804, 
she and one other Shoshoni captive were purchased 
by Toussaint Charbonneau. He was a French Canadian 
fur trader, living among the Hidatsa and Mandan In- 
dians. Charbonneau was well established on the upper 
Missouri at the time Lewis and Clark arrived there on 
October 26, 1804. 

In November 1804 Charbonneau and one of his two 
squaws were engaged by Lewis & Clark to accompany 
them and act as interpreter among the Indians. Sa- 
cajawea and Charbonneau represented vital links in an 
involved chain of interpretive measures that would be 
required to communicate with Indians on the westward 
journey. The interpretive process was complicated be- 
cause of the limited language knowledge of the parties 
involved. The frenchman Charbonneau was conversant 
in French and Hidatsa, but spoke no English. Sacajawea 
spoke both Hidatsa and Shoshoni, but neither French 
nor English. This was resolved through a third person. 
Private Francois Labiche, a member of the expedition, 
of French and Omaha Indian extraction, who spoke 
French and some English. The process went as follows: 
"I spoke ... to Labiche in English — he translated it 
to Charboneau in French — he to his wife in Minne- 
taree — she in Shoshoni to the Indians." Sacajawea 

gave birth to a son on February 11, 1805 and Char- 
bonneau named him Jean Baptiste, but Sacajawea 
called him Pomp or Pompy. The infant member of their 
expedition was a delight to his exploring companions 
and held an affectionate place in all their hearts. 

Sacajawea became very ill at the Great Falls of the 
Missouri and wasn't expected to live. There was great 
concern among the men as to the fate of the baby. 
The Captains also were very concerned because she 
was their vital link to the Shoshoni Indians. Captain 
Clark bled her three different times and Captain Lewis 
spent much time treating her with salves and oint- 
ments. It wasn't until they gave her mineral water from 
a spring close by, that she began to get better. The 
spring today bears the name "Sacagawea Spring". 

From the Nicolas Biddle Journal published in 1914 
we read the historical melodrama of the reunion of 
Sacajawea and her brother, Cameahwait, when the 
Lewis and Clark Expedition met his band of Shoshonis 
in the mountains of Montana. Sacajawea was called 
upon to be an interpreter at a meeting of the captains 
and the Chief: 

She came into the tent, sat down, and was beginning 
to interpret, when, in the person of Cameahwait, she 
recognized her brother. She immediately jumped up 
and ran and embraced him, throwing over him her blan- 
ket, and weeping profusely. The Chief was himself 
moved, though not in the same degree. After some con- 
verstion between them she resumed her seat and at- 
tempted to interpret for us; but her new situation seemed 
to overpower her, and she was frequently interrupted 
by her tears. 

Sacajawea spent several days with her Shoshone 
people while the expedition did portage their supplies 
over the Lemhi Pass into the Lemhi Valley. 

The decision to take Sacajawea and her infant son 
on the mission into the unexplored Pacific Northwest 
proved to be a masterstroke of diplomacy. Indian 
groups encountered throughout journey, befriended the 
strange assembly of explorers when they sighted Sa- 
cajawea and her papoose, as no woman ever accom- 
panied a war party of Indians. She aided the expedition 
in many other ways also. Her knowledge of edible ber- 
ries, roots and plants, which she collected for food and 

medicinal use, contributed importantly to the diet and 
health of the men. 

None of the members of the Lewis and Clark Ex- 
pedition left us a physical description of Sacajawea, 
however, we can construct a profile of Sacagawea's 
behavioral and character traits by piecing together 
comments about her during the expedition. She 
emerges as a faithful, capable, patient and pleasant 
woman. In his journal in August 1806 Clark noted that 
she had been particularly useful among the Shoshones. 
He said that she had born the hardships of the long 
journey with admirable patience even though encum- 
bered by an infant. Captain William Clark had a com- 
pelling fondness for Sacajawea's son, Jean Baptiste 
Charbonneau, that would endure until Clark's death in 
1838. After paying Touisant Charbonneau for his serv- 
ices at the end of the expedition, Clark offered to take 
the child, whom he described as ..." a butifull, prom- 
ising child who is 19 months old" . . . , to raise in a 
proper manner. It was agreed that after a year the boy 
would be old enough to leave his mother, and Char- 
bonneau would take him to Clark. 

Although Sacajawea had little knowledge of the 
country covered by the westward expedition, she was 
able to identify some significant landmarks from her 
childhood. The most important guiding service cred- 
ited to her by the captains was performed during the 
return trip when she recommended to Captain Clark 
certain mountain passes in today's Big Hole Divide and 
the Bridger Range. 

There is controversy regarding Sacajawea and the 
place of her death. John E. Rees claims that she lived 
in Wind River, Wyoming, under the name of "Porivo" 

until her death in 1884. Statements by William Clark 
and trader John C. Luttig make it plain that Sacajawea 
died on December 23, 1812 at Fort Manuel in present 
day South Dakota. Most scholars now accept Clark's 
note on the cover of his Cash Book, that Sacajawea 
was dead by the 1825-28 period, and Luttig's note in 
his journal "... this evening the wife of Charbonneau, 
a Snake Squaw, died of a putrid fever she was a good 
and the best woman in the fort, aged abt 25 year. She 
left a fine infant girl". This should be substantial evi- 
dence of Sacajawea's early death. 

In the spring of 1813 there was a massacre of the 
white men at Fort Manuel. A few escaped by boat and 
brought the infant girl to St. Louis to Captain Clark. 
William Clark thought that Charbonneau was killed at 
that time and he knew that Sacajawea was dead, so 
in the fall he legally adopted Baptiste and the infant 
girl, Lisette. Lisette must have died a short time later 
because there is no more written concerning her. 

In 1816 Charbonneau did show up again in St. Louis. 
From that time until he died in 1843, he was a prom- 
inant guide and interpereter for many who traveled 

On February 8, 1978, the Federal Government en- 
tered the Fort Manuel site into the National Register 
of Historic Places, in formal recognition of Sacajawea's 
death there. 


A Charbonneau Family Portrait by Erving W. Anderson 
Lewis and Clark Among the Indians by James P. Ronda 
The Journals of the Expedition by Nicholas Biddle 
The Journals of the Lewis and Clark Expedition University of Ne- 
braska Press Articles from the We Proceeded On publication. 


by Bob Loucks 

After Lewis and Clark, fur traders were the next white 
men to reach Lemhi County. The Snake River Brigade 
of the Hudson's Bay Company traveled the upper Lem- 
hi enroute to Bear River and Green River in the late 
teens and early 1820's. Finnan MacDonald had a no- 
table battle with the Blackfeet Indians on the Lemhi 
River (near Seventeen Mile) in 1823. In 1824, the bri- 
gade was led by Alexander Ross. His party was the first 
to trap in much of Lemhi County. After entering over 
Lemhi Pass he went down the Lemhi to the Salmon 
River on down to the Panther Creek Country and back 
to the Pahsimeroi Valley. Jedediah Smith came to 
Lemhi County while supplying part of Ross's party who 
lost their horses and equipment in a fight with Indians. 
Thomas McKay wintered snowbound with a group of 
British trappers in the Pahsimeroi Valley in 1827- 28. 
In following years, the Lemhi Valley, near present day 
Salmon City, became a popular winter retreat for 

American trappers. In 1832, Captain Bonneville built a 
fort and wintered on Big Flat with a party of trappers. 

French Canadian trapper, Joseph Cote trapped in 
the Birch Creek Valley in 1818. Early trappers called 
the Birch Creek Valley, Cote's Defile, in his honor. Oth- 
er notable trappers and explorers were Donald 
MacKenzie and Michel Bourdon. 

Following the fur traders, were the missionaries. The 
Reverend Samuel Parker was the first missionary in 
the county. In 1835 he accompanied a group of Nez 
Perce Indians from Pierre's Hole into Montana, then 
back into and down the Lemhi Valley, down the Salmon 
River, up Indian Creek and on to the Nez Perce coun- 
try. That trail was known as the South Nez Perce Trail 
and has since been called the Parker Trail. The next 
significant event in Lemhi County history was Fort 


Fort Lemhi was founded in 1855 by twenty-seven 
Mormon missionaries, as a mission to the Bannock and 
Shoshone Indians of the Oregon Territory. The name 
has been corrupted from the name of King Limhi in 
The Book of Mormon. Elder Thomas S. Smith was in 
charge of the expedition and other members were: 
Ezra J. Barnard, Isaac Shepherd, Baldwin H. Watts, 
George R. Grant, Charles Dalton, Israel J. Clark, William 
H. Batchelor, Ira Ames, William L. Bundridge, Thomas 
Butterfield, William Burgess, Abraham Zundell, Everett 
Lish, Francillo Durfee, David Moore, Benjamin F. Cum- 
miings, George W. Hill, Gilbert Belnap, Joseph Parry, 
Nathaniel Leavitt, P. G. Taylor, Charles McGary, John 
Gallagher, John W. Browning, William Burch, and David 

The missionaries were prohibited from trading arms 
and ammunition with the Indians, but were encouraged 
to live with, feed, and clothe them and to learn their 
language. They were advised to seek Indian wives, how- 
ever only three eventually did so. 

On June 18, 1855 the party moved to a site selected 
for a fort and began preparations for farming a tract 
of about eight acres that was later planted in corn, 
turnips, peas, beans, and potatoes. Twenty-five cabins 
were built and the fort. First a timber stockade, sixteen 
rods square, around the cabins and then a stock en- 
closure of the same size, surrounded by a Spanish wall. 
The Spanish wall was made by erecting a framework 
of planks into which was poured the native clay, mixed 
with water. When dry it formed a kind of cement that 
was very durable. A blacksmith shop and a sawmill were 
soon built. 

In 1857 sixty additional settlers were sent to join 
those at Fort Lemhi. At this time individual plots were 
surveyed and a second settlement was established two 
miles from the Fort. This change led to problems with 
the Bannock Indians. 

Shoo-woo-koo, The Big Rogue, the Bannock Chief, 
had welcomed the mission. He gave the missionaries 
land for farming and fishing and hunting privileges. They 
were not, however, to catch fish, kill game, or cut tim- 
ber, if it was to be taken from the valley. Some of the 
settlers engaged in gold mining in the fall of 1855, and 
in 1857 eight wagon loads of dried salmon were ex- 
ported to Salt Lake City. 

Tensions between the Indians and missionaries in- 
creased. As a result of a war between the Nez Perce 
Indians on one side, and the Bannock and Shoshone 
Indians on the other, in which the missionaries tried 
to serve as peacemakers, tensions between the Indians 
and the missionaries came to a head. 

On February 25, 1858 Bannock and Shoshone In- 
dians raided Ft. Lemhi, driving off their livestock, and 
the missionaries were forced to abandoned the fort 
and return to Utah. Portions of the Spanish wall survive 
today, a reminder of the drama that took place there 
so long ago. 

Records show that a short time after the abandon- 
ment of Fort Lemhi, a man named Charles Catey oc- 
cupied the land there and raised a garden. Since that 
time the farms the missionaries cultivated and the ca- 
nal they dug in 1855 have been in continuous use. 

The Salmon River Mission by Kate B. Carter 1963 

Old Fort Lemhi as it appeared in 1900. The "Spanish wall" can be seen and to the left of the wall is the home of Frank B. Sharkey who 
lived and ranched there after his marriage to Rebecca Catey in 1871. The house has recently been restored by the present owner of the 
property, now the Muleshoe Ranch. 

Idaho Historical Society photo. 


by Fay Coiner 

Eleven miles west of Salmon, over a steep, forested 
ridge of mountains, lies the remains of Leesburg; once 
a bustling gold camp, and the foundation of Salmon 
and Lemhi County. The formidable Bitterroot Moun- 
tains proved an effective deterrent until 1866, when 
five determined miners braved the hardships, and the 
cry of, "Gold" echoed through these mountains. 

Frank B. Sharkey, Elijah (Lige) Mulkey, William (Bill) 
Smith, Joe Rapp and Ward Girton left Elk City, Mon- 
tana, outfitted with provisions on pack horses. They 
started toward the Lemhi River, through the Big Hole 
in Montana, then turned north on the crest of the Di- 
vide. Shoveling snow, they made a trail for their horses, 
descending to the mouth of the North Fork of the Salm- 
on River. 

The party prospected their way up the Salmon River, 
arriving on the east side, near the present site of Salm- 
on, in July 1866. They camped and prospected while 

waiting for the flood waters to subside for crossing. 
Two men, Tripp and McGarvey, came to their camp; 
Tripp had a few boards for a sluice box. Sharkey bought 
the boards for a $20 gold piece and constructed a boat. 
Once the high water receded, none of his cohorts would 
venture across first in the boat. Sharkey volunteered, 
afterward taking men and supplies over while swim- 
ming the horses behind. They hid their boat in the 
willows and worked their way up the west side of the 
Salmon River to Lake Creek, up Lake Creek to Williams 
Lake, over the ridge, down onto Phelan Creek to its 
confluence with Napias Creek and up Napias Creek, 
prospecting all the way. 

Pitching camp in the basin, they sank several holes 
to bedrock, a hard non-porous clay layer. The first hole 
at the mouth of Ward's Gulch yielded $1.25 in gold to 
a pan of dirt. Gold prices varied from $18 to $19.70 
an ounce. Several more holes were dug, each produc- 

'if^^v '■ 

***^V - r_ 



LEESBURG IN 1890. At right is the Phillips-McNutt Store, later the site of the granite marker that immortalized the five discoverers of the 
Leesburg site. 

Photo Courtesy of Marjorie Sims 


ing gold and each man located two claims and found 
water for sluicing. Then they discreetly left; but not 
discreetly enough. 

Word of the strike was out and people flocked to 
these new diggings. Some used the discoverers' trail, 
others made new trails, to arrive before all the "good 
ground" was taken and before winter set in with deep 
snow on the mountains, making travel impractical. 
Towns erupted: Leesburg, named by supporters of 
General Robert E. Lee; Grantsville named after General 
Grant, Summit City and Smithsville. 

Smithsville, founded by Mr. Morgan, Charles Cham- 
berlain and Gerome Pratt, was located two miles up 
Napias Creek at the mouth of Smith's Gulch. Five hun- 
dred people inhabited this town. French LaFevere, a 
merchant from California, opened a general store, sup- 
plying the dairy products from his own herd of dairy 
cows. A blacksmith and a restaurant operated in this 

James Glendenning plotted and surveyed Summit 
City. He established the township with rules, offices 
and books for full administration. When Fred Phillips 
built another general store, Mr. Glendenning became 
clerk. Summit City, six miles east of Leesburg, had a 
population of four hundred. Grantsville, adjacent to 
Leesburg, was started in 1866 by the party of J. A. 
Cook. After two months of construction, forty buildings 
were completed, including five stores, one blacksmith 
shop, three butcher shops and one feed stable. By May 
1867, Grantsville and Leesburg ran consecutively. Only 
the locals knew the boundaries. Animosities subsided 
and Leesburg emerged the dominant town. 

Fred Phillips and David McNutt opened the first store, 
a general store, in the fall of 1866. The initial supplies 
came from a store in Helena, Montana. Later J. W. 
Wheeler, a freighter who owned several horse teams 
and ox teams, hauled merchandise from Utah. 

During the first two years prices for staples varied. 
Sugar was .60 to .80 a pound, salt was .50 to $1 a 
pound, flour was $15 to $30 per hundred pounds, ba- 
con was .75 to .85 a pound, green coffee was .75 to 
$1 a pound, potatoes were .10 to .40 a pound. Shovels, 
$7 each, picks, $12 each, nails in size 4, 5, and 6 re- 
tailed at .75 per pound. 

Buildings and businesses exploded that first winter. 
Jake Finster opened a livery and feed barn, charging 
.05 a pound for native hay. Jerry Slack opened a black- 
smith shop and Mulkey a saloon. H. E. Moss operated 
the first hotel, serving one hundred people at a meal, 
charging $1 per person. Herman Kurry opened a bak- 
ery. A corner lot with a rough log house on it sold for 
$3000 in gold. A log house with firewood rented for up 
to $5 a day. Wages were $5 to $8 a day. 

Moore's Express, later known as Oliver's Express, 
carried mail and express between Bannock, Montana 
and Leesburg. In 1869 Leesburg opened its first Post 
Office with Edward Shunk serving as Postmaster until 
1900. The Post Office was then discontinued for a year, 
beginning again in 1901 with Mrs. Alice Mahoney as 
Postmaster. She remained until the Post Office closed. 

Freight came from Boise Basin, Utah and Montana 
by teams of horses and oxen, to the Salmon River, 
where wagons were traded for mules and/or pack 
horses for traveling to the "Interior". The future site 

Leesburg street scene 1871. 


A pack train on the old Leesburg Trail. At the top right the new town of Salmon City can be seen in the distance. 

The Leesburg Stage at the top of Leesburg summit. 

of Salmon became a terminus for travelers and freight- 
ers before departing for Leesburg. Astute businessmen 
saw great opportunities and Salmon City was born. 

In 1869, this little colony separated from Idaho 
County and Lemhi County was formed, with Salmon 
City as the county seat. 

In December 1869, John L. Morgan and others or- 
ganized Rocky Mountain Lodge #5, lOOF at Leesburg. 
They later moved the lodge to Salmon, taking the 
stands, podium and chairs that are still in use today. 

Medical help was scarce in the mining camp. In 1867 
the nearest doctor, Dr. Leavit, practiced in Bannock, 
Montana. Dr. Kenney became territorial doctor in 1874, 
serving the whole area for over thirty years. He owned 
a ranch at Seventeen Mile, on the Lemhi River. 

Law and order in Leesburg, as in any early mining 
camp, was based on the strength of its leaders. With 
strong leadership, Leesburg remained a quiet camp. 
Because of its isolation, desperados from Montana tried 
to find refuge in and run Leesburg. A vigilante com- 
mittee convinced them otherwise and they left. Under 
mining rules, disputes were settled by the Miners Com- 
mittee; a group of impartial miners. A large group of 
claim jumpers, about a hundred of them, tried to take 
over the Committee and change the laws. One of the 
miners recognized one of the newcomers as one who 
had tried to jump his claim. He pointed him out and 
the committee quickly sent the bunch on their way. 

Entertainment came in many guises. Dai.ces were 
popular, although in the winter of 1867-68 only four 
ladies were available in camp. A ticket cost a half ounce 
of gold dust. The camp had contests in ski jumping. 
When deep snows covered the roofs of some of the 
cabins, contestants would leap from the roofs to see 
who could make the longest jump. A nearby racetrack 
offered diversion for the racing spirits. 

The Chinese lived in the basin in the 1890's. Most 
of them lived on mining claims, cleaning up after the 
white miners had deserted the diggings. They wor- 
shipped in a "Joss House" in Leesburg. The Chinese 
were not looked upon with much favor. 

By the early 1900's all that remained in Leesburg 
was a Post Office and a boarding house, both managed 
by Mrs. Alice Mahoney; and a combination stage sta- 
tion, saloon, livery and feed barn, run by Barton and 
Kesl. A statement dated April 1904 recorded these 
charges: saddle horse and drinks $3.25, one gallon 
whiskey and drinks $5.15, freight from Salmon $28.80, 
and two pints of whiskey $1.25. Groceries and supplies 
came from Salmon. Wages paid were $3.50 a day, sub- 
tracting $1 a day for board and $1.60 a month for mail 

On July 17, 1926 a group traveled to Leesburg to 
celebrate the 60th anniversary of the strike. Jasper 
Lyn, stage contractor for the Leesburg-Salmon Line, 
carried the visitors from Salmon in a Concord Coach. 

1887 - Wah Sing says that there are one hundred and fifty Chinamen 
at work in Leesburg and Moose Creek and that he has six thousand 
dollars stock of goods in his store. 

The Leesburg Postoffice ■ Alice Mahoney ■ cemer. 

The Leesburg Postoffice • Mrs. Mahoney, postmas- 
ter, and Clara Leacock at the gate. 


Mrs. Alice Mahoney and her daughter, Mrs. Glennon 
served dinner to the group. In the afternoon the group 
dedicated a granite monument with bronze tablet, hon- 
oring the five discoverers. It stood on the north side 
of main street, east of the Leesburg Hotel. This mon- 
ument disappeared and was later replaced with a 


Dedication of the original monument ■ 1926. Curtis Roberts, Simon 
P. Weese, Jim Ketchum, Tom Hungate, Mrs. Mahoney & daughter 
Delia, Bob Edwards, Fred & Virginia Randolph, F. S. Wright, Jr., 
Frank Havemann, Jasper Lyon, Mr. Randolph & son, E. Briney, Al 
Scovel (stage driver), 0. E. Kirkpatrick. 

wooden plaque by the Forest Service in the I960's, 
which has also disappeared. 

The "easy" gold gone, early pioneers left Leesburg 
as quickly as they came. Many of the die hard gold 
miners followed the next strike and continued to search 
for the "Mother Lode". Other, the majority, remained 
in the Salmon area, establishing Salmon City and Lem- 
hi County as an agricultural community. 

Today, a few broken buildings, rusted tools, vague 
memories handed down, notes and journals are all that 
remain as a symbol of the spirit of those early pioneers 
who broke the barrier for gold in the mountains, and 
stayed for the fertile land in the valleys. 

Frank B. Sharkey Reminiscences, Salmon Public Library. Leesburg 
Pioneers, Orion E. Kirkpatrick. Montana Post May 1867, Idaho His- 
torical Society. History of Lemtii County Col. George L. Shoup. Early 
Medicine in Idaho, Sam Allison. Dr. Kenny by J. A. Herndon, Salmon 
Public Library. Daniel Hanley's letters, found on Coiner Ranch on 
Phelan Creek. Salmon Herald July 19, 1926 and July 17, 1936, Salm- 
on Public Library. Idaho Hydraulic Miner, various articles on the Chi- 
nese, microfilm at Salmon Public Library. 

Editor's note: In 1991 the site of Leesburg, is still creating mining 
news as Meridian Gold and FMC consider mining the area. Perhaps 
another "boom" will be heard from this famous mining town. 

•- «»«i 

In 1973 Leesburg lies in a state of decay with only the ghosts of its hectic past in residence. 


Father of Lemhi County 

by Fred Snook 

Frank was one of the original discoverers of placer 
gold at Leesburg, which was the opening sentence in 
the story of the settlement of Lemhi County. The group 
of five became history makers in the West. 

Frank Barnett (Burnett) Sharkey was born in Maine 
in 1838. When he was age fourteen he became a sailor 
for three years. His gold mining career started in 1855 
in California. During the start of the Civil War he served 
in the military for a short time. He went from California 
to Oregon, and from Oregon on to Montana. 

His group, Sharkey, Mulkey, Girton, Rapp and Smith, 
outfitted at Bear Gulch (or Cottonwood) near Deer 
Lodge, Montana in June 1866. They had washed for 
gold in Montana during 1864 and 1865. The group came 
through the Big Hole to North Fork, prospecting all the 
way. At Waggonhammer Creek they found the remains 
of wagons where hostile Indians had burned an emi- 
grant wagon train in 1862. 

When the group reached the mouth of the Lemhi 
River they met another group of men, McGarvey, Tripp, 
Vandreff and Welch, who had come to fish for salmon. 
The river was high and Tripp gave the prospectors five 
twelve foot boards. Sharkey built a boat which they 
used to cross the river. Tripp claimed that they had 
damaged his boards and charged them $25, which they 

The group continued on and reached the then un- 
named creeks in the Leesburg vicinity. They tried Ar- 
nett's Creek, Camp Creek, Rapps Creek and Napias 
Creek. Their first good prospect on Napias Creek was 
above the mouth of Ward's Gulch where they hit $2 
of gold to the pan. They kept working, making about 
$400 a day. Ward's Gulch gave them $1 a pan. The 
group went up the creek above the falls and located 
the richest claims. The discovery was made on July 
18, 1866. They prospected in Smith's Gulch, getting 
six bits to a dollar a pan, and then Mulkey and Smith 
found Bear Track Gulch, which gave them as high as 
$5 a pan! 

In the midst of these rich discoveries, Mulkey be- 
came sick with mountain fever. His illness caused the 
group alarm and they returned to the Salmon River. It 
was lucky for them that they did, for they later learned 
that the Sheepeater Indians were on their trail, and 
they said that they could have been massacred. 

At the river they got medicine from Vandreff; Shar- 
key swimming the river to get it. Smith and Girton were 
sent back to Montana to notify friends of their success 
while the other three waited at the river for their re- 
turn. The stampede started about August 10, 1866. 
During that fall there were thirty-seven claims opened 
up at Leesburg and it is said that the claims averaged 
better than $30 a day per man. 

Frank B. Sharkey 

When the stampede started, Sharkey returned to the 
river and bought Tripp's boat for $25, telling Tripp he 
intended to go down river to prospect. However, he 
started in the ferry business and on his first day he 
rowed until 10 o'clock at night. He charged $2.50 a 
head and took in $525 that day! He made $1800 that 
week, but when the business fell off to $80 a day he 
gave away the boat and returned to the diggings. 

At Leesburg he met and married Rebecca Ann Catey 
on September 14, 1871. After mining very successfully 
for several years at Leesburg, Sharkey owned an op- 
erated a ranch near old Fort Lemhi for some time, 
today a part of the Muleshoe Ranch. On the ranch six 
children were born: Margaret, Frank, William, Mary, 
Charles and Edward. Frank's wife Rebecca passed away 
on December 3, 1881. He was married to Anna Belle 
Pyeatt the following year and to this union were born 
four daughters: Claire, Adele, Helen and Olive. 

He also served as Postmaster. In his last years he 
sold the ranch and bought a home in San Diego, Cal- 
ifornia. However, he still spent much of his time in 


Lemhi County with his many children and grandchil- 

Frank Sharkey died in January, 1919 at his daughter, 
Margaret Kirkham's home near Tendoy. He was ninety- 
two years old and the last of the original five Leesburg 
prospectors to die. The headlines of the Salmon news- 
paper cried, "First Pioneer Crosses the Last Divide". 

His pallbearers were from Salmon's Who's Who: Seth 
A. Ball, J. H. Wright. W. B. Pyeatt, James L. Kirtley, 
Frank H. Havemann, A. C. Ludwig, Eli Minert, E. S. Ed- 
wards, Thomas Pope, George Bryon, Richard Johnson, 
and N. I. Andrews. 

Leesburg historian, 0. E. Kirkpatrick, in his book 
Leesburg Pioneers described Sharkey as follows: "Mr. 
Sharkey was a modest, unassuming, generous-hearted 
man. During the year 1888 he was elected County 
Commissioner and performed his duties in an honest, 
conscientious manner. Frank Sharkey opened the way 
for others to follow and by his discovery of the deposits 
of placer gold at Leesburg, blazed the trail for civili- 
zation which brought into existence Leesburg, Salmon 
City, and Lemhi County." 

Editor's note: There are still direct descendents of F. B. Sharkey 
residing in Lemhi County, but unfortunately, none with the proud 
name of Sharkey. Frank's half Indian son Barney Sharkey, was raised 
by him and is buried in the Salmon Cemetery. 


by O. E. Kirkpatrick 

Elijah Mulkey, one of the five intrepid frontiersmen 
who made the discovery of gold at Leesburg, was born 
in LaFayette country, Missouri, December 24, 1828. 
During his boyhood days. Senator Thos. H. Benton of 
Missouri was a strong advocate of our citizens colo- 
nizing and settling on lands along the Missouri River 
upstream to Fort Benton, Montana. This resulted in a 
very great many, ambitious, adventurous men emi- 
grating to Montana Territory and the northwestern ter- 
ritories. When gold was discovered, it caused still great- 
er numbers to settle in Montana Territory. Mulkey was 
one of those Argonauts of the eighteenth century. 

Mulkey joined the group of five that agreed to go on 
an exploring expedition to discover placer gold. They 
left a trading post called Cottonwood, now Deer Lodge 
City, after purchasing a complete outfit and provisions 
from Bense & Stewart. From Cottonwood they passed 
over French gulch into the Big Hole basin and on to 
the North Fork. 

After the gold discovery, Mulkey mined around Lees- 
burg for several years. The records state that on Oc- 
tober 1, 1873, at Leesburg, Elijah Mulkey and Alcinda 
Engle were joined in wedlock by James Noble, J. P. in 
the presence of Lorton Prince and Joe Crain, witness- 

Mr. Mulkey and wife soon afterwards moved to Salm- 
on and went into the hotel business. After retiring from 
running the hotel they purchased a ranch on the Lemhi 

River, which he bought from G. B. "Bally" Martin. Mulk- 
ey improved the ranch and made it his home as long 
as he lived. There is a stream which empties into the 
Lemhi River near the ranch which is called Mulkey 
Creek, in his honor. 

The Mulkeys had one son, Marion, who lived in Lemhi 
County and who was a good industrious citizen. 

Elijah was a member of Rocky Mountain Lodge No. 
5, I.O.O.F., having joined that lodge on May 10, 1873. 
His life-long friend, Barney Sharkey, also joined the 
lodge at the same time. 

Elijah Mulkey was one of those courageous souls who 
defied danger and hardships to open up the way for 
civilization to follow . He died during the month of Oc- 
tober, 1883 and is buried in the Salmon cemetery. 
Peace be to his ashes. 


by O. E. Kirkpatrick 

T. Ward Girton was surely one of the earliest pioneers 
of the western coast, and a glance at his career is 
convincing proof that he was one of the enterprising 
and active men of the time. He was born in West Vir- 
ginia in 1832, the son of Dickson Girton and Carrie 
Green Girton, natives of Virginia. They emigrated to 
Laharpe, Illinois where Girton was educated. 

In 1852 he crossed the plains with oxen to Portland, 
Oregon; in 1854 he was mining in California; in 1857 
he went to Dallas, Oregon, during the time of the Fra- 
zier river excitement, and in 1860 he worked for the 
U. S. Government. In 1861 Girton went to the Orofino 
excitement, the discoveries there having been made 
by Pierce J. Bull and Marion Moore. In 1862 he went 
to Florence and Camas Prairie where he worked for 
Crooks & Shumway, who were big livestock owners. In 
June 1863, Girton went to East Bannock, Montana, and 
discovered gold diggings. 

Then in 1866 he participated with the other four in 
the discovery of Leesburg. Girton mined at Leesburg 
several years very successfully. One of the gulches 
which produced one million dollars of placer gold was 
named Ward's Gulch in his honor. 

In 1868 he married Elizabeth Shipton of Corvallis, 
Oregon and one son, James Girton, was born to the 
marriage. On October 12, 1873, he married Miss Lena 
Hinkle of Oregon. Mrs. Girton died in August, 1901, 
leaving five children: Lottie, Wilson, Carrie, Elizabeth 
and Charles. After leaving Leesburg, Girton located 
near Grangeville, Idaho where he had a fine stock farm. 
He resided there until his death in 1899. He was an 
active Democrat all his life and served in the Eleventh 
Territorial legislature. He was also elected to the Sec- 
ond Idaho State legislature. He often spoke of voting 
for I. I. Stevens for territorial delegate in 1861, being 
then at Orofino. 

Ward Girton was one of nature's noblemen, and the 
world is the better for his having lived in it. 



by O. E. Kirkpatrick 

Joseph Rapp Was one of the party of five men who 
made the Leesburg strike. One of the gold bearing 
streams was named Rapp's Creek In his honor. Rapp 
served as mining recorder of the Rapp's Creek Mining 


Little is known of the man that Vandreff Street in 
Salmon is named for; not even his first name. 

We know from the account of the arrival of the first 
five goldseekers in 1866, that Vandreff was here even 
then, at the site that later became Salmon City, along 
with McGarvey, Welch and Tripp. To quote Allen C. 
Merritt, "Vandreff was a surveyor and he laid out a 
townsite with Main Street starting in front of his house." 

Vandreff's house, built in July of 1866, was the first 
building in the area that is now Salmon. It was on Main 
Street just east of N. Terrace Street, and was torn 
down in 1905. 

In his History of Lemhi County, George E. Shoup 

In 1867 Mr. Vandreff, the first permanent settler in 
Salmon, induced the people on the west bank to tear 
down their buildings and move across to the east side 
of the Salmon River and he donated a townsite for their 

It is supposed that Vandreff left this area not long 
after, as he does not appear on the 1870 census of 
Lemhi County, and no mention of him has been found 
in newspapers or public records of the time. Some 
speculate that he moved on to Leesburg; others that 
he simply left when it became too crowded with the 
influx of miners and townspeople. Why then did he en- 
courage people to move to the east side of the river? 
Will we ever know? 


v.w<ri.V<* ,^"' 

*/<s^ » £.-< 

THE VANDREFF HOUSE - the first building in Salmon, built in 1866. According to the Salmon Herald, December 8, 1916, this picture was 
taken on the day they began to tear the building down in 1905. The stalwart citizens are: A. J. MacNab, W. J. Bryan, W. H. Andrews, 
Anthony Hornback, W. H. Shoup, M. M. McPherson, Peter Amonson, J. W. Davis, N. I. Andrews, W. C. Shoup, E. S. Edwards, Jacob Finstur. 
Leaning against roof: A. Barrack. Seated on roof: George A. (Bally) Martin, whose shoes are on the boardwalk. 



by Ramona Combs-Stauffer 

One of the earliest entrepreneurs, a large man named 
Tom McGarvey, came to the Lemhi valley from Ban- 
nock, Montana before the gold rush. Around 1862 he 
built a cabin and his first fish trap near Seventeen mile 
on the Lemhi River. As he was the only white man in 
the area at this time he hired Indians to dry and pack 
the Salmon for sale at Bannock. 

According the G.E. Shoup "McGarvey sometime lat- 
er, moved down the valley and built another cabin and 
well constructed fish traps across the Lemhi, about 
one-half mile above its entrance into the Salmon River 
. . . McGarvey was at this place plying his fish business 
when in 1866 the Leesburg Basin discovery party came 
into the valley." 

D.B. Hawley one of the early freighters helped export 
this first commercial product from the valley with his 
team of ten horses and two wagons. He hauled the 
dried Salmon for Tom McGarvey to Bannock, Virginia 
City, and Helena, Montana. The fish were sold for fifty 
cents apiece. 

McGarvey's fish traps were so good that they not 
only caught Salmon, but occasionally trapped bears as 
well. In the article "Salmon Main Street Changes with 
Time" Allen Merritt says, "This was a very effective 
trap and Tom McGarvey built and owned it and brought 
the fresh Salmon up town and sold them. But it was 
not so easy as it sounds. That morning about daylight 
Tom heard a racket in the trap and went out to see 
the cause. There was a big grizzley bear trying to get 
one of the big fish out of the trap. Tom went back to 
his cabin, brought his rifle and as the bear started away 
shot him." 

It was rumored that many of the fish weighed as 
much as fifty pounds apiece and that mules and horses 
would not cross the river because of all the splashing 
created by the migrating fish. Some have seen the 
demise of the Salmon this past century, it would be 
nice to see their return in the next. 

The Recorder-Herald Diamond Anniversary ed. 1886-1961. 
History of Lemhi County by George E. Shoup. 


Lemhi Herald, January 23, 1913 
as related by Eli M inert 

What is now the State of Washington was in those 
days a part of the Territory of Oregon. There was no 
Lemhi County yet this district had already arrived and 
was treated as a part of Idaho County, with Florence 
as the County seat and John Ramey as resident Sheriff. 

It was the year 1867; Leesburg was then a very ac- 
tive camp and Salmon was a way station on the trail 
thereto. John Welsh had come over from Walla Walla, 

Washington Territory, with a pack train, packing a stock 
of general merchandise, which he unloaded at Arnett 
Creek, near Leesburg, and opened a store. His train 
was turned over to Eli Minert of Salmon, who was em- 
ployed in the occupation of packing supplies between 
Salmon and Leesburg. 

In December 1867, John Ramey and John Welsh each 
had business abroad. The former had the tax money, 
which had been collected in this district and was to be 
delivered to the treasurer of Idaho County in Florence 
— about $2,300 in gold dust. Welsh was going after 
another bill of goods to Walla Walla, and he had his 
money in gold dust. Mr. Minert weighed it out and found 
it to be $1,300. 

The two Johns came out from Leesburg to Salmon. 
As they both had quite a sum of money they decided 
to travel together for safety from road agents, and so 
left Salmon in the night time, with the horses that Mr. 
Minert had ready and shod. They took one pack animal, 
besides their saddle horses and pulled out via Birch 

No trouble was encountered until they were on Ma- 
lad prairie (other accounts say Birch Creek). Here, one 
morning, a light snow had fallen and they discovered 
fresh horse tracks in the trail, indicating that a party 
had preceded them. They paused for a brief council, 
and both desired to abandon the trail for another 
course; but neither of them being familiar with the 
country, they decided not to undertake an uncertain 
route, but to post on and take their chances. They soon 
came upon the advance party, roadagents, and were 
held up. Welsh made a fight, was shot from his horse 
and killed. Ramey was forced to yield and both were 
robbed of their gold. 

In the ensuing spring, William Welsh, a son of the ill 
fated merchant arrived from Walla Walla and spent the 
summer settling up his father's affairs. In that summer 
he took to wife a daughter of Cap Williams, a sister of 
Henry Williams, and together they returned to Walla 
Walla to live. 

— research by Marjorie B. Sims 

UKO. C. WEN'rZ, 






William Smith was one of the five men who made 
the first gold discovery in Leesburg. Smith was a native 
of South Carolina and had come west to prospect. The 
town of Smithville, located near Leesburg, was named 
in his honor. Smith was killed in Salmon in 1870 by his 
friend, Jim Hayden, in a quarrel during a card game. 

Before his death in 1978, Charley Snook, had taped 
an interview with Lemhi County historian and author, 
Ethel Kimball. She provided the following information. 

Hayden and Smith, and three or four others, were 
playing poker. All were crowded out of the game except 
for Hayden and Smith. Smith wanted to bet Hayden 
more money, but Hayden had no more. 

Deputy Sheriff, John Wals Snook was standing against 
the wall, watching the game. Hayden showed John his 
hand of four aces, and asked if he would put some 
money into the game. Smith said he would give credit 
for Snook's team of black horses, and John said, "Okay, 
if we lose, I guess I won't have to worry about feeding 
them through the winter." 

Smith said, "Well, I've got you Jim, I've got a royal 
flush," and reached for the pot. Hayden replied, "Yes, 
but that ace don't belong in this deck!" Smith reached 
for his six shooter, but Hayden was faster, and pulling 
his gun, shot Smith right between the eyes. Smith nev- 
er even fell out of his chair, just slumped over to one 

Deputy Snook placed his friend, Hayden, in custody, 
but no formal charges were pressed due to the cir- 

Jim Hayden was a bullwhipper who drove oxen. He 
was described as a tough fellow. Hayden was killed in 
1877 by the Nez Perce Indians near Blue Dome on 
Birch Creek. He was one of four freighters who were 
killed when attacked by Chief Joseph's band, a few 
days after the Big Hole Battle, and after the Salmon 
Indian scare. By coincidence, John Wals Snook was 
nearby when Hayden was killed. 

Snook was freighting in from Corinne, Utah and was 
ahead of Hayden's group on Birch Creek. Snook saw 
four Indians on horses off in the distance on upper 
Birch Creek. He motioned to them by waving a blanket 
and displaying his rifle, and the Indians finally went out 
of sight behind a hill. 

Snook and his herder had three wagons hitched to- 
gether with a jerk line. They unhitched two horses and 
rode them up a side creek at the head of Birch Creek, 
where they found some men camped, getting out tim- 
ber. They spent the night at the camp, and during the 
night, there was a terrible rainstorm lasting for several 
hours. The next morning, when they returned to the 
wagons, they found that one horse had been taken, 
the harness partially destroyed and some supplies had 
been stolen. 

At Birch Creek, a large number of the Nez Perce had 
encountered the four freighters, and killed the white 

men. A monument now marks this spot, on Highway 
28, beside Birch Creek, about a mile south of Blue 

The four men were Jim Hayden, Albert Green, Daniel 
Combs, and an unknown stranger. The four bodies were 
returned to Salmon for burial and a large, four sided, 
joint monument was placed on their grave. The in- 
scriptions read as follows: 

East side: Massacred by Nez Perces Indians At Birch 
Creek Aug. 15, 1877 - Albert Green 46 - Honored and 
Respected by All That Knew Him - He Has Crossed to 
that Bourne from Where No Traveller Returns. 

North side: James Hayden - Aged 44 Years. 

West side: I was a stranger but they took me in and 
gave me a Christian burial. 

South side: Daniel W. Combs - Aged 39 Years - A 
Fearless Man A Ready Champion A Heart Responsive 
To The Claims of Suffering Humanity. 

Afterward, Snook met Colonel Shoup and a group 
from Salmon as they were going to Birch Creek. Colo- 
nel Shoup, who had extensive military experience, was 
in charge of the group that included a number of young 
men from Salmon. George Ellis and Charley Courier 
were members of the group. Also, with Shoup was Chief 
Tendoy and several warriors from his band. 

This monument was erected in the Salmon City Cemetery by 
Salmon citizens to honor the four freighters killed by Nez Perce 
Indians at Birch Creek in 1877. 


<;>'rhc Lnrgjil Motel In The Cit)'^- 

Even in troubled times, there was room for humor. 
The group stopped at a ranch up the Lemhi for lunch. 
Someone took Charley Courier's horse, took his saddle 
off and put it back on backwards. Charley came out, 
got on and said, "Jesus Christ, somebody shot my 
horse's head off." 

The group stopped for the night. During the night, 
they heard horses coming and the sentry yelled for 
everyone to get up and get ready to fight. Instead of 
hostile Indians, it turned out to be Chief Tendoy's son. 
Jack Tendoy. The Nez Perce had stolen a large bunch 
of horses in the Leadore area, and Jack had slipped 
out during the night and stolen back a big bunch of 
these same horses from the Nez Perce. 

The next morning. Colonel Shoup's group reached 
the freight wagons. They found the four dead men with 
the wagons burnt up. There was a big ham, that was 
still sizzling from the fire. 

Jim Hayden always carried a black snake whip, and 
when Snook found his friend Hayden's body, the black 
snake was still in Hayden's hand. The end had been 
cut off, but the whip was still in his grip . 

For some reason lost in history, the joint monument, 
which has glowing words of praise for Green and Combs, 
and a comment on the unknown stranger, simply states 
Hayden's name and age. However, one of the largest 
tributaries to the Lemhi River, Hayden Creek, is named 
after Jim Hayden. 


B, 3. li:D\VAl^^L:>3, 






Pass(:nj^(;r 1 I<i:Hl(iiinrtt'rs for all Stage Lines 
Terminating- at Salmon City. 


The State of Idaho began as part of the Oregon Ter- 
ritory, as the following maps demonstrate. Map 4 show 
that from March 4, 1863 until May 25, 1864 Idaho 
Territory was quite large. Map 5 covers the time period 
from May 26, 1864 to July 24, 1868 and Map 6 from 
July 25, 1868 to the present. 

These dates were found in The Pacific Northwest 
Quarterly, V.40, #2, April 1949, 'The Creation of the 
Territory of Idaho" by Merle W. Wells. 

< r 




NT/. TERH. l'iI^L_ 

I TERR. " 





TERRITORY, 1859.43 












February 22, 1869 

Persuant to being appointed by the Legislature of 
said Territory in Legislative Act No.l, 5th Section, cre- 
ating Lemhi County, the following met and proceeded 
to organize. 

Present were George L. Shoup, Benjamin L. Heath 
and E. H. Tuttle. After their oath of office, George L. 
Shoup was elected chairman and appointed R. H. Johns 
as auditor and recorder until the next general election. 
Charles G. Chamberlain was appointed County Clerk, 
George L. Shoup appointed to act as treasurer, and 
Festus Butts was appointed as Sheriff. Wilson Ellis was 
appointed Justice of the Peace in Salmon City Precinct 
and W. J. Andrews, Constable for Salmon City Precinct. 
On April 3, 1869, Isaac Evans was appointed Assessor 
and Ex-officio Collector and E. C. Whitsett was appoint- 
ed County Treasurer. 

This information compiled under direction of Deputy County Clerk, 
Terri Morton from the records of Lemhi County. 


John S. Ramey 

Jesse McCaleb 

Isaac C. Evans 

A. C. Harris 

Charles G. Chamberlain 

E. C. Whitsett 

J. P. Jewell 

George L. Shoup 

E, H, Tuttle 

Fred Phillips 

James Kirtley 

Wilson Ellis 

David Potts 

Leonard Johnson 


E. Smith 

George Stuck 

Newton Budd 

E. A. Mathews 

HELD JUNE 7. 1869 

Auditor and Recorder 
Assessor and Collector 
Probate Judge 
County Clerk 

Commissioner District 1 
Commissioner District 2 
Commissioner District 3 
School Commissioner 
Justice of the Peace, Salmon City 
Constable. Salmon City 
Justice of the Peace, Smithville 
Constable, Smithville 
Justice of the Peace, Leesburg 
Constable, Leesburg 
Justice of the Peace, North Fork 
Constable, North Fork 


by Mike Crosby 

George Laird Shoup, Lemhi County's most renowned 
citizen, was born in 1836 to farmers Henry and Jane 
McCain Shoup in Armstrong County, Pennsylvania. In 
1852 Shoup, his parents, five brothers and three sis- 
ters moved to Galesburg, Illinois. Shoup and his older 
brother Abraham went west to the Colorado gold mines 
in 1859 and engaged in various mining and mercantile 
enterprises until the Civil War began in 1861. 

Shoup enlisted in an independent company of scouts 
which was eventually incorporated into the First Col- 
orado Volunteer Cavalry Regiment. He served with the 
First Colorado for almost three years, rising to the rank 
of first lieutenant. Most of this time Shoup was engaged 
in scouting missions on the southern Great Plains in 
Colorado, New Mexico, Kansas, Texas, and the Indian 
Territory. Shoup and his men were singularly success- 
ful in recovering stolen goods and livestock from In- 
dians and capturing gangs of outlaws and Confederate 

In 1864 Shoup was promoted to Colonel and placed 
in charge of a ninety-day regiment of volunteer cavalry 
formed to deal with and outbreak of hostilities between 
white settlers and Cheyenne and Arapaho Indians. The 
campaign against the Indians climaxed in late Novem- 
ber at the Sand Creek Massacre. While Shoup com- 
manded the largest unit at Sand Creek, responsibility 
for the massacre is generally assigned to his superior, 
Colonel John Chivington. 

Shoup mustered out of the army and returned to 
mercantile pursuits at the end of 1864. Popular with 
war veterans, he was elected Lieutenant Governor of 

George Laird Shoup, businessman, Idaho's last Territorial 
Governor, first Governor of the new state of Idaho, and United 
States Senator. 


Colorado in 1865, but the bill admitting Colorado as a 
state was vetoed. 

In 1866 Shoup put together a freight outfit with a 
large stock of goods, hired teamsters, and went west 
on the Oregon Trail. When he reached eastern Idaho, 
he turned north for Virginia City, Montana, where he 
established a general store. The same year he sent 
over a pack train of goods to the new community 
sprouting at the mouth of the Lemhi River in Idaho 
territory to serve the miners heading to Leesburg. 

Shoup helped to lay out the town of Salmon City and 
built a log store on Main Street in the spring of 1867. 
Thus began what would become one of the largest busi- 
ness operations in eastern Idaho. Shoup and various 
partners, including his brothers James and Johnathan, 
established two more stores in the 1870's, one at Chai- 
ns, and another at Bonanza City. They also traded in 
and developed mining claims and real estate, and built 
a large livestock operation. 

On January 28, 1868 Shoup married Lena Darnutzer, 
a woman of Swiss heritage. George and Lena had six 
children over the next thirteen years; three boys and 
three girls. Another son died in infancy in 1880. The 
children, William, George, Walter, Lena, Laura and Mar- 
garet, attended grade school in Salmon and later spent 
school terms with relatives in Iowa because Salmon 
did not have a high school yet. 

Shoup as a merchant developed a reputation for be- 
ing both shrewd and generous. His experiences and 
character led him to accept many public offices 
throughout his life in Idaho, none of which benefitted 
him personally. In Lemhi County he served on the 
school board and cemetery association, and was one 
of the first county commissioners. He represented the 
county in the territorial legislature in 1874 and again 
in 1878. 

From 1880 to 1884 and 1888 to 1892 he was a 
member of the Republican National Committee. In 1884 
Shoup funded and sponsored Idaho's exhibit at a 
world's fair in New Orleans. Through the rest of the 
1880's he bought and developed a ranch south of 
Salmon on Perreau and Williams Creeks and supervised 
the construction of the three-story, block-long brick 
store that still stands at the corner of Main and Center 

From 1889 on Shoup devoted his life to serving all 
Idaho citizens. That year Benjamin Harrison appointed 
Shoup Idaho's last Territorial Governor. In that position 
Shoup helped guide the constitutional convention, the 
successful statehood referendum, and the passage of 
legislation through congress creating Idaho the forty- 
third state in 1890. In October the state's voters chose 
him to be Idaho's first state Governor, a position he 
held until December when the first state legislature 

Lena Darnutzer Shoup, wife of Colonel Shoup - 1900 

Lena Shoup, daugher of Colonel Shoup. • 1897 


elected Shoup as the first of Idaho's two U.S. Senators. 

Re-elected in 1894, Shoup served in the Senate until 
1901. During his tenure in office, Shoup and his family 
divided their time between home in Salmon, Boise, and 
Washington, D.C. Shoup died in Boise on December 
21, 1904, of an apparent kidney failure. Lena Shoup 
died in 1927 and is buried beside her husband. 

Shoup's place in the hearts of his fellow Idahoans 
was perhaps best indicated by their selection of him 
as the first of the two of the state's citizens to be 
enshrined in the U.S. Capitol's Statuary Hall in 1910. 

Susie Edwards Shoup, wife of George E. Shoup. 

George E. Shoup, son of Colonel Shoup. 

With son, George, Colonel Shoup (center) starts for the last time 
on a family camping trip in 1905. Ill health forced him to abandon 
this trip and return home. 





His reminiscences begin, "I was born on a farm on 
the Bornholm Islands, in the Baltic Sea, Denmark, on 
December 3, 1834." This was the beginning of an ad- 
venturous lifetime that led him all over the world and 
finally to the mountains of Idaho. 

At the age of fourteen, William Peterson left his home 
and family and went to sea as a cabin boy, on a trading 
voyage to Iceland. This was the first of many such voy- 
ages that took him to Sicily, Hamburg, Cuba, and Odes- 
sa on the Black Sea, where he witnessed the British 
Fleet at the Dardenelles. From there he sailed to New 
Brunswick, Dublin, New York, Brazil, Calcutta, London, 
the Mediterranean ports, and Amsterdam. He signed 
on as Second Mate on a voyage to the Mediterranean 
and to South Africa. After many more such voyages 
Peterson decided that he wanted to go to California. 
He signed on as a sailor before the mast, on a ship 
sailing from New York, by way of Cape Horn, to San 
Francisco. He arrived there in the spring of 1861, and 
after hearing of the gold strikes in Idaho, he shipped 
aboard a vessel bound for Portland, Oregon, and from 
there, by river boat to the Dalles and Fort Walla Walla. 

At Walla Walla they heard of the excitement over the 
discovery of gold in the Clearwater country in 1860. 
He said he was well acquainted with Captain Pierce, 
one of the discoverers of gold in the area that was later 
Pierce City. Pierce, later, was in Lemhi County around 
the Spring Mountain mining section during the 1880's. 

Leaving Walla Walla, Peterson and his new partner 
headed for Pierce City and Oro Fino, but on the way, 
they heard about a new district at Elk City, and went 
there in the fall of 1861 and again in 1862. From there 
he followed the strikes at various places including War- 
ren, the Boise Basin, Virginia City and finally to Wild 
Horse, B. C. He carried out a gold nugget that weighed 
$218.25 for Enos Watson, which Watson had taken out 
of his claim, and gave it back to Watson in Lemhi Coun- 
ty in 1870. 

In the fall of 1869 a party was organized to explore 
the headwaters of the Yellowstone River. It had been 
the talk among prospectors for years, and Peterson 
and two friends decided to go. They traveled through 
what is now Yellowstone National Park, and 

. . . got into all these natural curiosities and things that 
abound there which cannot be described and are too 
numerous if you could. We saw the geysers and then 
came to the falls of the Yellowstone. Then we went on 
up the river until we came to Yellowstone Lake, where 
we camped. Here Folsom engraved our names on a 
piece of lava rock and the date, September, 1869; then 
he cut a mortise in a pine tree and shoved the rock into 

They returned to Three Forks and then to Diamond, 
Montana. Peterson says, "I left Diamond the spring of 
1870. I came to Leesburg and Loon Creek by way of 
Whitehall, a stage station at that time, and on past 
where Dillon now stands, and stayed all night at Martin 

Barrett's on Horse Prairie, and as they did not charge 
me anything for my lodging I gave Mrs. Barrett two 
gold nuggets for her cabinet. I did not stay long at 
either Leesburg or Loon Creek. I went to Bannock to 
buy cows that were on sale, but the owner would not 
sell them - on to the Grasshopper and bought fourteen 
head of cows and yearlings that were just come up 
from Utah. Brought them back to Lemhi Valley and 
stayed all winter with Challis and Tom Blackburn on a 
ranch which is now the Spahn Ranch. (Today, 1960, 
it is the Snyder Ranch, Carl Spahn's step-son) Next 
year 1871, 1 located on what is now the Peter Amonson 
ranch and which I afterwards sold to him. I ran my 
cattle in the hills and used the range on a small creek 
which came to be called Peterson Creek. I later sold 
my ranch and moved the cattle to the Pahsimeroi and 
the Lost River country." 

Excerpts from Reminiscences of William Peterson compiled by Mar- 
jorie B. Sims, Salmon Public Library. 


SALMON CITY: 86 dwellings, 69 families, 147 white 
males, 43 white females, 32 colored males (included 
Chinese and Blacks), 2 colored females. 
LEESBURG: 290 dwellings, 269 families, 638 white 
males, 37 white females, 89 colored males, colored 


The old stockade has been gone from Salmon for 
many years now. It was built for the security of the 
inhabitants of Salmon who, in those early and uncer- 
tain days, were fearful of an attack by the Nez Perce, 
who were not far away, in the Big Hole country. 

The stockade, in the vicinity of the present Andrews 
and Vandreff Streets, was built about 1876, with logs 
set in a trench that was four feet deep. The wall of logs 
was twelve feet high above the ground. A more detailed 
description of the stockade can be found in G. E. 
Shoup's History of Lemhi County, page 20. 

In 1880, an enclosure was built in the same vicinity 
by A. M. (Grandpa) Stephenson of Junction with lumber 
he milled on Mill Creek and brought to Salmon. He also 
built the log jail which stood within the enclosure, and 
served the community for many years. It was in this 
enclosure that a gallows was built in the early 1880's 
for the execution of Tim Connor, convicted murderer 
and the only man to be executed in Salmon. It stood 
as a grim reminder for about nine years and was then 

For many years before it was torn down in 1926, the 
old enclosure served only as a pen for holding im- 
pounded livestock. 



The following is a letter written by a pioneer of Salmon City, de- 
scribing events relating to the Nez Perce uprising of 1877-1878. 

The early part of the letter is taken up with family deaths, mar- 
riages, letters home and similar trivia. The author of the letter says 
he wrote letters to everyone and told them all the news "except 
about our Indian Scare last summer there was some fun and a heap 
of fuss, I reserved that for you and will have to get another sheet 
to write it on." 

Salmon City 

Idaho Territory 

January 24, 1878 

Mrs. S. A. Groves 
Milford, Indiana 

Well to begin with about the first of July they got 
(the people) an Indian Scare or thought the Indians 
was coming into the valley to kill, burn and destroy 
every thing before them. So they went to work and 
built a Stockade (I don't know whether you know what 
this is or not, if you was to see this one, I don't think 
you would know what it is.) in Salmon City and all the 
families for twenty miles around about once a week 
would "Scare" to town. We was right in the midst of 
haying, and live ten miles from town. We kept a team 
either in the wagon or the stable that we could drive 
to town any time in an hour. I believe Sam's folk went 
to town four times and the longest stay they made was 
four day at any one time. I staid at home and between 
their runs we got our hay all up in good shape. They 
keept it up untill about 12th of August when we got the 
news of the "Big-Hole battle" that was fought about 
forty miles from here. I was away from home that day 
in the evening when I came home there was no body 
here but Sam. Well, says he, what are you going to do 
now. Says I they (the Indians) are getting rather close, 
I think I will Scout a little. We saddled a horse a piece 
and went to town that night got a company of twenty 
Scouts. Next morning started toward the battle field, 
Scouting our way as we went. During the day a courrier 
reached us that the Indian that morning came into the 
Valley fifty miles above Salmon City at the junction. 
We slept none that night and keept traveling for eight 
day, and nights you might say. I had but one square 
nights sleep in the time, the rest was a few minutes at 
a time or in the saddle as we rode along and that we 
know of was never nearer than twenty miles of an In- 
dian. They were traveling all the time right away from 
us. They done no harm in the Valley of Laemhi, but on 
Horse Prairie they killed five men. Some old friends of 
mine one Old Partner, William Farnsworth . . . and on 
Birch Creek they killed five men and burned eight wag- 
ons a hundred miles from Salmon City loaded with 
freight for this place. There was three teamsters and 
two passengers. The teamsters were old friends of mine. 

Albert Green, Jas. Hayden and Dan Combs. All had lived 
here for ten years and very good men. We followed 
the Indians until we came to where the wagons was 
burned and one mule killed, hunted around and found 
the bodies. They were badly used up some shot, an- 
other stabed, another with his head mashed all to piec- 
es. We buried them there, four in one grave and one 
by himself, where they laid until the 3rd of the month 
when I and three other men took two teams with four 
coffins went out, the coldest weather we have had. Got 
our three friends and one strange that was in one grave, 
brought them in a hundred miles, and two weeks ago 
to day gave them a Christian burial. 

Such is our loss from the Indians but it is late and I 
must stop. Write again. 

Love to all 
W. H. Falkner 

Letter courtesy of Dee Keirnes. 


There are two stories of how Horse Creek got its 
name: In the early days the Horse Creek drainage was 
known as Big Sheep Creek. A man by the name of 
Reynolds, who had a little store in Shoup, went into 
the area with a halfbreed Indian by the name of Allen 
in 1891. They packed in their supplies and traps . . . 
built a cabin, and prepared to spend the winter trap- 
ping, mostly marten. They turned a herd of horses out 
on the south slopes of Big Sheep Creek. In the early 
spring the men got "cabin fever" and decided to go 
out to civilization. On their way to the Bitterroot Valley 
on snowshoes, Allen saw his chance and put his rifle 
to Reynolds' ear and pulled the trigger. Allen took the 
pelts and other valuables, but was caught and hanged 
before he got out of the country. This left the horses 
on Big Sheep Creek. They wintered on the open hill- 
sides for several years before they were caught or died, 
so people started calling the drainage Horse Creek. 

The other story claims that the Gattin brothers, who 
had the ranch on what is now Horse Creek, were horse 
thieves operating out of Oregon, Idaho and Montana. 
They would steal horses in Oregon, bring them to their 
ranch on the creek, alter brands, and take them to 
Montana to sell. On the return trip they would steal 
horses in Montana, change brands at the ranch, and 
then sell them in Oregon. This all took place in 1863 
and 1864. 

Idaho Place Names, A Geographical Dictionary by Lalia Boone, 1988. 

1887 - Work is progressing favorable on Col. Shoup's store. The entire 
structure running back from Main Street are more than 200 feet deep. 
The foundation for the house in the rear are dug and the stone and 
brick on the ground. It is a monster establishment and has no equal 
in Idaho. 


Jesse McCaleb 1838-1878 

by Andree Quarles 

Jesse McCaleb came to Idaho from Tennessee. He 
had fought in the Civil War, seeing thirty-six skirmishes 
and battles, and attaining the rank of Captain before 
the war's end. In 1866 he went to Virginia City, Mon- 
tana Territory, and from there to Salmon, where he 
was elected as the first Auditor and Recorder of Lemhi 
County. Later he was elected Sheriff and Deputy As- 
sistant Recorder. 

McCaleb had a ranch adjoining Cal Monasco's near 
the Beardsley Hot Springs. He sold the ranch and went 
into the mercantile business with Colonel Shoup and 
Glendenning at Challis. The store was to be in Mc- 
Caleb's name, but was financed by Shoup. McCaleb 
had just started the new business when he was killed. 
His wife wrote, "... indeed my husband had not moved 
me and our two children to Challis for the reason that 
it was a new and small place, and there were no houses 
to rent and he was preparing to build a house for us." 
McCaleb lost his life August 11, 1878 at a place called 
Battle Ground, a location just above Mackay. 

During 1877 and 1878 about a hundred fifty rene- 
gades from Chief Joseph's scattered band massed 
themselves, and in August 1878, attacked the supply 
caravan of food, arms and ammunition which the U. 
S. government, at the instigation of McCaleb, had sent 

to the people of Lemhi County for their defense against 
Indian attack. These early settlers had a problem in 
that they were scattered and could not afford to pay 
the cost of shipping in their own supplies. 

Joe Skelton, a freighter, was persuaded to go after 
the provisions, although he was skeptical about the 
safety of such an undertaking. McCaleb was notified 
that the Indians were going to attack the supply train 
and knowing that Skelton was unaware of the imminent 
danger and was unprepared to put up a fight, he started 
getting men together to go to their defense. There 
were sixty United States soldiers in Challis at the time, 
but they refused to go as they said they were sent out 
to survey a road and not to fight Indians. The fourteen 
men who were willing to go included J. D. Woods, Wil- 
liam Trebar, Joseph Rainey, Thomas Kierman, John 
Flynn and George Minchell. They had time to reach the 
caravan, a short distance above Mackay, and set up a 
barricade before the attack. Loopholes were made in 
the breastworks, which consisted of sacks of sugar, 
flour, etc., and by the time the Indians were within 
shooting range everyone had his loophole covered ex- 
cept for Jesse. He had just lain down, and an Indian, 
seeing no gun barrel in the hole, shot and hit him in 
the forehead, causing his immediate death. He was age 
forty at the time. 

A friendly Indian sneaked back to the settlement, 
hiding his footprints by wading along the river bank. 
The group of U. S. soldiers who were in the area for 
the purpose of surveying, went to the aid of the de- 
fenders of the freighters. The Indians, seeing the ap- 
proaching reinforcement, disappeared into the hills, and 
the freighters reached Challis without further incident. 

On August 15, 1878 a mass meeting was called for 
the purpose of seeing what could be done to protect 
the settlers from unfriendly Indians. Jesse McCaleb, 
who had served as a Past Master of the Lemhi Masonic 
Lodge, #11 A.F. and A.M., was honored by a resolution 
regarding his untimely death. A similar resolution was 
passed by the Grand Lodge of the Territory of Idaho. 
As another memorial. Lodge #64, A.F. and A.M. was 
given the official name of Mt. McCaleb Lodge. Mount 
McCaleb near Mackay was also named after McCaleb, 
a man whose courage and manhood were as lofty as 
the peak itself. 

J. A. Harrington, in the The Mackay Miner of Sep- 
tember 3, 1924, wrote, "Time should never come when 
the memory of such men as Jesse McCaleb should 
cease to be venerated; the present security for life and 
property is to the credit of men of his caliber, his mem- 
ory should be held in esteem as well as the soldier who 
defends his country. Their graves should be kept green 
and flower laden; for he and kind brought civilization 
to this rugged land". 

Jesse left a widow, Anna Boyd Vernon McCaleb and 
two small children, Hugh and Hope McCaleb. He is bur- 
ied in the Salmon cemetery. 

Jesse McCaleb 



by Charley Snook 1880-1977 
(from an interview with Ethel Kimball) 

The building owned by Fred Phillips was where the 
Smokehouse is now. They tore that building down and 
old man Andrews had a store there for a long time. 
Then they tore that building down and built the present 
day Smokehouse building. Right next to Andrews, old 
Pete Amonson had an old log building there. He made 
boots in there and repaired shoes. Next to Amonson 
was French and Kenney's drugstore. Then there was 
the old Virgil place there, where they had the bands. 
Then there was nothing until the International Hotel, 
right there on the corner (north St. Charles Street and 
Main Street) where Havemann's is. The Hotel burned 
down. In 1881 and 1882 my Dad and Mother ran the 
Hotel. One day, somebody told Mother, "Your boy is 
settin' up in the window." I was sitting in the upstairs 
window, with my feet hanging out the window, just 
above the street. Mom said she was afraid to holler at 
me cause she didn't know if I would jump out or come 
back in. 

Next to the International Hotel was a saloon owned 
by McDonald. Then Old Cap William's restaurant in a 
log building, afterwards it was put into a saloon. (This 
was near the corner of N. Center Street and Main 
Street, destroyed by fire in 1898). The next one across 
Center Street, Brough had a saloon, a building with a 
picket fence around it and a barn and a hotel. Next 
was Bill Brown's butcher shop, known as the Brown 
block. Then he moved the butcher shop across Main 
Street in one side of what was Anderson's Cafe, now 
Wally's Cafe (in the 500 block of Main Street). 

Next was a building owned by John Brough, Fred's 
brother. He had a radio shop where he had a phono- 
graph that he would give you earphones and let you 
listen to a story or songs — ten cents for three songs. 

Next was the Odd Fellows Hall where Clinton's Shoe 
Store was (The Hallmark Store in the 500 Block) then 


The name of this early Main Street business is unknown. 

it was vacant to where the Roxy Theater is. My Dad 
(John Wals Snook) built a livery stable there and sold 
it in 1878 for $2,500. 

On the next corner was Bob Dunlap's residence where 
that service station is now (now J-D Tires, northwest 
corner of N. Andrews and Main Street). That's all there 
was on the north side of Main Street until you got to 
the Old Methodist Church on Church Street. Past the 
Church, there was nothing except a farm just behind 
the Church, which was farmed by the Snook family. 

Across the bridge there was about nothing up on the 
bar then. There was a house right across the river where 
Mrs. McCaleb lived. Her house was Joe Herndon's place 
later. (Now KSRA on Hwy. 93 North) Right across from 
it, the Tingley's lived there. There was nothing then 
until up on the hill where the rock wall is, Tom Hubbard 
had an old log house. I used to herd milk cows for 
people over on the bar. So much per day. 

On the South side of Main Street there was a saloon 
next to where Colvin's Jewelry Store is today (500 
Block). Shoup's Store of course was on Main Street. 
(Corner of S. Center and Main Street) Next to it was 
a home built by my Dad that McPherson lived in for 
years. The home was later moved to another location 
in town. 

The next building was Doc Kenney's office. Then Jim 
Shoup, Jim Fuller and John Wheeler and then where 
the hospital is. The Snook family home was where S. 
Andrews Street is today at the intersection of Main 
Street. On the corner of Main and Daisy was a building 
occupied by John Morgan. The next house on the south 
side was Joshua Brown, a two story house, then Frank 
Pollard, which was just west of Bill Hanmer's house. 
On the south side corner of Highway 93 and Main Street 
was where Mr. Phillips lived, and then Del Simons, then 
Tom Andrews. Kirtleys had a log house up in there. 
There was nothing on the north side in that area. Hol- 
brook had a place up East Main where Silbaugh's place 
was. Then Cochrane's had a place out there, also. (The 
north side of E. Main just beyond the city limits) 

Back of the Brough place was Davis and Birdsey 
Lumber Yard (on Shoup and Center Streets). They had 
a home there where Max Hemmert lives now (the brick 
home at the extension of No. Center Street). The home 
was built by Edwards. There were three brick homes 
in there built by Edwards. 

And at one location in the downtown saloon area was 
"the house of negotiable affection." 

Editor's note: Charley Snook was born in Salmon In 1880. He gave 
this interview to Ethel sometime in the 1970's. It was not a prepared 
interview, but during the interview he began remembering the dif- 
ferent buildings in Salmon back in the 1880's. The list is not com- 
plete, but it does provide us a general idea of Salmon City, one 
hundred years ago. 



by Allen C Merritt 

Editors note: Allen C. Merritt arrived in Salmon, by stage, in August 
1883, with his parents and sister Emma. His father, Henry Clay Mer- 
ritt was to be superintendent of the Kentuck Mine. After Henry C. 
Merritt's untimely death, Allen's mother, Ada Merritt, became owner 
and editor of The Idaho Recorder. Salmon's newspaper. Allen later 
became an engineer, an architect, and Lemhi County Surveyor. The 
following excerpts are from his account of the buildings in Salmon 
City as they were in the 1880's. 

Upon arrival at the International Hotel in Salmon, the 
Merritt family went for a stroll down N. St. Charles 
Street. "It was only a one-way wagon road lined with 
beautiful, tall cottonwood trees, from a short distance 
north of Shoup Street to the place now occupied by 
the oil company's tanks, where the main stream of the 
Lemhi river ran at that time." Beginning on the north 
side of Main Street at Church Street and moving to- 
ward the river; "The first building was the Methodist 
Church (north east corner of Church and Main), which 
was built about 1885 or 1886. In this building the first 
bricks made in Salmon were used. They were moulded 
and burned between the Joe Herndon (315 Highway 
93 North) residence and the Shady Nook resort, be- 
tween the highway and the river." 

"Proceeding west on Main Street there was a vacant 
field from the Church to Andrews Street, as the Shenon 
Hotel Building was not built until 1895. . . . then from 
Andrews Street, Robert Dunlap's jewelry shop was on 
the corner . . . next was Jake Finstur's livery barn and 
corral (built and owned by John Wals Snook until 1878), 
which covered the ground now occupied by the . . . 
Roxy Theater, (and extending to the small frame build- 
ing that was the original lOOF hall). The next building 
was built by W. F. Boxwell and Son, general store; then 

the lOOF property, which is still in the same ownership, 
and the frame building occupied by Clint Quesnel's store 
(516 Main) was the original lOOF hall. It stood about 
thirty-five feet west of its present location, and was 
moved there to make room for the present lOOF build- 

"As I was the designer of this building, it seems ap- 
propriate that I give a little of the history and details 
of how it was financed and constructed. The plans were 
completed and approved in 1905, the basement and 
foundations were constructed in 1908 and 1909. The 
granite corner stone bears the date 1906. . . . This 

Indians trail loose horses west on Main Street past the old lOOF 
Building (now the Hallmark Shop) in its original location. 


The 500 block on the north side of Main Street held the Nashold's Hotel and Restaurant, the Brown Building, and the new lOOF Building 
which housed the Citizens National Bank, the Lemhi Valley Merc, and the Red Cross Pharmacy downstairs. 


building has a structural steel interior frame, is faced 
with the finest pressed brick, manufactured in Omaha, 
Nebraska, and shipped by rail to Red Rock, Montana, 
thence by wagon freight to Salmon. The structural steel 
was fabricated in Minneapolis. 

"Some of the large beams are twenty-seven feet long 
and weigh 3000 pounds . . . They were hauled by wag- 
on freight from the railroad, via Lewis and Clark Pass, 
and were delivered for $5.25 per hundred pounds. The 
brick for facing the front cost about thirteen cents 
apiece delivered. Over the entrance to the stairway is 
a terra-cotta cartouche designed especially for this 
building, modeled and fired in Chicago. The contractor 
for the mason work was William 0. McConnell and for 
all other work, including the erection of the structural 
steel, was Jack Bundy. Total cost of the building was 

"The addition occupied by the Kane Dress Shop was 
constructed in 1913 and was built for the Pioneer 
bank." This space is now occupied by the Pioneer Bak- 
ery, part of B and B Foods, at 512 Main Street. 

"The next building was built by W. F. Brown in 1897. 
I designed it and with Jack Bundy, built it. It is now 
called the Cavaness building. This was my first building 
of any consequence after the Shoup Building of 1886. 
. . . The bricks were manufactured on the bar just be- 
low the Oliver ranch and I personally made the moulds 
and moulded the special ornamental bricks over and 
around the second story windows — the brick con- 
tractor refused to mould any ornamental bricks be- 
cause his contract called for plain bricks. 

"On the lot on the corner (northeast corner of Cen- 
ter and Main) was the Nashold Hotel or boarding house. 
It was frame construction and was occupied by the 
Nashold family, Mr. E. Nashold was sheriff, his wife and 
two daughters who were popular leaders in social af- 

"Egbert Nashold was a very large man and served 
several terms as sheriff on Lemhi County. He was 6 
feet 7 inches tall and weighed around 300 pounds. It 
may be imagined that when "Nash" as he was affec- 
tionately known, went after his man he got him. 

"The building was remodeled and enlarged and was 
occupied as the Brough Saloon until 1929 when it 
burned down." Across Center Street (the 400 block), 
the lot now occupied by the service station and the 
Masonic Temple was known as the "Williams Corner" 
and a log building housed a saloon which had a hectic 
record covering the period from 1879 to 1907 when 


it was destroyed by fire. The lot was vacant for several 
years, being purchased by Langsdorf and Company, 
who built a beautiful two story bank building on the 
west part of the lot. Langsdorf and Company sold their 
bank to the First National Bank prior to completion of 
the building, but it was completed, and was later oc- 
cupied by the Pioneer Bank, which later moved to the 
west part of the lOOF Building. When the First National 
Bank was liquidated, the building and the east part of 
the lot were sold to the Masonic Lodge, which occupied 
the second floor until the big fire of March, 1931. It 
burned out the entire block, down to St. Charles Street, 
with the exception of the service station now on the 

"The Lodge building was gutted by the fire and was 
remodeled to the present design of a one story build- 

"From here west to St. Charles street the buildings 
were leveled. (Before the fire ) the next building was 
a brick two story building, built by E. H. Jeanjaquet for 
a blacksmith shop, with offices on the second floor, 
which were occupied by Dr. Whitwell and R. P. Quarles, 
attorney and his younger brother, G. B. Quarles. 

"After the fire the building was remodeled and was 
occupied by R. W. White's clothing store. 

"The lumber yard was located where the Bradley 
Machine Shop now stands and lots east. Next door 
west was the Pope and McDonald saloon which at the 
time of the fire was occupied by R. M. Murdock's club. 
The next building was a part of the E. S. Edwards prop- 
erty and was built in the 1890's to close the gap be- 
tween the Pope-McDonald building and the Interna- 

tional Hotel, and was formerly a drive-way into the lot 
behind the hotel. 

"This building was first occupied by F. J. Cowen, at- 
torney, who was later district court judge, and later by 
John Brough barber and erstwhile Salmon's first fire 
chief. Later this building was occupied by McCardell 
and Rasor, Civil Engineers. This firm was dissolved when 
Clarence Rasor enlisted in the "Shoup Rangers" cav- 
alry and went into the Spanish-American War. Harry 
Kelly, realtor, then R. W. and Fred White, barbers, then 
occupied the building. 

"The International Hotel filled out the block to 
St. Charles Street. The building was a two story frame 
structure with bedrooms upstairs and lobby, dining 
room, kitchen and living quarters for the Edwards fam- 
ily of Mr. and Mrs. Edwards and ten children, who grew 
to maturity there. On the ground floor was the "bridal 
suite" off the lobby. 


c n 




A busy day on Main Street with the Nashold Hotel, Brown Building, and lOOF Building in the bachground. 


"Across St. Charles Street (300 block on Main) was 
the Fred Philips Store, succeeded by Wm. H. Andrews. 
At the rear of the store was a cellar which was replaced 
about 1895 by a building as an extension to the store, 
later occupied by W. H. Craigue, assayer and mining 

"Adjoining on the west was the harness shop of Wil- 
liam L. Warner. About 1908, the assay office and the 
harness shop were taken over by Lemhi Engineering 
Company of which Allen C. Merritt, E. B. Thornhill and 
J. W. Caples were partners. This firm was dissolved in 

"The buildings were razed and W. H. Burk built the 
concrete building and opened a dry goods and clothing 

store there. It is now occupied by the Smokehouse. 

"Adjoining on the west was the French and Kenney 
Drugstore where Dr. George A. Kenney had his office 
and his associate, pharmacist French, dispensed the 
prescriptions. This was the only drug store and the only 
M. D. as well, in the early 80's. 

"Dr. Kenney was a true country doctor. His team of 
black horses, and his covered buggy, were busy on the 
country roads and when there were only trails, he 
mounted a bay horse and went to relieve the sick or 
to bring a new future pioneer into the world. Rain or 
shine, day or night, distance or direction, were no ob- 

"The building was later occupied by Dr. Wright as an 

This picture shows the 400 block on the north side of Main Street. At the left is the International Hotel, next the office of F. J. Cowen, 
next the Pope-McDonald Saloon, next the Lumber yard (later the Bradley Machine Shop), next E. H. Jeanjaquet's two story building, next 
the Langsdorf Bank building. 


J. Williams, 


BAl^BEI^ and 

Hair Dresser. 

Hcst BnUiinjC Facilities. 
Hair Cutlinp, Shavin(j, 
and every service to be 
found in a first-class, up- 
to-date barber shop. 


on sale. 

Kcil door 10 iMiTtiUl.iJitl IIkIcI, 


Was it a band concert or a pa- 
rade? Main Street at Center 
with the Langsdorf Bank 
Building at left. 


office and the drug store operated by Guy Edwards. It 
was razed about 1910. 

"Next adjoining on the west was the boot and shoe 
shop of Peter Amonson and M. M. McPherson. About 
1885 McPherson joined the mercantile firm of G. L. 
Shoup Co. Amonson maintained the shop until his 

"During several years later the Salmon Post Office 
occupied part of the building. Next west stands the 
Dunlap jewelry shop built by Robert N. Dunlap and oc- 
cupied by him as a goldsmith, watch repairer, gun- 
smith, of which his skill could not be excelled. As a 
goldsmith, his work was known across the nation. 
Handmade jewelry made from native gold from the 
diggings in Leesburg, Silver Creek, Bohannon, Geert- 
son and Kirtley Creeks were prized by the early settlers 
of Salmon." Editors note: This may be an error as Merritt says 
earlier that the Dunlap shop was at Andrews Street on Main.) 

"We are now down to the site of the first building 
(to be constructed) east of the river: The Vandreff house 
. . . Vandreff was a surveyor and he laid out a townsite 
with Main Street starting in front of his house and run- 
ning south-east, straight for more than one mile which 
ran between the Benedict building and the Schultz res- 
idence on South Challis Street. This was later aban- 
doned to the present location after the government 
land survey in 1879, and the Salmon City townsite was 

"The Vandreff building was occupied by J. W. Bird- 
seye as a residence after several rooms (were added), 
and the building extended to N. Terrace Street. Mr. 
Birdseye was a surveyor and occupied the building until 

1898, when he resigned as county surveyor and moved 
to the Davis & Birdseye ranch north of Carmen, now 
owned by David Schultz. 

"Across N. Terrace Street (200 block) the site of the 
new historical building, the lot was occupied by a frame 
building, the residence of William Pollard and family. 
To the rear of this was Mr. Pollards blacksmith shop. 

"Continuing west to the river was what was known 
as 'Chinatown', where in the early 80's about 200 or 
more Chinese lived in frame and log buildings. 


Cluirlcy iiJu;rt .IlKiJiHrvr. -. 

Toys, ■ 

of ^ill. 


>^iNEW HOLIDAY 600pSi<; 
Japanese I'aucy Goods, 

E.H. Jeanjaquet built this bricl^ building for his blacksmith shop. The second floor offices were occupied by Dr. Whitwell and R.P. 
Quarles, and at the time of this photo by Judge Padgham. 


"Most of the frontage was covered first by Yan Kee 
laundry, the Wah Sing, Ah Yen, Wing Lee and Fong Kee. 
Many others lived back of these and several lived on 
the south side of the street. "Beginning at the river 
and proceeding east on the south side of Main Street: 
'China Jack', Sing Lee, (was first) near the river, and 
then a building where the Valley Chevrolet garage 
stands (south east corner of Water Street and Main), 
belonged to Wah Sing and was a sort of Chinese gam- 
bling house and meeting place. 

"Next continuing to the corner on S. Terrace Street 
was the L. P. Withington lot with a stable on the west 
and then the residence which later was a meat market 
operated by Jack Steel, followed by a restaurant (op- 
erated) by Mrs. Maggie Boyle. (On the corner of Ter- 
race and Main) was Joe Proksch shoe shop, now the 
Standard Service Station. 

"The next corner going east (300 block) was occu- 
pied by the Willis and Wheeler Saloon, which was razed 
when the present McNutt Building was built in 1899. 

China Jack's little cabin and Capt. Harry Guleke's boat ramp at the east end of the Salmon bridge. 

The McNutt Building, constructed of local Pollard brick, was completed in 1901. McNutt financed it with monies received from the sale 
of his placer claims and Leesburg mercantile business. He and his partner, Fred Phillips, advertised "free delivery service" to Leesburg 
customers —by pack burro. The purchaser would load and drive the burros to his place of residence, unload them and turn them toward 
home. Monk and Green occupied the ground floor and stocked groceries, hardware, dry goods, shoes, furniture, anything on demand. 
Since 1913 this building has been McPherson's Dry Goods with ownership passing from Myra McPherson to the Beller family. 


The ground floor (of the McNutt Building) was occupied 
by George H. Monk and Company. The second floor 
was designed for, and occupied by Lemhi County of- 
fices and District Court rooms until moved to the pres- 
ent Court House. The entire building is now owned by 
Mrs. Myra McPherson and occupied by the McPherson 
store, Salmon's largest and most complete store. 

"Adjoining on the east is the Sam Young property 
which was occupied by a saloon by that name from 
about 1885 to 1890. From then it has been used for 
various commercial purposes: Mack's shoe store, and 
Van Stratt's Newstand, among them. 

"Next door east was the Martinelly saloon which 
closed at the time of the demise of the proprietor, 
James C. Martinelly, a pioneer of the Leesburg gold 
rush days of 1866, a man highly respected and liked 
by everyone who knew him. The Stevens Drug Store 
occupies the ground which was purchased by William 
Anderson in 1899 and a building was erected which 
joined the Lemhi Hotel which was erected by Mr. An- 
derson in 1897, and occupied the ground that was the 
George L. Shoup and Co. Store where the Recorder 
was published from 1887 to 1897. 

"At the rear of this building was a large cellar partly 
below and partly above the ground. It was in this cellar 
that the first meeting of Lemhi Lodge No. 11, A.F. & 
A.M. was held and there instituted in 1874. 

"Crossing St. Charles Street (400 block) was the 
livery barn of George Z. Wentz. A brick building with 
iron roof. It was replaced by the automobile about 1910, 
when Dan O'Connell and Frank Bellamy opened the 
Pioneer Garage there, and built the business which 
constructed the building at Main and Andrews Streets. 

"The next lot, about 40 feet front, occupied the 
ground which it now does, east of the building which 
is now occupied by Gwartney Equipment Company (401 
Main Street). From this lot east was a Chinese laundry 

A- - 

The 400 block at Main Street. Dan Chase drives his team. 

The Wentz Livery Barn, on the south east corner of Main and So. St. Charles Street, was built of local brick and had an iron 
roof. It was later the Kingsbury Livery, for many years Gwartney Equipment and now the Rivers Edge Building. 


and later a restaurant owned an operated by George 
Smith, well known for his acts of charity and his deep 
interest in mining. He was the discoverer of the 'Queen 
of the Hills' mine, previous to its purchase by Emerson 
Hill, former merchant, stockman and state senator from 
Red Rock, Montana and later Probate Judge of Lemhi 
County. The building now is one of the group consisting 
of the Lantern Bar, Bells Barber Shop and the Mint 
Cafe. One eastern part of this group was a restaurant 
operated by R. R. Dodge and later was rebuilt by George 
Steel who owned and operated a meat market there 
until about 1895, when he sold and moved to the lot 
where the building formerly occupied by City Floral 

"From here to the Shoup Building is the vacant lot 
used by Evans Food Store for parking. Next is the Shoup 
building with its stone tablet on the front giving the 
date of its erection, 1886. It was first occupied by the 
store in September 1887. A grand ball was given here 
July 4, 1887, which was attended by more people than 
was ever before assembled in Lemhi County. 

"The 'Big Store' always carried a large stock of gen- 
eral merchandise and provided employment for eight 
to ten clerks, freight and warehouse men, and several 

freight outfits on the road from the railroad at Red 
Rock, Montana. 

"In the earlier days there were no banking facilities 
and the 'big store' handled this business for its cus- 
tomers more as an accommodation than a business, 
and it is obvious that the progress of the country in 
this area owes much to this institution for its part in 
its settlement and development. The second floor was 
occupied by offices and the third floor by the Masonic 
Lodge. Center Street was opened to the south of Main 
Street when the building was built for accommodation 
of freight to and from the store and its warehouse. 

"Across Center Street (500 block) where the mag- 
nificent new building of the Idaho First National Bank 
stands, was occupied by a log building which was re- 
modeled into the home of Col. Shoup and his family 
of three sons and three daughters. They occupied these 
premises until about 1881 when they moved to Du- 
buque, Iowa, where most of their children started their 
pre-college schooling. They did not return to Salmon 
until the new store was completed and then moved to 
their ranch south of Salmon where a new country home 
had been completed. 

"Their town house was purchased by James Marti- 


In 1886 George L. Shoup financed this building for his wholesale and retail business, at Main and Center Street. It was at one time the 
largest building in Eastern Idaho: three stories high and 281 feet long. Twenty foot deep footings were dug by hand and the total cost of 
the building was $100,000. Built of Pollard brick it has been in constant use for over 100 years. 


nelly who refurnished it and lived there with his bride 
until his death. After that the house was occupied by 
Salmon's first public library, where it remained until 
the property was sold to the First National Bank and 
this building was demolished to make way for the Idaho 
First National's new building. The present new building 
also covers the lot where the George L. Wentz family 

The First National Bank on the south east corner of Main and 
Center Streets. This building was built on ground where the old 
Shoup home had been located. 

< -'SSja.' ■'■'' 

'^:<.^y -••m.-^". 


lived until 1882 when they moved into the Glendenning 
house on the next lot east. 

"Next adjoining the bank is the Norton Building, now 
occupied by the Colvin Jewelry. This building was built 
by James L. Kirtley, Sr. and was occupied by the Post 
Office for several years, was remodeled for the Meitzler 
Drug Store, which occupied it until 1910 when they 
built and moved into the building adjoining, now oc- 
cupied by the Owl Club. 

"East of the Owl Club is the Pelton building which 
houses the Sargent Cafe, the Recorder Herald and Dr. 
Hubbard's office. On this ground stood the Glenden- 
ning house and George Clemow house. The former was 
razed to make room for business buildings; The Palace 
Restaurant (Chinese), and the Norton Jewelry, where 
C. A. Norton opened his first store and watch repair 
shop. It was later occupied by Dr. E. L. Hubbard, den- 

"The Clemow house, occupied by George Steel many 
years and later by Dr. C. F. Hanmer as an office and 
clinic. He purchased the property, moved the house 
to Vandreff Street, and built the theater which was 
destroyed by fire in 1939, remodeled for the Herndon 
Insurance, now the occupant. 

"East of this lot stood the blacksmith shop of John 
B. Fisher which was replaced with a frame building by 
George Steel's meat market. Later T. R. Benedict built 
the present building. 

Tearing down the old Shoup home on Main St. 




This old postcard shows the east side of the Shoup Build- 
ing with its iron staircase, looking south down center street. 
A pack train is ready to go. 

East side of the Shoup Building. Charlie Beers with freight wagon and team. 


"Next building was built for a restaurant, remodeled 
for the law office of G. B. Quarles, later it was the office 
of the Lemhi Power and Light Co. 

"The J. L Kirtley residence was on the lot now oc- 
cupied on the east side by Fred Snook's law office and 
the office of Dr. Roy Sinclair. The Snook building is on 
the site of the store of Fong Kee and Company, Chi- 
nese merchants. This store carried some clothing, 
shoes, etc., as a part of their stock. The predominating 
merchandise was imported Chinese crockery, teas, 
spices, confectionery, silks, embroidered work, hand- 
kerchiefs, fireworks, and fire crackers. 

"They closed out the store about 1897 and left for 
their native land. On the east part of the lot was a log 
blacksmith shop built and occupied by Marmaduke 
Hewitson, who continued there until his demise. 

"The building was remodeled by Bert Walker for a 
restaurant about 1906. The Miller store occupies the 
lot at the present. 

"The next building in the block was built on the cor- 
ner of Main and Andrews Streets by H. G. Redwine, 
attorney. It replaced the little frame house of Wils. Smith 
and at the time it was constructed Andrews Street was 
not opened and the land belonged to William Peterson, 

»~T— TTm^\ 

U G S' KlsBRy.;^ 


r--V .-- :^i.-v^.< 

•*- ,-.-.*-j''a*(sr 

Main Street in the early 1900's. The present Dee Keirnes Barber Shop, on left was built in 1895 as a bar, and was later a jewelry store and 
then a restaurant. It has a false front, gabled roof and a 100 year old Box Elder tree. 

Main Street about 1930. By now the Redwine Building on the left is occupied by J. C. Penney Co. and the auto has arrived. 





All kinds of ^\i ^^ 
I lursc cind JMiilc 

4^ )\i ^)\^ Shoeing 

■i'ii|!|!lnl hm a N|:rri;illy.- 

(',\N AI,\V.\)Slli:r(!lMi MATIKIIHl 

111 foil hmid.'. 


'JS.. *^ ^^ 

This old postcard, about 1900, is labled "Breal^ing Bronchos at Salmon, Idaho." Note the 
Brown Building standing in the background. 

The 1928 Lemhi Creamery was located at the present site of Steele Memorial Hospital. 

who purchased the tract which extended to the east 
line of Church Street and to Lena Street on the south 
and the southerly part of Vandreff street, extended to 
Daisy Street. This was purchased from John W. Snook, 
whose residence stood where the Pioneer Garage cov- 
ers the site. (Now Kings) This tract aside from being 
the home of one of the oldest and most respected 
pioneers and the birthplace of his children, John W., 
Jr., Charles W., and Phoebe, now Mrs. Fred Pattee, is 
the site of the stockade which was built in 1876 to 
protect the community from Chief Joseph's outlaw 
band, which was in the nearby Big Hole valley, and were 
plundering and murdering the white settlers and were 
in fact headed toward the Lemhi Valley. In as late as 
1887 some of the old stockade which was constructed 
of logs standing on end in a trench about four feet deep 
and about 12 feet above ground formed a fence with 
bastions at the corners. Continuing east on the south 
side of Main Street (700 block) across what it now S. 
Church Street, is the location of M. M. Mc Pherson's 
residence and the Dr. Kenney lot, now occupied by the 
Conoco Gas Station, then Dr Kenney's residence, Rob- 

ert McNicoll residence and birthplace of our townsman 
M. M. McNicoll. Next is the James K. Fuller residence, 
the John Wheeler residence, later the A. J. McNab res- 
idence, then where the Steele Memorial Hospital stands 
was the 0. W. Mintzer lot, later the Alexander Barrack 
planing mill, followed by the first garage opened in 
Salmon by M. M. McNicoll, which was later converted 
into the Lemhi Creamery and finally to the magnificent 
Memorial Hospital made possible by the Steele Me- 
morial gift of Mrs. Reese. 

"Across Daisy Street (900 block) was the John L. 
Morgan residence, then the Joshua Brown residence 
across the lot which was a garden and orchard where 
the Pelton residence stands. Beyond the Brown resi- 
dence was the Frank Pollard residence and this was 
the last house until we cross Challis Street where Com- 
er Phillips built a house in the late 80's and next to this 
the Delos Simons home and adjoining this lot was the 
Thomas K. Andrews home, beyond this setting back 
from the street was the Frank Kirtley home. 

"This winds up Main Street as it is remembered back 
in 1886." 


■ Mr ■ ' ■ v ' t '^m? 



if 111 iM 


This was the Anderson Building, the home of the 
Pyeatt Drug Store, the Anderson Saloon and the Lemhi 
Hotel. Built in 1897 at the corner of South St. Charles 
and Main Streets by William C. Anderson, the lavishly 
furnished hotel opened for business in December of 
1901. The "Office" sign can be seen at the doorway 
on South St. Charles Street. On the corner was the 
entrance to the Saloon which boasted a large and 
beautiful old fashioned bar. Just around the corner on 
Main Street was the new W. B. Pyeatt drugstore. 

The building, which covered the area that is now 
McPherson's parking lot, had many fine architectural 
features including quarried stone pillars and stained 
glass windows. During its lifetime the building housed 
other businesses and at the time of its demise the 
Pyeatt Drugstore was Stevens Drugs, the saloon was 
the Silver Spur Sport Shop and Lounge, and the Lemhi 
Hotel was still upstairs. 

Just across the alley to the south was the building 
known for many years as the Opera House. Built in 
1901, it had a theater stage and seating for live per- 
formances, and a dance hall that was well used during 
its lifetime. Later, in 1940, the Elks Lodge purchased 
the building and re-dedicated it as Pioneer Hall. The 
upper floor was the Elks Lodge and the lower floor was 
rented out, being occupied by the Fire House and a 
Geological Survey office. The building occupied the site 
of the current Fire House. 

At three minutes past midnight on July 23, 1962 a 
fire broke out that was presumed to have started in 
the alley between the Anderson Building and Pioneer 
Hall. Arson was suspected, but never proven, and there 

f r 

This photo shows Pioneer Hall, or the Opera House, on the right, 
with Joe Bohney's Blacksmith Shop to the left of the archway en- 
trance. The buildings were on the site now occupied by the Salmon 
Fire Department. 

were several explosions reported during the course of 
the terrible fire that lasted all through the night. By 
morning, all that was left of the once beautiful Ander- 
son Building and the Pioneer Hall next to it, were the 
skeletal remains of the old brick walls. 

Thanks to the tireless work of firemen and citizens 
the blaze did not spread to other structures of the city, 
but the Anderson Building was no more. 

Information taken from The Recorder Herald, July 26,1962 


W. B. Pyeatt Druggist, on Main Street, occupied the west side of the Anderson 

S^' 1^ 

fv\ i 

Grand Ncwvear Ball, 

Aiicicrsori's Ojjera House. 

Tliursclav. Jan. 1. 1903 

LODGE, NO. 5, 

IT ^ ® ^ ® ^ ]f 


Gen'l Arrangeme.nts; W. C. Smith, G. H. Monk, G. F. Townsend. 
W. J. Brown, A. J. Ouarles. Neliie Bryan, Mabel Ball, Mary 
Havemann. Eva MuUins, Emma Pattison. 

Reception: W, H. Mulkey, E- S. Suydam. Fred Pattee, T. J. Stroud, 
VV. L. Mulkey, I. .M. Williams, C. W. Snook, Kittie Uore, Bertha 
Church, Mary Kane. Nora Geertson. Gertie !gou, Kate Spell 
man, Nellie Ella Ketchum 

Fi.uok: W, a. Warner, |. L Kirtlc>-, J, A. Vaughn. 


Ma^"""""" """"^ ^*5<v 













Grand Ball 

McPherson Post No. 3, 

G. A. R.. 

Anderson's Opera House 

July 4, 1906 


Messrs Wm. Andrews, Steve Manfull, 
Jas. Light. Mesdames Logan Igou, 
Trunnan Andrews. Theodore Ketchum, 
Frank Tingley. 


I. B. Giles. B. F. Russell, G. A. Martin. 


Geo. A. Martin, Wm. J. Bryan. 

TICKES, Without Supper, $1.50 ; 

On Sale at 
Edwards' and*s Drvig Stores 

Joe Bohney stares at the remains of his blacksmith 
shop on S. St. Charles Street, just south of the Opera 
House, after the 1962 fire which destroyed the 
Anderson Building and the Pioneer Hall next door. The 
wooden frame blacksmith shop was built about 1887 by 
Johnny McClaren and was occupied by Joe Bohney for 
over twenty-five years. Miraculously the blacksmith 
shop escaped the fire, but following the fire, a brick 
wall collapsed and flattened the old building. 


An Editor and Her Newspaper 

by Doris Brown 

Ada Chase Merritt was the first woman to edit an 
Idaho newspaper, for more than a few issues, when 
she and her partner 0. W. Mintzer, purchased the 
Salmon Idaho Recorders July of 1888. The publication 
had been founded on June 12, 1886 by J. E. Booth, 
"to encourage settlement and investment in Salmon 
and the county". 0. W. Mintzer had been with the pa- 
per, and was staying on as their printer, however he 
sold his interest to Ada Merritt in October of 1888 and 
she ran the operation on her own until 1906. 

The front page of the first issue, under new man- 
agement, was half-filled with ads, but also contained a 
schedule of mail deliveries, a directory of county and 
state officials, and lists of county disbursements and 
license approvals. The second page featured a greeting 
from the new proprietors. Among other things, the ed- 
itors said they expected the paper to be truly inde- 
pendent, because one of them was a Republican and 
the other a Democrat, "without a vote, being a lady". 
This first, four page issue set the pattern for the entire 
period of Ada Merritt's editorship. She continued to 
concentrate on local activities, paying particular at- 
tention to the comings and goings of the county's res- 
idents and commenting on county and state politics. 
Another quality that readers appreciated was Mrs. 
Merritt's sense of humor. In 1892 she adopted a motto 
also used by some other publications: "Here, Shall the 
Press, the People's Rights Maintain". 

Ada Chase Merritt began life in Clinton, Louisiana 
where she was born on February 24, 1852, to Josiah 
and Emeline Steven Chase. The family made their home 
in Michigan during much of her childhood. The stock 
raising business brought the Chases to Austin, Nevada 
in 1864 and Ada married Henry Clay Merritt there in 
1870. Their two children were born in Austin; Emma 
in 1871, and Allen in 1877. 

Mining brought Henry and Ada Merritt to Lemhi 
County in 1883, and her parents, the Chases, moved 
to Salmon the same year. Henry's parents had settled 
in Shoup a year earlier. The young Merritt family set- 
tled in Salmon and Henry was the superintendent of 
the Kentuck Mine near Shoup. Only a year later, Henry 
Merritt drowned in the Salmon River, when he was 
knocked off one of the flatboats that carried supplies 
to the mine. Ada, left with two children to support, 
taught school for a time thereafter. Her career as an 
editor began with the purchase of the newspaper four 
years later. 

By the beginning of 1889, Ada was stepping boldly 
into the political arena. She did not hesitate to call the 
Republicans to task under the headline "WHAT HAVE 
LEMHI'S REPUBLICANS DONE?", and criticized the 
county's representatives for their failure to get money 

for the county. Later in the year she advised voters to 
approve the proposed state constitution, but noted 
that, as a woman, she would be unable to follow her 
own advice, since she was not allowed to vote. Sur- 
prisingly, she was not a supporter of women's suffrage. 
She felt that women were not ready for the vote; that 
they had not become sufficiently interested in the mat- 
ter. "But when they do, they will have their own way, 
just as they do in everything else which they under- 
take", she said. 

Ada was married for a short time, to George Walsten, 
who had come to Salmon with a good recommendation 
from The Salt Lake Herald, and was hired as an assis- 
tant at The Idaho Recorder. George and Ada were mar- 
ried in Omaha, Nebraska in 1901 , when they went there 
to purchase a power press and other machinery for 
the business. The marriage fell apart when Ada dis- 
covered that he had a prison record and that he had 
apparently stolen some of the county money entrusted 
to her care. A divorce was granted to her, but she was 
forced to make up the loss because of the lack of suf- 
ficient evidence against Walsten. It was a traumatic 
time during which she received many letters of support 
from readers and friends alike. She continued with the 
newspaper and her many other activities. 

She had also taken an active role in church and com- 
munity affairs. Ada participated in concerts by the 
Methodist Episcopal church choir; was elected vice 
president of the Salmon City Chautauqua Literary and 
Scientific Circle; belonged to the Washington Reading 
Club; and was appointed secretary of the Woman's Re- 
lief Corps, an auxiliary of Salmon City's Grand Army of 
the Republic. She was elected Associate Conductress 
of Hugh Duncan Chapter #2, 0. E. S. in 1893; and was 
elected Lemhi County Treasurer, on the Democratic 
ticket in 1900. As a delegate to the state's silver con- 
vention, she was probably the first lady to receive the 
honor of being elected as a delegate to a public con- 
vention in Idaho. She was an active member of the 
Idaho State Press Association and was elected its vice 
president in 1905. 

At the age of fifty-four she decided that a rest was 
in order, and H. E. Frost took over as Editor and pro- 
prietor in June, 1906. Mrs. Merritt had edited the paper 
with skill, enthusiasm, and a sure instinct for the in- 
terest of her community for eighteen years. 

After selling the newspaper, Ada Merritt moved to 
Caldwell, Idaho, where she spent two years, and then 
moved to Salt Lake City. In 1912 she married Joseph 
Grain, who died seven years later. Between 1920 and 
1928 she traveled extensively, part of the time as com- 
panion to a wealthy heiress. Eventually she moved to 
California where her daughter was living. 


Ada Merritt died in November 1933 at Santa Monica, 
California, at the age of eighty-one. An obituary from 
the Recorder Herald called her "one of the city's most 
influential citizens, a woman of unusually brilliant in- 
tellect and a pleasing personality", who had lived "a 
remarkably active life, full of colorful incidents." A fit- 
ting epitaph for this enterprising Idaho pioneer woman. 

»»»»♦♦»»■♦♦♦♦»♦♦ ♦♦♦♦♦»»»t »»♦♦♦-»■ 
f ^dnJerttse in the 3F % 



Entered J &j\. 6*1903. in the Poal Office ».( S»Jn\an. ldftJ\o, as 
Second' mi^tter, Vnder Aci of Congres* ol M*rck i, 1879. 


You will rveed esc 

For that big crop of hay 
Norve better than the 


'Broti. . ZMocK ^ ^ ^aJrrron. Idaho, 
Ad from the Idaho Recorder - January 6, 1903 

^ ■ •_ . ■. .:; S; -•.,» -JKT^.Ia.- .• .V-.-; ,- ■y^-i,^iAii,^i:-!^>,i,^fS^ie^~, ■,-; ^- ^ 


T 1 

This large monument marks the grave of Salmon Pi- 
oneer businessman and rancher, Philip Shenon, who 
died December 30, 1902. Shenon built the Shenon 
Block featuring the Shenon Hotel, in 1895 in the 600 
block of Salmon's Main Street. It became a landmark 
in Eastern Idaho. He also developed the Shenon Land 
and Livestock Company, and owned a large ranch near 
Baker. (This was later the Nielson Ranch, then Emmett 
Reese's Pine Creek Ranch, now Stephenson Hereford 
Ranch.) Shenon also had Shenon Implement and Hard- 
ware Business. 

Minnie McKinney was the only daughter of John and 
Mary McKinney who had five sons. Minnie came to 
Salmon in 1893 to visit her brother Peter McKinney. 
She met Philip Shenon and became his secretary and 
accountant. In 1894 they were married and to this 
union three sons were born, Kenneth, Philip J. and 

Phil Shenon died in 1902, only eight years after his 
marriage . His death was a blow to the entire com- 
munity. Minnie married Dr. W. B. Hart in 1916. 

Shenon Hotel, 
S.nlnion, Idaho. 



"'^ 1 ■BhHhI EnJ^J 


Shenon Implement Company in the Shenon Building. 

Tragedy struck this fine family again in 1926 when 
Kenneth Shenon died at age twenty-eight from appen- 
dicitis. Kenneth was born at the Shenon Ranch at Bak- 
er, educated in Salmon schools and then attended the 
University of California in Berkeley. He was bright, am- 
bitious, industrious, honest, and possessed a most kind 
and obliging disposition, ever mindful of the happiness 
and well- being of those about him. Everybody liked 
Kenneth, whose life was full of promise. He was one 
of the best boys ever raised in Salmon. The entire com- 

munity shared the pall of sadness that the Shenon and 
McKinney families felt with his death. 

Dr. Hart died in 1929 and Minnie McKinney Shenon 
Hart died July 29, 1957 in Berkeley, California. Since 
1946 she had divided her time between Salt Lake City 
and Berkeley to be with her two sons and their families. 
No Shenons live in Lemhi County at this time. But the 
Shenon name still stands tall on top of the old Hotel 
Building and faces out towards the Pope-Shenon mine, 
located across the valley above the Salmon Airport. 

/^' C. Hudlow, 


Paper hanj^ing and iiard 
oil finishing a specialty. 

SALMON. Idaii... 

A. W. Pattison, 

Calls attended t" 


dav or ni"lit. 

Residence of)- 
positc 1 O O F hali. 


Main street 


In the late 1800's this was what is now 
the 600 block on the north side of Main 
Street, with the new Shenon Building 
at the left. In the background note the 
bellfry of the old Methodist Church, at 
the corner of Main and Church Streets. 


by Lyie Longhurst 

South on Highway 28, over Gilmore Summit is the 
Birch Creek Valley. In the latter part of the nineteenth 
and early part of the twentieth centuries, the Birch 
Creek Valley was a booming area. Estimates vary, to 
as high as five thousand people at one time in the 
valley, most of them working in the mining Industry, 
although there was considerable ranching going on 
along Birch Creek at that time. 

Lead was discovered, accidentally, in the valley in 
1881. A young man by the name of William McKay was 
working as a stock tender for the Gilmer and Salsbury 
stage lines at their Willow Creek station. One day he 
was hunting for horses that that had wandered off, up 
in the Beaverhead Mountains overlooking the upper 
end of Birch Creek. While resting on the upturned roots 
of a fallen tree, he noticed some peculiar looking rock 
clinging to the roots. McKay picked some up and was 
surprised to find it to be very heavy. He continued on 
his search for the lost horses and forgot about the ore 
he had found. 

A few months later, McKay was at Hailey, watching 
ore being loaded into railroad cars for shipment to Salt 
Lake. Suddenly he noticed that the ore looked like what 
he had seen clinging to the roots of that tree. He asked, 
"What kind of ore is that?" The answer, "Lead!" 

Young McKay found a partner, headed back to Birch 
Creek, found the fallen tree, and filed a few claims. The 
mine was called "Viola" in honor of his girl friend, who 
later married another fella. McKay and his partner ob- 
tained financing and began digging. They ran out of ore 
at the six foot level. Discouraged, and thinking they 
had reached the end of the vein they offered to sell 
the claims for six thousand dollars cash. Captain Charles 
B. Rustin took them up on their offer. 

Rustun spent seventeen thousand developing the Vi- 
ola, then sold it to the La Plata Mining and Smelting 
Company of Leadville, Colorado for a hundred and sev- 


^ ^'^Vw: 

enteen thousand, a neat profit. This company organ- 
ized the Viola Mining and Smelting Company. 

For a time the Viola produced twenty-five percent of 
the lead being mined in the United States. The town 
of Nicholia was a bustling town of three to four thou- 
sand people. A mill was built in order to mill the ore 
before shipment to the railroad near Dubois. Charcoal 
was needed for the mill, but little timber grew on the 
east side of the valley where the mine was. The timber 
was on the west side, and that is where the charcoal 
kilns were built. From there the charcoal was hauled 
to the mill by team and wagon. Three of the charcoal 
kilns still stand today and are just a short drive off of 
Highway 28. 

The Viola mine changed hands two or three times 
while in operation. Prior to the arrival of the railroad 
in Gilmore the ore was hauled by teams to the railroad. 
For a short time a steam powered train was used to 
haul ore, but it proved to hard to maintain under the 
extremely dusty conditions of the roads at that time. 

♦ M 

The charcoal kilns when the mine was in operation. Stacks of 
wood can be seen behind the ovens. 



Power house, hoist, and ore bucket at top of the main shaft of 
the Viola mine, shortly before the mine ceased operations in 1926. 

The charcoal kilns as they appear today 


In addition to Nicholia, there was another mining 
town, Hahn, on the west side of the valley. For a few 
years a mill and smelter were in operation there. There 
were several mines in that area; lead, gold, and silver. 
There was also the community of Kaufman, located a 
bit north of Lone Pine where the road crosses Birch 
Creek. North of Kaufman, about a mile, was another 
community called Reno. 

Mining was a dangerous occupation in those days. 
There are no records of the number of men that died 
of lead poisoning from working in the Viola mine, but 
there were many. 

There were many people in the Birch Creek valley 
when the Viola was operating at its peak, but today 
there are only a handful. Nicholia is no more. Reno and 
Kaufman are but a memory. The Viola mine has not 
produced any lead for years, and the charcoal ovens 
have not been hot for ages. There are three or four 
ranches in the Birch Creek valley and a small com- 
munity at Blue Dome and Lone Pine. 

There have been many great changes in Lemhi Coun- 
ty since the boom days of Nicholia and Gilmore. 

Main Street, Nicholia, in the 1880's. 

The Lemtii 
Realty Company 

Real Estate 
Security Bonds 
Abstracts of Title 

P. J. DEMPSEY, M^r. 

Op«ra Hous« Block 
Salmon - - - ldabo> 

filed before 1900 

compiled by Patsy Stokes and committee 


Agnew, Milton 

Beatty, Elwood T. 
Beckenbaugh, Peter. 
Belcher, Byron 
Blackburn, Samuel E. 
Burns, Edward 

Carney, Patrick 

Cates, Charles 

Catey, Charles B 

Colvin, Jerome 

Conation, Patrick 

Conrey, Charles 

Coy, Henry W 

Cronk, John C. 

Davis, Adolph 

Davis, Caleb 

Deriar, W. H 

Douglas, William N. 

Duray, John H 

Freeman, James H. 

French, Joseph S 

Green, Albert 
Gross, Otto B 

























Guinan, Mark D. 

Hagenbort, Frank 

Haley, Warren 

Halstead, Louis 

Hart, A. S. 

Hawthorne, Agnes E 

Hayden, James 

Helen, Warren A 

Hewlett, R. G. 

Heywood, Henry W 

Highfill, John C. 

Hines (Hynes), Richard., 

Holbrook, John L. 

Horn, Sarah A 

Hull, John 

James, Samuel M 

Jarvis, Joseph M. 

Jewell, Isaac P 

Kamp, Christian Teoder 

Kirtchner, Robert 

Lamont, David 

Largey, Patrick A 

Laughlin, Joseph 

Lee, John C 


























Ludeman, Willaim 

Martin, Cynthia 

Mayfield, Alexander A. 

McCaleb, Jessie (Jesse) 

McClain. W. W. 

McDaniels, Martin 

McElheny, James 

McGarvey, Thomas 

McGuire, Andrew 

McNevin, William 

Means, John A. 

Merritt, Henry C 

Miller, John 

Miller, Joseph B 

Mills, Charles 

Moore, Robert L 

Mulkey, Elijah 

Murphy, Bat 

Murphy, Dennis 

Murray, John 

Musgrove, Elihu 

Nasholds, Egbert 

Neumayer, Joseph 

Nevill, W. H 

Noteware, Asa B. 

Okerlund, E. G 

Ostrander, Mary J. 

Perow, John 

Pope, Harry 

Potts, Daniel M 

Ramey, John S. 

Reed, George 

Revoredo, Diego A. 

Schrader, Myron 

Shaver, George G. 

Sherman, D. V 

Silvey, Samuel 

Simmons, James 

Smith, F. 0. 

Smith, George H 

Smith, William 

Snyder, Andrew 

Spahn, Michael 0. 

Steel, E. J 

Steel, John 

Tingley, Ira 

Tracey, Wallace 

VanSkiver, Andrew Jackson 

Walker, A. D. 

Wallace, William 

Wheeler, Henry 

Williams, Margaret 

Williams, Murray 

Williams, Richard 

Wills, Christopher' 

Windover, Charles W 

Wiseman, Fred J. 

Wolcott, Ella E 










?? Feb 1894 

















































Wood, Charles A. 
Woodard, Joseph N. 
Wright, Joseph 

Yaw, William 

Yearian, George 

Yearian, J. B 

Zeller, Henry 
Zumbrum, Cyrus L. 










by Joseph E. Hoy 

Lemhi Valley and the surrounding area is a treasure 
trove of visible geological activity, past and present. 
Unlike so much of the earth, most of the coverings 
have been removed. Before the Continental Divide was 
formed, formations were layers of sediment. When lay- 
ers were buried thousands of feet down, heat from the 
earth's core, combined with pressure and subterra- 
nean movement, metamorphosed the sediment into 
varied types of rock. Now, eons later, these layers are 
now exposed to view. For example, the sandstone bluffs 
across the river, running toward Carmen, in which leaf 
(elm?) impressions can be found. This formation was 
formed under moderate conditions, whereas the slabs 
of rock at the mouth of the Pahsimeroi received ex- 
treme pressure and heat, resulting in part of the ma- 
terial becoming mica. Grandview Canyon, south of 
Challis, was formed from boggy ground. The darker 
strata contains much vegetable matter. 

This valley has filled and emptied many times; once 
so thoroughly that traces of sediment remain in the 
Kirtley Creek area that haven't been found elsewhere 
in the valley. Formation of the Great Divide and sub- 
sequent block-faulting (such as just occurred in the 
Mount Borah upthrust) are probably responsible for 
the initial forming of the valley. The meandering of the 
river over the filled valley helps explain why wash- 
boulders are found most everywhere. It is conjectured 
that the Salmon once flowed out Tower Creek, and 
emptied into Hudson's Bay. 

Petrified wood indicates tropical conditions existed, 
probably before formation of the Divide changed 
weather conditions. Glacial times are evident in the 
necklace of cirques along the divide, as well as the 
humps of terminal moraine along the highway beyond 
Gilmore. The massive Challis lava flow, which stopped 
at the southern end of the valley, created a temporary 
change in the valley by creating a lake. 

Stratifications seen are synclines, anticlines, folds, 
and on edge. Inclusions such as the white quartz vein- 
ing, some with offsets due to massive displacement, 
are commonplace below Pine Creek. 

1874 - Al Jinegar opened the first barber shop in a dobe house at the 
northeast corner of Main and St. Charles Streets. 


-i*i^. ..^ 

THE INDIAN AGENCY SCHOOL ■ HAYDEN CREEK. Top row: A. C. Porter (school superintendant), Irene Porter (daughter), Mrs. Porter, Will 
Kadletz, Bob Stalker, Ben Taylor. Bottom row: Mrs. Sarah Slater, Frank Baer, J. M. Needham (agent). Belle Carr, Dr. Whitwell. 

This postcard says, "The Stage Mother (Josi Petrowski) and we came to Idaho in - 1886 - from Minn' 


1 886 - Mrs. E. Nahsolds of this city has received at their Emporium 
of Fashion, an elegant stock of milinary goods direct from Paris. The 
stock consists of ladies hats, caps amd hoods of all kinds, merino 
underwear, hosiery, corsets, an elegant assortment of fancy ribbons and 
a thousand and one other unmentionable articles. 

1892 - It is reported on good authority that there are no less than 
seventy-five cases of la grippe in the city at present. 

1887 - A few days ago we purchased about forty feet of rope and used 
It to make a more secure picket fence by lashing a wagon box to it on 
the mside. Some thief has appropriated it to his own use. He is entirely 
welcome to the same if he will but hang himself with it. 

1 89 1 - W. H. Andrews has opened a general merchandising establish- 
ment — His terms are strictly cash. He says he has no pen or pencil 
and never learned to write. 

The U S Mail arrived daily by stage in the late 1890's. Here the Stage rounds the corner at the 
Shenon Hotel on Main and Andrews Streets. 

r • 

The Redrock and Salmon Stage line stops at Midway Station in this photo at about the turn of the 



Ed Lyon in 1886, handsome youngster of mystery, was turned into a scar-faced 
avenger by gunmen who killed his only friend Red Magee, with whom he had staked 
gold claims at Dynamo Camp. Information and photo courtesy of Ethel kimbell and 
Frank Rood. 

"Queen of the J{!i!s" JY!ine, near Sa/mon. Idaho. 




Mrs. Yearian, Mrs. John Snook. Back: Mrs. E. S. Edwards, Mrs. Spahn, Mrs. George 
L. Shoup, Mrs. Pattee. 



■i':A^* ' 

♦* ^*ff^ 








/-^^r^l^ ^ 




THE BOOMER CAMP - 1893 - near the head 
of Kirtley Creek. H. H. Boomer was an early 
day construction contractor who tried, large- 
ly in vain, to ditch water around almost per- 
pendicular slopes from upper Carmen Creek 
to Kirtley Creek for placer mining ventures. 
Photo courtesy of Rose Bolton 

.^drews Hot Springs. 

M MffiEEAL imEl in Ihe Til 

Situated in the Mountains at an 
Elevation of 6,ooo feet, about 
6 miles from Salmon Cit>'. . 


Invalids suSering from Rneuma- 

tism or Diseases of the Blood 

Will Find a Sure Cure in 

Bathing in Tncsc 



|T. ICAjidiews, Propr. 

Charles Washington Cockrell came to Lemhi 
County as a freighter after the Civil War and 
'' homesteaded a ranch on what is now High- 
•SeV* way 28 near the City Park. 








I nl^M 

I ■'i 


They came long ago 

Shoshone braves in picture at Fort Hall about 1870. Note otter 
hides with mirrors, on right. 

Photo courtesy of Jed Wilson 

Two Lemhis are pictured in full dress regalia in this early day Chief Tendoy of the Lemhis in full ceremonial dress including 
photo taken at Salmon, Idaho. the ceremonial pipe. 

Photo courtesy of Jed Wilson photo courtesy of Heye Foundation 



by Fred Snook, Jed Wilson and Teri Wilson Dinnell 

The predominant band of Indians in Lemhi County 
History were appropriately named, the Lemhi Band. 
This group lived along the Lemhi River for generations 
before Lewis and Clark arrived in 1805. This feature 
displays a wide variety of the history and lifestyles of 
this band of Indians whose peacefulness made the set- 
tling of Lemhi County by the white man possible. 

Familiar Indian names are Sacajawea, Cameahwaite, 
Chief Snag, Buttermilk Jim, Willie George, Crow Old 
Man, Chicken Nose and many others; but the Indian 
who did the most to shape the history of Lemhi County 
Is Chief Tendoy. 

Chief Tendoy, also known as Tin Doi, was one of the 
most respected and honored of Idaho Indians. He was 
born in the Boise River Valley about 1834. Tendoy was 
the nephew of Snag, who was the chief of the Lemhis 
when the Mormons settled at Fort Lemhi. Tendoy was 
also related to Cameahwait, chief of the Shoshones 
when Lewis and Clark entered Idaho in 1805. 

Chief Snag was killed by the notorious highwayman. 
Buck Stinson of the Plummer Gang of Bannock, who 
was later hung by vigilantes in 1863 near Bannock, 
Montana. Stinson shot Chief Snag, while Snag was 
bathing in Grasshopper Creek, just to add another notch 
to his gun. Other accounts say that Stinson shot Snag 
and two other Indians as they were peaceably sitting 
on the street in Bannock. In any case, Tendoy pre- 
vented the Indians from taking the warpath upon the 
white settlers and became Chief of the Lemhis. Many 
people referred to the Lemhis as "Tendoy's Band". 

Later, in both the Nez Perce and Bannock Indian 
Wars, Tendoy refused to join the hostile Indians and 
remained at peace. Tendoy's friendship for the whites 
saved many lives of Idaho settlers. In about 1880, Chief 
Tendoy went to Washington, D. C. to meet with the 
Federal Government about treaty relations with the 
Lemhis and about a reservation. In appreciation, the 
U.S. Government granted Tendoy a pension of $15.00 
per month which he received for about the last ten 
years of his life. 

Tendoy travelled with members of his band through- 
out the region. The band was always destitute and with- 
out food. They frequently went to the Yellowstone Park 
area and throughout southwestern Montana. The Gov- 
ernment continued its efforts to close the Lemhi Res- 
ervation and move the Lemhis to Fort Hall. ( The first 
time Tendoy met with the three commissioners from 
the Indian Service in 1873 the officials tried to get him 
to agree to move his tribe to the Fort Hall Reservation.) 

LEFT: Lemhi Indian Council in Salmon about 1900, at Island 
Park. John Tyler, Johnson Keni-botts, Frank Wahtomy, Jack 
Grouse aka Queena Moby (Chicken Nose). He was Fannie Silver's 
uncle and a champion wrestler. 

Photo courtesy of Jed Wilson 

Chief Tendoy was well known by many influential 
white men. Tendoy liked to play poker and was con- 
sidered an excellent card player. He had a likeable per- 
sonality and enjoyed life even while he struggled against 
insurmountable obstacles. Chief Tendoy is quoted as 
saying, "Life is hard," and life was very hard for his 
band of Indians. 

The number of Indians in the Lemhi Tribe varied. 
Government reports list different numbers over the 
thirty plus years of the reservation; from a high of 1 ,200 
to a low of 474, in 1907. 

Chief Tendoy's third wife, Ta Gwah Wee, in dress ornamented 
with elk's teeth. 

Chief Tendoy died May 10, 1907, at age 73 near the 
Narrows on Agency Creek. There are many versions of 
how he died. Some say he was murdered, others that 
he was drunk and fell while bathing in Agency Creek 
then drowned, others that he was drunk and fell from 
his horse into Agency Creek, others that he may have 
suffered a heart attack and died of old age and a broken 
heart, as his band was just beginning the final move to 
Fort Hall. In Salmon the Idaho Recorder of May 16, 


1907 reported that on May 9 Chief Tendoy, his son 
Toopompey, and a white man, Joseph Jeffries were up 
Agency Creek, and that the two Indians were given 
whiskey. Toopompy left Chief Tendoy near the Nar- 
rows commenting, 'Tin Doi tough, he come in all right". 
A search party found the Chief's body beside Agency 
Creek near the Narrows. 

The same newspaper editorialized, "While the clos- 
ing chapter of his career was not what his white friends 
and admirers would have it, yet it does not lessen their 
regard for his nobleness of character, his life-long 
friendship for his white brother. He died as a victim of 
his inordinate longing for the white man's broth of hell. 
As he has seen his tribe dwindle away as a result of 
the avarice of the whites, so can his death be attributed 
to the avarice of his white brother." 

His funeral services were held near Tendoy. Most of 
the white settlers in the Lemhi Valley attended. Chief 
Tendoy was sitting upright and his friends filed by, 
shaking hands with the old friend. After the public fu- 
neral, an Indian burial was held. Chief Tendoy was bur- 
ied on the hillside at the base of the mountains a short 
distance south of Agency Creek. His resting spot is just 
above the old Indian racetrack which is now productive 

farm ground. A monument was paid for and erected 
by his white friends. The monument of native sand- 
stone reads: 

Chief Tendoy 

Died May 10, 1907, aged 73 years 

Erected by his White Friends 

Soon after Tendoy's death the Lemhi Reservation 
was closed and the Lemhis were placed on the Fort 
Hall Indian Reservation in June of 1907. 

The Lemhi Reservation was created by Executive Or- 
der of the President in 1875. The reservation was the 
smallest Indian reservation in the United States, one 
hundred square miles on the Lemhi River; so small that 
it was impossible for the Tendoy band to produce a 
living for the tribe. The reservation was located be- 
tween Tendoy and Lemhi, Idaho. Many present day 
names are related to the reservation. Napo Canyon, 
Agency Creek, the Post Office, store, school, and com- 
munity of Tendoy. 

The first years of the reservation were disrupted by 
the Nez Perce War of 1877, the Bannock War of 1878 
and the Sheepeater War of 1879. All three created 
resentment and distrust of Indians among the white 

The Indian delegation in Washington D. C. in 1880. BACK: Tihee, Agent W. H. Danilson, an interpreter. FRONT: Jack Tendoy, Captain Jim, 
Chief Tendoy, Grouse Pete, Jack Gibson, and Tissidimit. 

Photo courtesy Bureau of American Ethnology. 


Throughout the reservation history many hardships 
were endured by Tendoy's band. Many Indians died 
during the winters due to inadequate provisions. Four 
of Chief Tendoy's own children died within a two year 
period, including his fourteen year old daughter. Sev- 
eral times efforts to increase their government rations 
resulted in the rations being reduced the next year. 
(For a complete history of the Lemhi Reservation, see 
The Lemhi: Sacajawea's People, by Brigham D. Mad- 

When the reservation was closed the band trailed 
their way to Fort Hall, going in wagons with their live- 
stock and possessions. Many Lemhi Valley old-timers 
remembered the Indians leaving in their own "trail of 
tears" with much grieving and sorrow. One of those 
who made the trip to their new home, was Fannie Sil- 

FANNIE SILVER was born in 1897, the daughter of 
Charles and Grace Grouse Pandoah. She was born at 
Hayden Creek on the Lemhi Reservation. She had an 
older brother, Daniel and two younger sisters who died 
when young. 

When she was a young girl, she and three or four 
other Indian girls were sent to Fort Shaw, Montana 
where she learned to speak English. While she was at 
Fort Shaw in 1907, the band of Lemhis were moved 
off the reservation to the Fort Hall Reservation. 

After she returned to the family in Fort Hall the family 
would often return to the Lemhi country. She recalled 
leaving the Fort Hall Reservation with her family and 
others, traveling across the Arco dessert in wagons, 
down the Pahsimeroi Valley, crossing the Salmon Riv- 
er. They would leave the wagons and ride horses to 
Camas Creek, where they would spend the summer 
hunting and fishing. They would return to Fort Hall in 

Jack Tendoy, son of Chief Tendoy, 
accompanied his father to Washington in 1880. 
Photo courtesy Bureau of American Ethnology. 

the fall. 

Fannie's uncle was Jack Grouse, also known as 
Queena Moby (Chicken Nose). He was very strong and 
a good wrestler. He was very wealthy in horses, but 
when they moved to Fort Hall he left most of his horses 
in the Lemhi Valley. 

Fannie married Fred Fisher. Following his death she 
married Toenip Silver. Toenip wasthe son of Tom Silver 
and Beatle. Toenip and Fannie returned to live in Salm- 
on at the Indian Camp. They were some of the last 
people to occupy the camp on Highway 93 South ad- 
jacent to Bean Lane. 

Fannie had one son Archie, who predeceased her, a 
daughter Nessie Sheepskin and an adopted son, Jed 
Wilson. She enjoyed tanning hides and did beautiful 

Chief Tendoy's wife and Mabel Rand 

Early day Indian Camp on the bar beside Jesse Creek in Salmon. 

Photo courtesy of Jed Wilson 


Fannie silver and her adopted son, Jed Wilson, at Salmon River 
Days, 1981. 

Photo courtesy of Jed Wilson 

Toenip died in 1972 and Fannie lived alone at the 
camp. When Jed Wilson became Salmon City Chief of 
Police Fannie said, "Fannie's son is now Chief". 

Fannie died February 9, 1985 in Pocatello at age 
eighty- eight. Her adopted son, Jed Wilson, comment- 
ed, "Fannie had the courage to accept changes; and 
she saw many. I was awed by the way she faced the 
future and her trip through the Sand Hills, to a life 
which has no sorrow — a life of plenty." 

In the years after the Reservation closed many of 
the Lemhis would return to either the Lemhi Valley or 
to the Camas Creek area of the backcountry of Lemhi 
County to hunt and fish for salmon. On their return to 
Fort Hall, the Indians would sometimes trail up Hawley 
Creek and cross the Continental Divide near Teepee 
Mountain into the Montana Medicine Lodge Creek ar- 
ea. They would then go north, down the Medicine Lodge 
to Armstead, the current site of Clark Canyon Dam, 
then turn south through Dell, Lima and Monida Pass. 

V " r 

Friendly Indians cluster around the home 
of Colonel Shoup, a familiar sight in the 
early days of Salmon City. Colonel Shoup 
and his first son, William, are in the 
gateway, and Mrs. Shoup is in the 
background near the house, which was 
located on Main Street. 

Photo courtesy of George L. Shoup, 
grandson of Col. Shoup, and Ethel Kimball. 

Heading for Main Street is the title of this 
old time photo of a Lemhi squaw with her 
papoose walking down Center Street. The 
Brown Block building is in the background. 
Photo courtesy of Jed Wilson 


For Accidents or Sicknoi, for KJon- 
diVff, Trivel«r. R.\ncbtf or F.\nvily 

Price S5.55. M00Jll!O-CURr[ i [0., PoSU-t^ k- 


Jim and Roy Tendoy had small bands of about twenty 
adults plus children and would alternate years passing 
through the Medicine Lodge area on their return trip 
in the fall. Roy Tendoy died as a result of a beating 
from a railroad worker near Dell in the early 1930's 
and that was the last time the bands travelled through 
the Medicine Lodge. 

Some Indian families moved back to Salmon settling 
in the Indian Camp. Their children attended local 
schools. As time passed, most of this next generation, 
moved out of the Salmon area, leaving fewer and fewer 
of the Lemhis in Salmon. Here is an example of one 
family that returned to Salmon. 

ZUNI WHITE BEAR NAVO. She was born in 1886 in the 
Pocatello area, the daughter of White Bear and May 
Hammer, members of the Shoshone- Bannock tribe. 
She was the only girl in a family of three boys. Yellow 
Bear, Spotted Bear and Young White Bear. Zuni mar- 
ried Charlie Navo about 1910. They made their home 
in Fort Hall where they had a farm. Her husband died 
in 1934 at Licking Creek on the Reservation. 

Zuni and her family came to Salmon about 1940. 
She was a good story teller and family and friends de- 
lighted in listening to her tell stories and legends of the 
old days. 

Zuni passed away in Salmon at age eighty-seven on 
January 17, 1973. She was survived by her children 
Camille George, Lilie Sawyer, Alfred Navo, Richard Na- 
vo and Bill Navo. All of her family have since moved 
from the Salmon area. 

Another Lemhi tribe member, Cora George recalls, 
the Lemhis called themselves Sheepeaters, Salmonea- 
ters or Meateaters, depending on how they chose to 
get their food. The local Indians often crossed the Con- 
tinental Divide into Montana to hunt buffalo. 

Cora George married Willie George Senior. Willie 
George, also known as Running Bear, was born on the 
Fort Hall Reservation about 1888. His father was 
Breechcloth, widely known as Billie George. His mother 
was Weeto Watsi. 

Zuni Navo, with Irene Nappo Arriwite. She was Alfred Navo and 
Camile George's mother. Photo taken in 1943 at Indian Camp in 

Photo courtesy of Jed Wilson. 

Willie George in a photo taken while he was with "The Wild West 

Photo courtesy of Jed Wilson 

Willie attended schools on the Reservation and was 
one of the first students of the old "mud house" school 
located at Lincoln Creek. Horses were always his great- 
est love and he took part in many wild horse roundups 
on the reservation as a boy. 

At age seventeen he joined the Miller Brothers' 101 
Ranch Wild West Show as a horse wrangler. He was 
soon performing as a bronc rider, and played parts in 
the Indians' attack of the Wagon Train. He learned trick 


roping and performed in the arena as a trick and fancy 
roper. A nine-horse running catch was his special trick. 

He acted in Hollywood. The movie "Covered Wagon" 
was the most prominent movie that he appeared in. 
He was a movie stunt man and during his career worked 
with such celebrities as Buffalo Bill, Will Rogers, and 
Tom Mix. 

Willie traveled throughout the United States and 
Canada and in Europe. During World War I, he returned 
to Idaho at his father's request. His father was con- 
cerned that Willie's entry into the Army would violate 
the tribe's promise in their treaty not to bear arms in 

Willie married Emma Tendoy, granddaughter of Chief 
Tendoy, in 1918. Emma died and Willie then married 
Cora Pegoga in Logan, Utah, on January 20, 1939. 

Willie was very proud of his Indian heritage and con- 
tinued to wear his hair in braids until his death. He 
became very influential in Indian affairs and served in 
numerous positions. He helped establish Idaho Indian 
Day, which was the last Friday in September. Willie and 
Cora were paid a high honor in 1968 when they were 
chosen to serve as Grand Marshals for the Eastern 
Idaho State Fair in Blackfoot. 

Willie had seven children. The most well known in 
Lemhi County was his son, Wilford George, also known 
as Willie George. 

Willie George Sr. died on January 1, 1971, age eighty- 
three, at the Fort Hall Indian Reservation. 

Willie George shown in a Wild Horse Race at Blackfoot State Fair. 

Willie George is shown here with Buffalo Bill and "The Wild West 
Show". Willie is in the front row, left, and Buffalo Bill, front row, 

Photo courtesy of Jed Wilson 




Photo courtesy of Ethel Kimnball. 


Buffalo Bill on horse, talks to Willie George, middle front with 
arms crossed. This is one of several pictures he had sewn to a 
length of cloth, making reproduction difficult. 

Photo courtesy of Ethel Kimball. 



Last of the Chiefs: Chief Running Bear (Willie George), shown in 
1969 at Fort Hall. 

Photograph by Jed Wilson 

WILLIE GEORGE JUNIOR: The best known Lemhi 
Indian in the past forty years was Willie George, Jr. 
He was the son of Willie George Sr. and Emma 
George. Emma was the daughter of TooPompy, a 
son of Chief Tendoy. Willie came to Salmon from 
Fort Hall in 1955. He worked as a guide and packer 
and also worked for several ranchers. In those days, 
many ranchers would give the Indians summertime 
jobs. Willie remembered the oldtimers in the 
Pahsimeroi Valley, who would help the Indians by 
giving them a job. 

Willie served in the Navy from 1943 to 1946 in the 
Pacific Theater and received the Bronze Star Medal 
for valor. He served aboard an Aircraft Carrier and 
shot down a Japanese suicide plane. Following his 
discharge from the Navy he served in the Army from 
1946 to 1949. 

Willie was a showman and loved to participate in 
Indian ceremonies, fairs and parades. He also liked 
to participate in Indian traditional dances. 


He and his wife, Camille Navo, raised a fine family 
who were very committed to preserving their 
traditional Indian heritage including their Indian 
language. Willie would often say, "I'm a Lemhi 
Indian. I am the great grandson of Chief Tendoy, the 
son of Willie George, a descendent of Sacajawea, the 

Willie George had unmeasured talent and ability 
but he also had weakness. He had developed a 
drinking problem that began in his service days. With 
his natural charm, he was a social mixer among 
people and that often put him into contact with 
alcohol. Willie died February 2, 1981, age 56, on the 
Fort Hall Indian Reservation, freezing to death a 
short distance from his home, a victim of 
alcoholism. His passing was the final break in the link 
between the Lemhi Indians and Lemhi County. 

Today all of the Indian people have moved from 
Lemhi County. The old Indian camp, located on an 
acre of ground owned by the late Howard Sims, near 
Highway 93 South, is being developed into a 

waterfowl, wetland park area. The Lemhis are no 
more a physical presence in their beautiful valley, 
but it is still the home of the spirit of Chief Tendoy 
and many other members of the Lemhis who are 
buried on the sloping hills near Tendoy, Idaho. 
Editor's comment: Former Salmon Chief of Police, 
Jed Wilson has many spent years collecting Lemhi 
Indian information, and is the adopted son of Lemhi 
Indian tribe member Fannie Silver. Fred Snook's 
grand-uncle, Charley Snook, and Fred's grandad, 
John W. Snook, grew up beside the reservation in 
the 1880's. Both men spoke Shoshone and always 
had deep respect for Chief Tendoy. Charley was 
extremely fluent in Shoshone and spent much time 
with his Indian friends. Charley and John were 
always considered good friends by the local Indians. 
Fred Snook undertook this article, out of his respect 
for his forefathers' respect and friendship for the 
Lemhis. Jed Wilson supplied many photos and much 
of the individual family histories used in the article. 

Willie George Jr. was well known to his Salmon 
friends. He is shown at Fort Hall, August 1980. 

Photo courtesy of Jed Wilson 

"Crow Old Man" of the Lemhis, was the Indian name 
of Ben Ariwite, father of Bill, Coburn, Leo, Sadie, 
Elvina, and Lillian Ariwite. 

Photo courtesy of Jed Wilson 

Right: Lewis and Clark Medallion that was give to 
Chief Cameahwaite in August 1805. It has been 
passed down over the past 180 years and is now in 
possession of Jed Wilson. 

Jed Wilson photo 


The abondoned Indian Camp on Highway 93 South and Bean lane at Salmon 


Lewis and Clark brought with them two dozen 
Peace and Friendship Medallions which they 
distributed to Indians during their expedition 
throughout the West. Six of these Medallions had 
been recovered as of 1964. The Medallion bears the 
likeness of Thomas Jefferson, who, as President, 
authorized the Expedition to explore the Louisiana 

Purchase. One medallion is in a vault at Washington 
State University and one is now in possession of 
former Salmon Chief of Police, Jed Wilson. Lewis and 
Clark gave at least one of the Medallion's to Chief 
Cameahwaite. That Medallion was passed down from 
Chief to Chief. 

Reverse side of the same medallion. 

Jed Wilson photo 



by Jed Wilson 

The old Indian people believed taking photographs 
of them would take their spirit away. I used to ask an 
old lady, Elmira Beaversack, if I could take her picture, 
but she always refused. After the death of a family 
member, though, the sons or daughters would ask me 
to come and take pictures of the dead, dressed in their 
burial finery. 

Joe Mink of Fort Hall used to come to Salmon to visit 

his relatives at the Indian Camp. He was in his late 

seventies, but had hardly a wrinkle. I asked him about 

this, and he said he always washed his face in cold 

water. ^ , 

Cedar needles on the fire, or on top of the stove, 

will purify the air, and keep evil spirits away, and allow 

you to sleep well, and have good dreams. 

The old ones had the gift of knowing when something 
was going to happen. In 1983, one Sunday morning I 
decided, on the spur of the moment, to go to Fort Hall 
to see my Indian Mother, Fannie Silver. Her health 
wasn't very good. She had to walk with a walker, and 
Rosetta Eagle, who lived next door, would come over 
each morning and help Fannie out of bed. When I walked 
in, I asked Fannie if she was surprised to see me. She 
said, "No, I knew you would be here today." Later, I 
asked Rosetta about this, and she said, "Yes, that was 
the first thing Fannie said this morning when she opened 
her eyes — that her son would be here today." A few 
weeks later I went to Fort Hall again and asked her if 
she had expected me that day. She replied, "No, I 
thought you would be here yesterday." She had missed 
it by a day, but she always knew when to expect me. 

In 1985 I decided to go see Fannie, who was now in 
a nursing home, before I went to the gun show in Las 
Vegas. When I got ready to leave, she said she wouldn't 
be here when I came back. I thought she was joking, 
laughed and asked, "What are you going to do, run 
away?" She answered that she was going to Salmon. 
When I got back from the gun show, I received a call 
telling me that she had passed away. She had been 
trying to tell me this when I saw her. I had always 
promised to see that she was buried in Salmon, next 
to her husband, Toenip. I had been keeping her burial 
clothes for her for fifteen years. She didn't trust any 
of her family with them. All their lives, the Indian people 
save the best raiment for their trip to the "Happy Hunt- 
ing Ground". Fannie had lovely Pendleton blankets and 
shawls, a beautiful, beaded belt, beaded high top moc- 
casins, and a pretty flowered dress that she had saved 
for this occasion, and had never worn. Fannie had a 
pair of burial moccasins, made for her by Martha War- 
jack, that she let me hang on the wall in my home. It 
was a standing joke for her to ask me if I would put 
them on her when she died. I would laugh and answer 
that they looked good on my wall. She knew I liked 
them, and one day, she gave them to me. She had 
already had another pair made for her burial. 

I was asked to take pictures at the funeral of Hattie 
Ariwite. She was one who didn't want her picture taken 
while she was alive. At the end of the funeral, everyone 
was going by the casket and bidding her farewell. I was 
standing back, having taken the requested pictures. 
One of her sons called to me, "You were her friend. 
Come and tell her goodbye." I did so, then her son, 
Leo, arranged the Pendleton blankets a certain way, 
and before the casket was closed, he lay a rose branch 
on top of the blankets. Placed this way, a rose thorn 
branch on a body being buried will keep evil spirits 
away. The funeral director waited for everyone to leave, 
so he could finish his work, but they stayed on. He 
finally asked if they would like to see the casket low- 
ered. They nodded, "Yes," and afterward, still sat there. 
Finally the flustered undertaker motioned for the dump 
truck to come, and after a load of dirt was dumped on 
the casket, the mourners were ready to leave. They 
have seen too many Indian graves desecrated by the 
white man, and were taking no chances with this burial. 

Willie George Jr. was a friend for many years. When 
his daughter, Emma Lou, was born in the winter time, 
Willie told me that to do it right, so that the baby would 
be strong and not be lazy throughout its life, the father 
should run for a time, with no clothes on, then jump 
in a creek, or the river. Willie said, jokingly, that he 
wasn't a very good Indian, and perhaps he would just 
take a white man's bath instead, since it was so cold. 

Smoke cleanses bad spirits off a person or an object, 
such as an arrowhead, or a brave, before going hunting 
or to war. Also it takes the man scent away. This could 
also tie in with the pine needles on the fire. I was also 
told that catching some of the smoke in a bag and 
releasing it in your place of work will also cleanse the 
area of bad spirits. Sagebrush tea is used to treat a 
cold or to pack around wounds, and the sage that grows 
in the mountains is a healing substance. It is used in 
their most sacred ceremony, the Sun Dance. 

Grouse or sage hen entrails packed around a wound 
will draw out the infection. I can remember my Grand- 
mother making poultices of substances, such as soap, 
for the same purpose. Tee-um-bump is believed to 
be a cure for venereal diseases. (This is a lichen that 
grows on the rocks at high altitudes, and can be made 
into a tea.) Many years ago, I was helping some of the 
Indians digging bitterroots, and I noticed Fannie picking 
these lichens, and she told me what they were for. I 
laughed, and said, "Why are (you) gathering them?" 
She told me that when a person gets old, if brewed in 
a tea, it will bring back one's strength. Later, when 
Fannie was in the nursing home, she would have me 
gather it for her, and a lady at the nursing home made 
a tea out of it for her to drink. 

If a person drinks badger blood when they are young, 
they will have good health and live a long life. 


Headaches are relieved by cutting the scalp with a 
sharp implement such as obsidian, flint, glass, even 
sack needles, and now they use razor blades to punc- 
ture the skin near the hairline in three or four places 
to allow the blood to flow and relieve the pressure from 
the bad blood causing the headache. I have seen this 
procedure performed. 

It is bad medicine to have a woman around when 
she is having her menstrual period. When I was young, 
every Indian home had a "moon house" (a small cabin 
just big enough for a bed and a stove) where the wom- 
en in the family would stay once a month. Now, on the 
reservation, only a few "moon houses" still exist. 

Years ago I shot a steelhead fish and took it to my 
Indian mother, Fannie Silver. The Lemhis are known 
as "aqua dika", or fish eaters. All Fannie wanted was 
the head, as this was a great delicacy, eyes and all. 
The fish entrails were used to make soup for the pa- 

The old Indians are the only ones left who head for 
the mountains about the first week in May, when the 
bitterroot plant first comes up and before it blooms, 
to search for the plants. They would come to Salmon 
from the reservation, and I would take Fannie Silver, 
Cora George, Lily Weenee, Phoebe Ponzo, and Agnes 
Gould and her family up into the foothills where the 

bitterroots grew. They used to use an elk antler to lift 
the roots out of the ground. They called the implement 
a "burrow", which means, root in the ground. In later 
years they used tire irons to dig with. They put the 
roots in a bag. When they got through digging for the 
day, they would take them back to the camp and slip 
the bark from the roots with their fingers, and lay the 
roots out to dry in the sun. These would keep indefi- 
nitely, and be used in stews, and even as medicine for 
diabetes. The bitterroot is well named. It is extremely 
bitter, and the younger Indians don't care for them. 

Peeled roots of the Bitterroot. These were dug in early may and 
peeled. Dried in the sun, they would keep indefinitely, and were 
used as food. 

Photo taken in 1973 by Jed Wilson 

» i - ». c 

^.'. ■:> 

Digging and peeling Bitterroot. Cora George, one of the last of the Lemhi's who lived on the Lemhi Reservation. She always remembered 
the move to Fort Hall which she endured as a small child. 

Photo taken in 1973 by Jed Wilson 


When I was a boy living at Meyers Cove, I used to 
see the Indian graves in the slide rock. It was easy to 
bury their dead in the slide rock where the animals 
couldn't dig them up. Often, there were horse bones 
on the grave, where a favorite horse was killed to trans- 
port the dead on through the sand hills to the "Happy 
Hunting Grounds". 

In September, the Indians gather chokecherries. They 
pound the chokecherries and seeds to a pulp, then 
form them into a patty and dry them in the sun. These 
patties are called "tom-a-num". When completely dry, 
they will keep indefinitely. Whenever they want to use 
them, they put them in warm water, they swell up and 
are ready to eat. As with the bitterroot, the choke- 
cherry is well named. Those unused to them would find 
them difficult to consume, unless a lot of sugar was 
added and they were made into jelly or syrup. 

A medicine the Indians use for the "bad sickness", 
cancer, is the chaparral bush. It grows up in the rim- 
rocks, and the deer browse on it in the winter. They 
use the bark and leaves to make a tea, which they 
drink. In the last few years, I have heard on the news 
that scientists were experimenting with the chaparral 
bush, thinking it might contain a cure for cancer. 

Austin and Agnes Gould were good friends. I first met 
them in early May, 1973. I was working for the sheriff's 
office at the time and had taken Fannie Silver and Cora 
George up Perreau Creek to dig bitterroots. While we 
were there, Austin, Agnes, and Agnes' mother, Phoebe 
Ponzo, came to dig bitterroots. They showed me some 
of their beadwork they had brought to sell. I particu- 
larly liked a belt buckle Phoebe had beaded, and tried 
to buy it, but she didn't want to sell it. When I left, I 
jokingly told her if she changed her mind, to bring it 
up to the sheriff's office and I would trade her a driver's 
license for it. Before the month was over, she came 
to the office with the belt buckle, wanting a driver's 
license. I got the forms, and she asked me to fill them 
out for her. She knew she was born in the spring of 
1907, while the Indians were being moved from Fort 
Lemhi to Fort Hall, at a place on Birch Creek called 
Tin-navo by the Indians, which means writing on the 
rocks. There was a lot of writing, as the Indians had 
for years camped there while going back and forth be- 
tween the Lemhi Valley and the Snake River Valley. 
Her parents named her Tin-navo, since that was where 
she was born. However, she didn't know the exact 
month or date. I told her I would give her my birthday. 
May 4, as it had always been a good day for me. She 
was very pleased by this, and later told others that she 
was a twin to me. At that time the Indians called me 
"ditta-cony-divo", which means "law-man". Now they 
call me "Lemhi Numa Divo", which mean "Lemhi half 
breed". It is an honorable name, since the Lemhi In- 
dians have been my friends since the I940's. I am proud 
to be considered one of "theirs", even if only half. Not 
long ago, I was told by an old one that I surely kept 
good track of the Indians. 

"Ditta-cony-divo" (Law Man) is the Indian name given to 

former Salmon Chief of Police, Jed Wilson, pictured here in 

full Indian dress. Note Lewis and Clark Medallion. 

Photo courtesy of Jed Wilson 

Agnes, Austin, and Phoebe became my good friends. 
Every time I visited Fort Hall, I would stop and see 
them, and when they came to Salmon, they would come 
to see me. Austin was a singer at all the pow-wows. 
They made me several items used in their sacred cer- 
emonies. On one visit, Austin looked very thin and un- 
well. Agnes told me he had diabetes. I suggested they 
take him to a specialist. The specialist found a brain 
tumor. It wasn't long before he was in the hospital. He 
never came home. Toward the last, he called all his 
children around him and gave them a blessing. He died 
later that day. After that, I made it a point to stop 
and visit Agnes. She was very lonely with Austin gone. 
All her children were married and had homes of their 
own. She sold me a parfleche bag made by her great 
grandmother, Maggie Tingo, who was on the Lemhi 
Reservation Rolls in 1871. 

On Easter in 1991, I was on my way back to Utah from 
Salmon, and stopped to see her. I went to her house. 
There were a number of Indians sitting in the living 
room. I asked, "Where's Agnes?", and started for the 
kitchen. Her daughter then told me she had passed 
away that morning. Agnes hadn't been sick, but as I 
said, was lonely for Austin. She had gotten up that 
morning, made her bed and cleaned her room. She put 



her extra clothes in plastic bags under the bed, and 
lay down and died. I have heard of the old ones being 
able to do that, but that was the first time I experienced 
the loss of a friend this way. 

I went to her funeral. The Indians feel it is very bad 
medicine to have a dead person in their house, so they 
set up a teepee in the yard and that is where everyone 
pays their last respects. I was honored that they dis- 
played some of my photographs of Agnes and her par- 
ents at the funeral. There are not many of the old 
Lemhi friends left to visit any more. These people have 
been some of the best and most loyal friends I've ever 


Early day postcard showing Salmon street scene. Lucy Deep 
Water is the Indian woman on right. 

Jed Wilson photo 

Keno Colby, one of the last of the Old Ones, at Fort Hall, 1990. 

Photo courtesy of Jed Wilson. 

M.M. McPherson, Chief Tendoy and his son Jack Tendoy. 


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1 888 - The steamer "Nasholds", named after our next sheriff, Egbert 
Nasholds, under command of Capt. Elias Suydam and Pilot George 
Sandilands, left the Main St. warf on Wednesday morning for Pine 
Creek. The steamer was heavily loaded and the captain expects to take 
her through in seven hours time. 

1891 - A lively runaway occurred on Monday morning. Eddie Edwards' 
team was standing in front of Hewitson's shop on Main St, when they 
suddenly started on a dead run, turned the corner at St Charles St 
and took a short cut for the ranch. 



Editor's Note: George E. Shoup in his History of Lemhi County 
says of Thomas Pambruin, that he was the half breed son of Pierre 
Pambruin, the Factor at Fort Walla Walla. He was educated by his 
father and later sent to Fort Hall, a Hudson's Bay Fort, as a clerk. 
There, in 1848, he heard of the large emigrant train that was the 
Mormons on the way to the present Salt Lake Valley area. He ar- 
ranged a leave for himself, and traveled east to meet the wagon 
train. The following concerns Dr. Wright's recollection of Thomas 
Pambruin (Pambrun). 

In January 1890, I (Dr. Frank S. Wright) was appoint- 
ed Government Physician and Surgeon to the Shosho- 
ne Indians at the Lemhi Agency, Lemhi County, Idaho. 

There I met Thomas Pambrun who was acting as 
Interpreter. He had returned from Choteau, Montana 
with his family. His wife was dying with consumption 
and wished to die where she was born on Hayden Creek. 
She was a sister of Chief Tendoy. Tom had married 
three sisters of Tendoy. I had many long talks with 

He was born at Fort Walla Walla, a Hudson Bay Fort, 
and his father, Thomas (Pierre) Pambrun, was the Fac- 
tor and is mentioned by Washington Irving in his ac- 
count of Captain Bonneville. Pambrun refused to sell 
Bonneville supplies unless he would turn back east. 

Uncle Tom, as he was called, was very much excited 
and pleased when I gave him the book of Captain 
Bonneville. He had a most remarkable memory. He 
said, "I remember that Boston man". Americans were 
called Boston men in the Chinook jargon. English were 
called King George men. He said the "Boston man" 
camped there some little time before he gathered some 
supplies and continued west. 

While doctoring in Centerville, twenty miles south of 
Walla Walla, I had met Tom's brother Alex, who was an 
ex-school teacher. Tom and Alex had been sent to 
Whitman Mission to learn English. Whitman was no he- 
ro in Tom's eyes. He said he was cruel and a slave 
driver. He said once Whitman sent him down to water 
the horses. It was a cold winters morning and he rode 
one of the horses, harnessed — had chain tugs which 
were thrown over the horses back. The horses ran 
down into the water, splashed water all over them- 
selves and Tom. Tom was bare legged and the chain 
tugs froze to his bare legs. It hurt too much to tear 
the chains loose so he left them and as he approached 
Whitman, crying, told him. Whitman yanked the chain 
loose tearing the skin, making the blood come, then 
scolded Tom for being a baby. When a young man, 
Tom was sent to Fort Hall, then a Hudson Bay fort. I 
forget whether Johnny Grant or a man named Ogden 
was the Factor. I asked him if this man, Ogden, was 
the man the City of Ogden was called after. He said 
he did not know, that there was a little basin up the 
creek from Ogden that the Indians called Ogden's Hole. 
The way it got its name was, Ogden was camped there. 
He had two or three squaws. Ogden got helplessly drunk 

and his women got clubs and nearly beat him to death. 
After that the Indians called it Ogden Hole. 

One time when camped on the Lemhi, some Indians 
visited his camp and told him there were a lot of white 
people coming into the southern country; men, women 
and children. He did not know what for. Tom said he 
had only seen a few white women, and no children. So 
he broke camp and started to see them. He traveled 
some three hundred miles and met them. It was the 
Mormons coming to the Salt Lake Valley. He traveled 
along with them till they arrived at the present site of 
Salt Lake. This was in 1847. He stayed with them for 
a couple of weeks, enjoying the company of white chil- 
dren and women. One day one of the men came to 
him and told him that Brigham Young wanted to see 
him. It seems they had been telling Brigham all about 
this trapper and hunter. Young asked him all about the 
country to the North and West and especially about 
the Salmon River Country. The Mormons in '51 or '52 
came and settled about twenty miles from Snake 
(Salmon) River at Fort Lemhi, but in a few years were 
driven out by the Indians. They named the river Lemhi. 

At one time Tom was hired by Jim Bridger, when 
Bridger was scouting out what was known as Bridger's 
cut off. A cut off to allow emigrants to get to California 
through the Mormon settlements. Along with the outfit 
was an artist (Tom thought he was one of the soldiers) 
who painted a picture of the outfit and Tom was one 
of the most prominent guides. He said he was wearing 
a beautiful buckskin suit and his black hair fell below 
his shoulders in curls. Tom was very vain about his 
appearance. Even when I knew him his hair was black 
and curly and he kept it well oiled. His only regret was 
he would never have enough money to go to Washing- 
ton and see that painting. He had been told it was in 
the Capitol. Tom told me he was in old Napoleon's 
lodge the night he (Napoleon) died. Napoleon was the 
father of Tendoy. He told Tendoy, that night, to make 
friends with the whites, that they were as numerous 
as the leaves on the trees and were coming more and 
more every day. As is well known, Tendoy was always 
friendly to the whites and fought with them against 
Chief Joseph of the Nez Perce. 

Tom said there was a good deal of talk as to who 
massacred Whitman, some claimed the Indians did, 
and some the Hudson Bay men. Tom said it was per- 
fectly satisfactory to him, whoever did it. 

(signed) Frank S Wright, M. D. 

Salmon, Idaho 

July 9, 1934 

Submitted by Phyllis Caples from the collection of 
Philip Rand. 



by Harvey Lipe 

When my father, Jacob Lipe, had the Blacksmith Shop 
on the ranch two miles below Junction, the Indians 
would get permits to come up from the reservation 
and have their horses shod and whatnot. They would 
pitch their tents and spend a week or ten days. I was 
a kid about five or six years old and used to play with 
the Indian kids. 

One thing I always remember, the squaws used to 
make up a little snare out of horse hair, and they would 
snare picket pins (ground squirrels). Then they would 
take the squirrel, after they got a number of them, and 
roll them in mud and put peppermint leaves and other 
leaves on them. Next was another layer of mud and 
then they would put them in a bed of coals to bake. 
Course they never did anything to them, just wrapped 
them up whole in mud, but when they were cooked 
and you broke the mud open, the hair and skin all came 
off and it was very nice-looking white meat that was 
real good to eat. That was a delicacy for the Indians 
and of course, I always got in on that. 

Most people were scared of the Indians, and they 
thought we were just crazy to have them come around 
our place. But the Indians liked my father very well. If 
the Indians liked you they wouldn't take anything from 
you. The Indians would go to father's blacksmiths shop 
and stand and watch him for hours, but they would 
never touch any of his tools. He never lost anything 
from his shop and never lost a tool. The Indians we 
had here were very nice to get along with. 

Few people remember Sunfield, Idaho. That was be- 
fore Tendoy, Idaho was on the map. My uncle, Charles 
Lipe, ran the store and Post Office at Sunfield. Most 

of his business was from the Indians at the reservation. 
The Indians had a peculiar way of buying their grocer- 
ies. They bought about ten cents worth of flour, and 
ten cents worth of sugar. They had no place to keep 
anything. Of course, they caught fish and lived on that 
in the winter time. In the summer I have seen lines 
that were maybe a hundred feet long with salmon dry- 
ing them for winter and that was their winter meat. 
They were very efficient that way. 

My uncle was a good friend of the Indians and when- 
ever they had a special occasion they would come and 
get Uncle Charlie. They would bring him a horse with 
a blanket on it and give him a headdress and Indian 
clothes and he would go with them up Pattee Creek, 
about two miles, to where they had a kind of amphi- 
theater. The Indians would tell stories and they would 
always want my Uncle to tell stories, because he was 
a pretty good hand at telling them bear stories. When 
one of the Indians got sick they would come and get 
Uncle and he would check on them to see what was 
the matter. He was no doctor, but he would take a can 
of peaches or tomatoes or something and usually a 
bottle of whiskey with him, and he would go down to 
the camp and look them over. So he would make a hot 
toddy for them and give them that, and put them to 
bed and cover them up good. They just thought he was 

The stage coach from Red Rock enroute to Salmon stopped at 
the CO. Lipe General Merchandise Store and Post Office at 
Sunfield, Idaho around 1900. Passengers, mail and merchandise 
were carried by these early day rigs. The town and Post Office of 
Sunfield no longer exist. 



They came from far away 

Polly Bemis 



by Jo Whitcomb 

Between 1869 and 1938, the Chinese contributed 
to the development of the lifestyle of Lemhi County. 
Their influence was greatest for the forty years follow- 
ing their arrival. 

All of the Chinese had been imported from China, 
originally to be employed as "coolies" in the California 
gold fields (1849) and in building the Central Pacific 
Railroad (1865-1869). By 1870, there were over 70,000 
Chinese in the United States. The 1870 census for 
Lemhi County counted seventy-seven Chinese in Lees- 
burgh (old spelling) and about thirty elsewhere. The 
last Chinese in Leesburg died on January 6, 1928. The 
last Chinese in Salmon had purchased Small Boy's (Ac- 
me Cafe) Cafe in 1937, but his stay was short. 

The Chinese worked and lived to themselves, ad- 
justing their language, lifestyles and dress to Caucasian 
ways only when necessary. For example, in a Chinese 
name "Ah" is equivalent to "Mr."; if two names were 
used, the first was the family name, but when they 
became citizens the family name was last. The Chi- 
nese' willingness to do back-breaking work, live in tiny 
makeshift shelters with few personal possessions, and 
to subsist on starvation rations, aroused the whites' 
suspicions and animosity. Words such as hardworking, 
diligent, frugal, quiet and unassuming, honest, de- 
pendable, kind and gentle, well describe the behavior 
of all but a few Chinese. But when the whites saw nec- 
essary work which they would not do for any wage, 
being performed for pennies, the resulting hatred and 
prejudice brought about the passage of the Chinese 
Exclusion Act in 1882, successfully baring immigration 
for twenty years. The Act had a serious flaw: hatred 
and prejudice toward those who had been imported 
was not excluded. 

Another Chinese characteristic troubling to Cauca- 
sians was an unbreakable tie to family. Famine and war 
were daily burdens for the peasants in China. Young 
men who were brought to this country came with the 
unshakable belief that each had the duty to earn wag- 
es, not for himself , but to ease the crushing burdens 
endured by his family in China. Sending their earnings 
to the family inflamed the belief that America's wealth 
was being exported. Even in 1849 Americans spent their 
earnings as they wished; imported laborers, doing the 
type of work that only they were willing to do, were 
beaten, spat upon, run out of town or killed for doing 
the same. 

The first Chinese came into Leesburg in 1869. Deep 
mining was not done at that time, placer being the 
easiest method. The Chinese were in evidence in al- 
most all placer camps, working for white miners. When 
the pay dirt gave out and the white men moved on, 
the Chinese remained through lease or occupation. 
Chinese did not prospect for themselves and when they 

moved from one camp to another, they traveled well 
worn trails. 

The white miners took out the gold in the easiest 
and quickest ways. The Chinese re-worked the fields, 
hand washing the rocks and boulders, scratching gold 
out of crevices where the streams of water had de- 
posited it. There was nothing in the set of laws that 
the Leesburg, Moose Creek and Summit City miners 
made, that prohibited the Chinese from working over 
the vacated mining ground. According to Wah Sing in 
1887, a hundred fifty Chinese were at work in the Lees- 
burg and Moose Creek areas. One indication that an 
area had been worked by the Chinese is the orderly , 
wall-like piles of rocks. 

The Chinese never worked in the Salmon River Can- 
yon below what is known as Butts' Bar, located two 
miles downstream from Corn Creek. When the bar was 
abandoned by the white miners, the Chinese took pos- 
session. They transported their equipment, supplies and 
other necessities in small, light boats which they pulled 
or poled up the rough canyon. 

From 1883 to 1889 charcoal was produced in the 
kilns still in evidence in the Birch Creek Valley, south- 
west of Leadore. The charcoal was used in the smelting 
of lead. Three hundred Chinese, Irish and Italian im- 
migrants were employed in the operation. 

The following article appeared in the August 10, 1932 
issue of the Recorder Herald: 

An interesting story concerning the Salmon River 
mining country appeared in a feature article in the 
Statesman, written by Robert N. Bell, former State Mine 
Inspector and at one time a resident of Salmon. The 
incident is in relation to the part the Chinese played in 
early day placer mining in this region. We quote the 
following: "The creamy high-grade values of the early 
day placer operations of Idaho were largely exhausted 
by white miners in the first ten year period after dis- 
covery. And their tailings and remnant patches were 
pretty thoroughly re-worked during the succeeding 
twenty years by the Chinamen, whose activities were 
still prevalent in most of the Idaho placer districts when 
the writer first came to Idaho in 1884. 

The Chinese miners were very thorough in their com- 
panies with administrative heads, and could make a liv- 
ing on ground upon which a white man would starve to 

Their operations included some ingenious bucket, belt, 
elevator, pumping devices for low-lying, wet ground and 
deep stripping operations handled by wheelbarrow. 
These Chinamen, mostly of the hard-working coolie 
class, illustrated the potentialities of the race in foreign 
trade. When making money they would live as extrav- 
agantly as a white man and when in low pay, get along 
on a straight rice diet. 

Their enterprise was illustrated by an incident that 
occurred, I think, in the spring of 1889. while the writer 
was living in Salmon City. There arrived at that port on 
the mythical 'river of no return', since made famous by 


Captain Guleke's flatboat expeditions from Salmon City 
to Lewiston, a boat shaped like a Chinese Junk with 
dragon figurehead and tail. It had been towed and poled 
up the Salmon River from its mouth with a crew of ten 
Chinamen. This flat-bottomed boat was thirty feet long, 
had a six foot beam and carried all the tools, supplies 
and possessions of the crew, which had placer mined 
along the richer bars that border the river, over a year's 
period, and banked a large sum of gold on their arrival 
with the firm of the late Senator George L. Shoup. 


In the early days of Leesburg there were at least two 
Chinese merchants. Bu Kee was the most "famous", 
being the last Chinese in Leesburg when he died in 
1928. Bu Kee, well known and trusted, was also a priest, 
maintaining a Joss House (religious shrine), another 
merchant was Wah Sing. Wah Sing owned the packstr- 
ing that was operated by a Chinese known as "Flor- 
ence". Both merchants had wives which was unusual 
among the Chinese in this country. 

"Boise Sam" operated a freight wagon. He had no 
superior in breaking and handling horses and mules, 
as well as being an expert roper. His skills were in de- 


fjjinve Jiiat rooolvpd oiio of th« iRrgeat and 
■< ^ fXik moat aelecl atock of 


J I -—AND 


Thai woa ever brouQhl lo Sahnon City. tP 

\l LADIES' Ileftdy-MaaoDB ESSES ^ 

" Of (III Kind*. , 

We btT* tlio jail ttiiliid ■ o«» lol o( 


(A Dtn kind of pUliwtr*— iBbratlkbti.) 

A Tobaccos, Boots and Shoos. Tea and 

• '' f\oitec, t^oWBr Bouqi»ol«. Piayitig 

i{ CnrdB, Mn(9, nnd 

« Ijade? F'ine Silk Stockings. 

Oar Slock 


Are itwejrf 
th* beil. 

Bu Kee in ceremonial robes. 

mand among the whites. 

When the numbers of Chinese in Salmon City in- 
creased, so did the number of businesses owned by 

Chinese. The Chinese lived in an area on the north side 
of Main Street at the bridge, where there were tiny 
stores catering solely to Chinese, with most of the mer- 
chandise brought from China through San Francisco. 
Gambling and smoking opium was prevelant in Chi- 

Most of the miners came into town for the winter. 
Chinatown had its own vegetable gardens, cared for 
by men who stayed here year round. There were Chi- 
nese who sold vegetables and fruits to the white res- 
idents. It was always a treat for one Caucasian young- 
ster to be selected to accompany Charley on his rounds 
in his horse-drawn cart. Charley would pay his helper 
a nickel and faithfully deliver the child to his own home. 
Everyone kept clear of Charley's log house and vege- 
table patch at the east end of town, as it was well 
protected by several vicious dogs. 

In the 1886 newspaper there was a notice by Charlie 
Sing: "I wish to announce that I have opened an em- 
ployment office in Salmon City and that if you want 
wood-cutters, servants, miners, ranch hands, or any 
other kind of help, I will furnish the same on short 
notice. Contract work a specialty." Charlie Sing was 
also proprietor of the Oriental Bazaar. 

Two laundries were in operation in Chinatown: Wing 
Sing and Wing Lee. In April 1924 it was reported that, 
"Wing Lee, the popular washman of Salmon, for 28 
years a local resident and steady as a clock in attending 
strictly to business, is leaving next week to make his 
home in San Francisco." 


The laundries may have been popular among the 
Caucasian housewives but could not reach the status 
that one Chinese woodcutter had with the children. 
The following is taken from the Idaho Recorder, Oc- 
tober 20, 1916: 

Salmon has a philanthropist of an unusual order. This 
individual with the commendable characteristic is an 
aged Mongolian. He is deaf and almost too old to labor, 
but he earns no little money by sawing firewood and 
doing other kinds of hard work. His name is 'Petoosey', 
among the kids who are his patrons. He has watched 
the ranks of little fellows on festal occasions till he knows 
the forlorn face of every little boy who has no regular 
allowance of spending money. If this heathen philan- 
thropist observes a sad and longing look at a toy or a 
delicate morsel he will part with his last nickel to satisfy 
that longing. 

At fair time 'Petoosey' found his usual number of little 
boys who could not ride on the merry-go-round. It 
seemed to the old man to be a laudable desire that 
brought little boys to witness the new show feature at 
short range. 

"Petoosey" had saved his money since the Fourth 
and his pockets bulged with silver. Every kid that wore 
the longing look that would not come off was given the 
price of a ride. A whole pocketful of dimes were dis- 
tributed by the deaf old wood sawyer. He was too deaf 
to hear their thanks, but he could see the glow of hap- 
piness of their cheeks. His little regiment worked over- 
time, but "Petoosey" was happy all the long hours of 
this continuous show. 

In an 1889 advertisement for the Salmon City Hotel, 

Thomas Boyle, proprietor, offered board and lodging 
by the week, $8, and single meals for .50 — NO CHI- 
NESE COOKS EMPLOYED. From 1892 until 1911, the 
International Hotel, E. S. Edwards, proprietor, em- 
ployed two full-time Chinese cooks. By 1897 Lum Coy 
had opened Small Boy's Cafe (523 Main Street), which 
he ran until 1937 when he sold out to Lee Wing. It was 
said of Lum Coy, "He cooked excellently but, person- 
ally, he hadn't the charm and affability of Charley or 
of 90% of the other Chinese citizens." Wo (or Who) 
Hop had the New York Cafe in the Brough House (500 

Main Street) around 1918, but in 1910 he was located 
at the site of the present parking lot behind the bank 
at Main and South Center. In 1915, Ah Sam quit work- 
ing at Wo Hops and opened a new eating place. The 
Palace Cafe, on Main Street, was another Chinese eat- 
ing establishment in 1910. 

In a December 22, 1910 newspaper, Young Kee's 
Chinese Goods advertised fine chinaware and soft pon- 
gee silks: "Christmas goods both useful and ornamen- 
tal, prices to please all." No address was given for Young 
Kee's establishment. Another store catering to the 
white shoppers was the American Company at 537 Main 
Street. Its windows displayed, along with other items, 
elaborate silk kimonos and embroidered slippers. 

Some property in Salmon was owned by Chinese. In 
March of 1901, Pong Kee and Company sold the lot 
on the north side of Main at the bridge to H. B. Fowler, 



A view from the west end of Main Street, early 1900's, showing part of Chinatown on lower right. Fowler's Art Gallery is nearest the 
bridge. A sign in foreground says "Wing Sing and Fay Kee, finest grocer and laundry" 


photographer, and a month earlier Ty Ho sold his lot 
in Chinatown to Ah Wah for $75. 

China Jack, who came to Leesburg in 1869 and was 
a resident of Salmon from 1893 until his death in 1931 , 
lived in a cabin in Chinatown when it was sold in 1923. 
"This venerable old man was compelled to move his 
earthly possessions, by wheel-barrow, south across 
Main Street to one of Al Smith's old cabins." China 
Jack had worked as a ranch hand and did truck gar- 
dening. In 1877 he shouldered a rifle and did scout 
duty with the settlers against the Nez Perce. 

As it is with all sensational events that are not scru- 
pulously documented, there are numerous versions of 
the "Oro Grande Murder/Massacre of the Chinese". 
Oro Grande, more often called Loon Creek, was the 
site of the killing of three, or six, Chinese miners and 

the theft of their gold. The date was the spring of 1879. 
One speculation was that David McNutt, whose placer 
mines were on Moose Creek, followed the Chinese be- 
cause they owed him money, and killed them or had 
them killed. A more accepted version was that they 
were killed by Indians. Dave Ketchum and Wils Smith 
were sent to investigate. They went to where the min- 
ers had wintered and then traveled to Oro Grande. 
They found that Indians had been in the area of Oro 
Grande, returning down the Middle Fork. The investi- 
gators concluded the Indians were guilty of the mur- 

ders. Indian drawings found shortly thereafter in caves 
along Loon Creek described several hostilities engaged 
in by Sheepeaters, but instigated by the more aggres- 
sive Bannocks. One story blamed the killings on the 
Sheepeaters, but asserted that the gold was taken by 
white men. 

In 1882, according to a report of the Commissioners 
of Indian Affairs, Ah Piu was arrested for selling whiskey 
to Indians. He paid a $100 fine and was jailed for thirty 

Two related happenings in Leesburg were in 1892. 
Leesburg merchants were out $131 for cashing bogus 
checks. A cook found some old check books in a cabin, 
endorsed two and passed them. One was for $51 and 
the other for $80. He paid several bills and got away 
with $80 cash. Two weeks later Sheriff Pattee made a 
raid on the Chinese liquor dealers, Wah Sing, Sing Kee 
and Tifan, charging them with selling whiskey without 
a license. They each paid $100 and proved to be the 
ones who had cashed the bogus checks. 

Ching Quong, an old Chinese placer miner, was shot 
to death in his cabin in Leesburg. Suspicion pointed to 
Wang Hoh, who was jailed. Ching Quong belonged to 
Yung Wah Company and Wang Hoh to the See Yup 
Company. It was known these companies, also called 
tongs, were not on good terms. 

A minor, but noisy war erupted in Chinatown on 
March 21, 1907. The difficulty arose over another Chi- 
nese selling the ground beneath the cabin occupied by 

Small Boy Cafe on Main Street in early 1930's. 


Matuchia. Look Fai, or Matuchia, as the Indians have 
named him, aimed his Colt 44 and got off two harmless 
shots. Matuchia was old, decrepit and fortunately, half 
blind, but he made a bee-line for the jail on his own. 
The Sheriff was away, but the Chinese told Mrs. Mulkey 
he had killed a man and wanted to be locked up. He 
was bound over to district court in the sum of $250. 
Matuchia said he did not care if he got out of jail or 
not, because he had plenty of "good grub" and when 
he had to support himself, he lived for two days on 
two bits. Peace returned to "Mongolia" and the pris- 
oner was enjoying the bill-of-fare. On April 18th he was 
fined and paid $50. 

Yum Quoy and one white man were in court in 1908 
for gambling in the Buckhorn Saloon — The jurymen 
asked each their politics! Each was fined and paid $250. 

In the January 25, 1918 newspaper A. C. Chury, at- 
torney, told the following: 

in the early days of Lemhi County, many Chi- 
namen found employment in the placer mines. 
One of these Orientals, being called as a witness, 
the question arose as to whether or not he could 
qualify taking the required oath, in view of his 
religion. The defendant's attorney insisted the 
witness could not qualify, because it was nec- 
essary for one taking the oath to believe in the 
existence of a God who would punish him if he 
swore falsely. After a considerable argument by 
the attorneys, which the Chinaman appeared to 
ignore, but he completely grasped, the court 
questioned the witness as follows; Court: "Sam, 
do you understand that you must tell the truth 
and nothing but the truth?" Sam; "Yessee, me 
heap savvy, me must tell truth." Court; "Do you 
know what will happen to you if you don't tell the 
truth?" Sam; "Yessee, me know that me go to 
hellee allee sammee Amelican man." The witness 
was permitted to testify. 

DECLARED INTENTIONS (for citizenship) 

Way Sing 
Jo Lee 
Ah Joe 
Chung Lee 

Ah Wah 
Sam Shinfon 
Sam Lee San 

Ah Wan 
Ah Kim 

July 3, 1873 
August 30 1873 
October 3, 1873 
October 17, 1873 

(aka Boise Sam) 
September 22, 1874 
September 22, 1874 
November 28, 1874 
(aka Bu Kee) 
April 1, 1878 
April 1, 1878 

1892 - Sheriff Potter, Charlie Martin & W. B. Jones arrested several 
drunken Indians and from them information was obtained which led 
to the arrest of two Chinamen, Ah Ki and "Martinely Sam" on a 
charge of selling whiskey to Indians. 

The accuracy in numbers of Chinese in Lemhi County 
at any given time is suspect. An educated guess is that 
there were 1 12 in 1870, 199 in 1880, possibly as many 
as 250 in 1887, 21 in 1900, 51 in 1910 and zero by 

The following is a list of the Chinese as given in the 
1870 census taken in Leesburgh, Lemhi County, Idaho 
Territory: (76 Miners, 1 cook; all born in China) 

Ah Gee 

Ah Keow 

Sung Gow 

Ah Mon 

Ah Sam 

Ah Ken 

Un Gow 

Ung Gay 

Ah You 

Ah Chow 

Ah Cot 

Ah Shee 

Ah Yap 

Ah Meain 

Ah Lun 

Ah Kee 

Ah Sum 

Ah Lim 

Chum Foy 

Ah Soo 

Ah Jim 
Ah Joe 

Ah Lun 
Tune How 

Sim Ling 
Ah Say 

Ah Sam 
Sam Yow 
Ah Lee 

Ah You 

Ty Lee 

Ah Fung 

Ah Say 

Ah Ly 

Ah Rung 

Ah Sam 

Ah Loo 

Ah Gotn 

Sin Lee 

Ah Way 
Ah Chum 

Un Gow 

Ah Lung 

Ah Gum 

Ah Tin 

Ah Kee 

He Pin 

Lee Shun 

Ah Lew 

Ah Kop 

Ah Ping 

Ah Guy 

Ah Koon 

Ah Keom 

Ah Poo 

See Wah 

Ah Lun (cook) 

Ah Kow 

Lee Kone 

See Way 

Ah Chow 

Un Kum 

Ky Fly 

Ah Yew 

Ah You 

Ah Kee 

Ah Wah 

Ah yet 

Fang Chung 

Ah Fly 

Lung Chung 

Sam Way 

Ah Kee 

Ah Kow 

Lung Choy 

Pung Gow 

Ah Look 

(."Ah" IS the equivalent of "Mr.") 


August 21, 1883, Ah Pone and Chin Lee were married 
in Salmon City, by Henry J. Burleigh, J. P. 

March 1, 1891, Ah Lit and Susan Ying were married 
in Salmon City by Thomas Elder, J. P. 

The marriage of one couple, although it was per- 
formed in Idaho County, is of interest here because 
the principals lived for forty years, deep in the difficult 
to access canyon of the lower Salmon River. It was the 
marriage of Polly and Charlie Bemis. 


Her real name was Lalu Nathoy. The name given on 
the marriage certificate is Polly Nathoy. She was mar- 
ried to Charles A. Bemis in Warrens, Idaho County, 
Idaho, on August 13, 1894 by A. D. Smead, J. P. 

In an article in Field and Stream, June 1923, Eleanor 
Medell Patterson wrote, "Polly told me part of her story, 
darting her wise old eyes to see if others were listening. 
'My folluks (sic) in Hong Kong had no grub. Day sellee 
me slave girl. Old woman smuggle me to Portland. I 
cost $2500. Don't look it now, hummm! Old Chinese 
man, he took me along to Warrens in a pack train." 

The following is adapted from Robert G. Bailey's book 
River of No Return: 

In 1901 Bailey was in a party in the Loon Creek and 
Big Creek section between the Salmon and Clearwater 
Rivers. Reaching the Salmon River at the mouth of 
Crooked Creek, they hailed a boatman on the opposite 


shore, asking him to ferry them across. The boatman 
helped them cross several times but refused payment 
for his work. The boatman urged the party to come to 
his house for the evening. During the visit. Bailey re- 
alized the man's wife was Chinese. 

Charles A. Bemis was born in 1848, the son of a Con- 
necticut minister. Still a young man. Bemis journeyed 
to San Francisco and thence to Warrens, in the Idaho 
gold fields. Hard work and thrift brought him several 
stakes which he frequently spent on his passion of gam- 
bling. He played against one Chinese often, but on one 
occasion the cards were definitely in Bemis' favor. The 
Chinese lost everything until his only asset was a beau- 
tiful 18 year old slave girl. Bemis won the girl along with 
considerable gold. He and Polly were married when she 
was threatened with deportation. The marriage lasted 
nearly fifty years. 

In 1893 they moved to the Salmon River and took 
up a small ranch across the river from Crooked Creek. 
They took some gold from the streams, raised a few 
cattle, had a vegetable garden and sold vegetables to 
near-by mining camps. 

Bemis died in 1922 and Polly, then about seventy 
years old, lived alone on the ranch until she became ill 
in 1933 and her friends took her to the Grangeville Hos- 
pital where she died three months later. 

Polly endeared herself to every prospector and miner 
in the area. Charles Shepp and Pete Kleinkenheimer 
eventually located across the river from Polly. They 
strung a telephone line across the river and would call 
her twice a day to ask how she was getting along. They 
provided her with what little she needed and she deed- 
ed her ranch to them. 

The ranch had 15 acres of tillable ground. It was on 
the river, in a canyon that made it accessible to the 
outside only by boat or arduous trail. The Bemises had 
fruit trees, raised clover, tobacco, berries, corn, mel- 
ons and garden truck. They had chickens, ducks and 
a few cattle. Polly was an adept fisherwoman. 

When Shepp and Kleinkenheimer put in the tele- 
phone, which fascinated Polly, if they didn't call her, 
she would call them. The converstion might be: "How 
many eggs you get today? Six, I get ten!"; a peal of 
laughter and, "How many fish you get? None! You no 
good! You fella come over Sunday, I cook one great 
big one I catch today." 

In 1923 Polly made her first trip out to civilization 
to see an oculist. She stayed with and old Caucasian 
friend of Warren days, Mrs. Bertha Long. Mrs. Long 
had a parrot. When the bird began to chatter, "What 
does Polly want for breakfast? Polly wants something 
for breakfast", Polly Bemis was puzzled that the bird 
knew her name. Mrs. Long explained that parrots were 
called "Polly". To which Polly B. said, "This first talkee 
bird me see since I leave um Shanghai. Most birds in 
Shanghai talkee hi-yu bad; this talkee bird talkee nice." 

In Pioneer Days in Idaho County, J. C. Safely wrote: 

Polly would find Bemis playing cribbage with friends. 
She would approach him and count (up to fifteen) and 
then say, "You go home and put wood in my woodbox." 
Bemis would go. 

He once captured a cougar and kept it as a pet in the 
Salmon River home. The cat ate at the table from a tin 
plate nailed to the table. "Charlie he pet um big cat, 
but when stranger come he hump um up and spit um." 
Eventually the cougar had to be killed. 

Bemis called her to watch some ants. "Bemis, if you 
work um like these ants, we wouldn't be poor." In 1933, 
just before her death she said, "Charlie wouldn't have 
died so soon if he hadn't been lazy. He sat around till 
he was no account." (note: Bemis died in 1922 at age 

Polly knew the art of gold-smithing. She fashioned 
nuggets into hammers and picks and aften sold them. 
For one of her dresses, she made nine gold coin but- 
tons, although one source said Charlie made the but- 
tons. Some of her personal effects are in the museum 
at St. Gertrude's Academy at Cottonwood, Idaho. 

Mrs. Long said to her, in 1933 when she was in the 
hospital, "You'll soon get well." Polly replied, "No, me 
too old to get well, me have to go to other world to 
get um well." On November 6, 1933 Polly Bemis went 
to the other world. 

From the Recorder Herald, June 25, 1987: 


Jim Campbell, president of the Salmon 
River Resort Club, located on the Salmon 
River at the Polly Bemis Ranch, 44 miles up- 
river from Riggins, reported that the Polly 
Bemis Historical Museum is now open to the 

Dedication ceremonies were held June 5, 
1987, at which time it was announced that 
the remains of Polly Bemis had been re- 
turned to the ranch after 54 years. 

Polly died in Grangeville in 1933, and 
though it was her wish to be buried at the 
ranch where she had lived for more than 30 
years (note: 40 years) arrangements could 
not be made and she was buried at Grange- 

More than 75 guests gathered at the re- 
stored cabin to hear speakers Idaho Gov. 
Cecil Andrus and Historian Cort Conley, plus 
"Old Timers" John Carey and Fred Shiefer. 
(both men had known Polly) 

When a Chinese died, it was customary for relatives 
and friends to leave dishes of food and fruit on the 
grave. They also left many small confetti-like papers 
with small holes in them; the idea being that the devil 
could not get to the body, being too confused by all 
the supposed obstructions. Alien Chinese belonged to 
well established societies or tongs, and the tong was 
obligated to return their remains to China. The body 
was covered by only two feet of earth to allow the flesh 
to dry so it could be easily scraped from the bones. 
The bones were then put in a container for shipment. 


The cost, which involved a tong member's coming to 
retrieve the remains, was about $1500. 

A number of Chinese died in the Leesburg area. Un- 
der the pines in the old cemetery, you will find several 
empty grave sites. The bodies have been sent back to 
the Flowery Kingdom. Two Chinese graves are known 
to still be in the Leesburg Cemetery. Sing Chow (Mary) 
died in April 1915. Bu Kee, her husband, died January 
6, 1928. 

San Lee Sam (Bu Kee) and Sing Chow (Mary), his wife, in later 
years at Leesburg. They were in Leesburg before 1870 and died 

An item in the October 1890 Idaho Recorder: 

The wife of Wah Sing, a well known Chinese merchant 
of Leesburg, died at her home on Saturday afternoon. 
The funeral ceremony took place on Tuesday at 2:00 
pm. The McGinley band was hired for the occasion and 
every livery rig in town was out and filled with Chinese 
friends of the deceased. No expenses were spared to 
make the service as impressive as possible. 

Two recorded incidents involving an agent of a tong, 
sent to recover the remains of a member, should have 
made other agents hesitate to perform their duty in 
this area. A continuation of the article written by Rob- 
ert N. Bell detailing the arrival of the Chinese Junk in 
Salmon in 1889, says that one of the boat party had 
died and was buried on a bar at the mouth of a large 

creek, in the most inaccessible portion of the canyon. 
Ten years later a representative of the tong came from 
San Francisco, bearing a crude map of the grave's lo- 

cation, at what is now known as Horse Creek. Two 
trappers and horse wranglers agreed to take the agent 
on his errand for $1800. The journey involved a detour 
almost into Montana, but was successfully completed 
in two weeks. 

Another incident was more colorful. Among the Chi- 
nese working at Butt's Bar, two died. They were buried 
and left when the work was abandoned. Several years 
later, an agent from the tong came to Salmon to secure 
the remains of the two Celestials. The route would be 
hazardous, but a packer finally agreed to take him. The 
packer arranged for an additional packer and the nec- 
essary mules. The agent secured $1500 from a draft 
on a San Francisco bank and advanced $600 to the 
packer. The trip was completed. The morning after re- 
turning to Salmon the agent discovered the remains 
had been stolen during the night, and he received word 
that they would be returned for $400 cash. He ap- 
pealed to certain influential men in town and they un- 
dertook solving the problem. They demanded the un- 
conditional and immediate return of the remains. It 
was reported that, "The robbers lost no time in com- 
plying with this demand as they knew to comply was 
now the only way out of it with a 'full hide'". 

The remains of two men, dead many years, were 
found buried in the slide rock where C.C.C. workers 
were constructing the Salmon River road, down river 
from Salmon, in the 1930's. Speculation was that they 
may be the remains of the two Chinese who escaped 
during the Birch Creek Massacre of 1877. 

Chinese New Year is celebrated several weeks after 
January first. The celebrations are in full swing for a 
month. White friends called on Chinese friends and were 
greeted with warmth and courtesy. The guests were 
offered tea and rice wine along with imported Chinese 
"goodies". To the delight of the young granddaughter 
of the International Hotel's owner, her grandfather 
would take her with him on occasion. Her favorite treats 
were candied ginger and litchi nuts. She always came 
away with a tiny paper parasol or folding paper "toy". 

No such treats were given to the many white boys 
who tormented the Chinese. Because the tiny houses 
in Chinatown were built on ground below street level, 
the roofs were easily accessible. Many a Chinese would 
be smoked out because a tin can had been slipped over 
the top of his stove pipe. It was rare that a boy, passing 
by on the wooden sidewalk on the north side of Main 
Street, near the bridge, did not deliver several kicks to 
the buildings edging the sidewalk. (In 1992, this writer 
questioned several current residents who were boys 
when Chinatown existed, but all deny being among the 

A Chinese named Matutsi was viewed with amaze- 
ment on two counts. First he had, on one hand, two 
complete thumbs, each having a nail. Secondly, he was 
an extraordinarily adept fisherman. He introduced 


steelhead fishing to Salmon. He would walk into the 
river, waist deep, and by using a hand line he hooked 
his game. 

Then there was Ah Foo. In the early days of this 
county, he tirelessly scoured the hills in search of a 
gum boot which he claimed some Chinese miners had 
filled with gold and cached there. " Ah Foo lost some- 
thing else — his mind; in an insane asylum." 

Crazy Jack was another Celestial character in the 
community. He bagged an owl, took it home and cooked 
it. A few days later he went to the butcher shop and 
asked the butcher, "Watsa molla, watsa molla? Me 
cook-um big eye chick three day. He tough like helly." 

From the March 16, 1905 Idaho Recorder, Salmon, 

Jim England came out from Blackbird Saturday the 
11th of March, and says the social atmosphere of his- 
toric Leesburg was torn asunder and cracked in all kinds 
of directions by a wee bit of a cock fight about 4 p.m. 
Friday afternoon. Frank O'Connor was just importing 
some fine Plymouth Rock chickens for his Big Creek 
ranch. One of the birds was a handsome rooster and 
some of the boys challenged the newcomer against a 
bird belonging to Bu Kee, the Leesburg Celestial. Chal- 
lenge (was) accepted but the birds showed no inclina- 
tion to scrap. The fight went on for 15 minutes when 
O'Connor's fowl drew first blood and the gamesters were 
separated. The fact was the winner had spurs an eighth 
of an inch longer than the China bird, but Bu Kee de- 
clares the Plymouth chick must have come over in the 

A Chinese dwelling at Leesburg. 

1918 - The new managers and owners of the Wo Hop Chinese res- 
taurant, will keep up the high standard maintained by their predecessors. 
The new men are young and trained in the work of cooking foods. 
This is the restaurant adjoining the Idaho Recorder printing office. 

1919 - Lum How, famous Chinese cook long time conneaed with the 
Wo Hop restaurant in Salmon, has returned to that well known eating 
place. Good waiter lady in attendance on tables. 

191 1 - December. Wong Yu Lung, pioneer chinaman died. 

The interesting lifestyle and customs of the Chinese 
added much to Lemhi County's early atmosphere, to 
say nothing of their labor at the work no one else was 
willing to do. It is hoped that with this small history 
they will be remembered with a kinder attitude than 
that which prevailed when they lived among us. 

I am indebted to Marjorie Burnham Sims who has done extensive 
research for several years on various aspects of the history of Lemhi 
County and its people. Mrs. Sims gave me free access to all of her 
research on the Chinese, for which act of generosity this writer and 
the readers of this section owe Mrs. Sims our admiration and grat- 

Other sources: River of No Return, Robert G. Bailey. Caxton Printers. 
Idaho Herald, Salmon, Idaho. Idaho Historical Society, Boise, Idaho. 
Thousand Pieces of Gold, Ruthanne Lum McCunn. Dell Publishing 
Co. Pioneer Days in Idaho County, J. C. Safely. Patchwork 1988 & 
1990, Salmon High School. The Recorder Herald, Salmon, Idaho. 




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24 HOURS. 






l^'eildiflg Cake a Specialty.: 








%*' » 


The Salmon Valley before 1940 


^**iaii|Gr-',^^*^*«P|| - 

They came to build a better life 

11*1* '* 





(Beginning in 1918) 

by Bessie Cannon 

Way up in the mountains near the Sawtooth Range 

There's a lonely cabin, a homestead there 

The panes are gone from the windows 

And dobbin gone from the cracks. 

It had been there many a winter 

And I know it will still be there. 

Only once thru the long cold winters 

Did we stay to keep it warm. 

The camp in the valley was silent 

So we stayed in our basin home. 

Our babies were two that winter 

In the spring there would be three. 

We had had our first harvest, 

Just hay for the stock. 

The cold grew colder 

And snow so deep 

We could just see the willow tops. 

Our only neighbor was trapper Jack 

Who lived across in his own little shack 

How happy we were to have him come 

And tell us tales of bitter years in the Klondike 

And the Black Hills, never one the same. 

Slowly the months passed as we marked each day. 

Dad and Grandad would take the team 

And go to town for flour and beans 

Little Bill out at play, wanted to go. 

As he watched them drive away. 

He hurried to catch them, but all in vain. 

He fell, his mittens came off 

I slowly made my way down the trail 

And met him coming back 

His arms held out from his mittenless hands 

And the moan from his lips 

I know he had frozen his finger tips 


With snow and ice I thawed them out 
Praying to God to save my scout. 
Christmas came and I said to Dad 
Let's have a tree for Billy and Joe 
We got a tree from the hill close by 
For trimmings, well there were none 
So we cut some stars from bright tin cans 
Some diamonds and shapes of other things 
Dabs of cotton scattered here and there 
Bright red candies tied on with strings 
Some rose berries and popcorn finished our scheme. 
When evening came I sat by the fireside 
And told them of baby Jesus born in a manger 
How he slept in the hay 
Why the birthday of Jesus is celebrated 
By giving gifts on Christmas. 
I tucked them in their homemade bed 
And sang them songs till they fell asleep. 
We trimmed the tree with out any noise 
When morning came we warmed the cabin before they 


The homestead cabin on Big Timber Creek 1920 Don Casterlin, 
Bessie Cannon, Young Bill Cannon, William J. Cannon. 

Oh the joy that Christmas brought 

To our cabin in the hills 

Joe with his horn and Bill with his train 

Once while the tree was nice 

We thot we'd have a party 

We fussed and cleaned and New Years Eve 

Everyone came, from over the hills. 

Some on horses some in sleighs 

Till the cabin could hold no more 

The moon was full and sky so clear. 

There never has been a winter quite as happy 

As that winter in the cabin in the hills. 

Someday I'll go back to that cabin on the hill 

And relive in memory the times that can never be again. 

The cabin where five sons grew and went off to war 

Where the bluebirds greeted us each spring 

Until heavy snow one year took the life of the mother 

And left the little ones to starve in the cabin roof. 

I have gone back to that cabin 

Up there in the hills. 

I've climbed to the highest cliff 

And watched the storm clouds roll 

I've listened to the angry thunder 

As it echoed from hill to hill 

And wandered by the rushing stream 

And watched the rainbow leap. 

It seems I hear boyish voices 

That once played hide and seek 

Or played Indians on a raft 

As it floated down the stream. 

I could not hear the eagles scream 

Nor the blat of a baby lamb 

Nor the tinkle of the sheep bell. 

The cabin is sad, so lonely and the roof caved in 

I'm sorry I ever went back 

To that homestead in the hills 

And yet each year something calls me back 

To that homestead up there 

To dream of the days of long ago. 

The fences are gone and seem to say 

Why did you leave? 

The creek has changed its course 

Due to a beaver dam 

The meadows are brown and bare, 

The stable and corrals are no more. 

And the cabin belongs to the ages 

Only the cliffs remain 

Where I went when troubles came.. 

As when we thot we would loose our Jakie 

Or Joe would loose his legs 

Or our home because of taxes we could not pay. 

Where I would go and listen to the night noises 

The owls and the night hawks 

The coyotes call and their chatter 

The challenge of a bull on the range 

All are gone now, but only the cliffs and memories 




by Nora Y. Whitwell-1962 

A few years ago, the older citizens of Salmon organ- 
ized The Historical Society of Lemhi County in order 
to preserve some history of this part of the State of 
Idaho. I, as an early-day settler, will endeavor to add 
a bit as I remember it. 

First, I'll give the earliest history of my family as told 
to me by my father and mother, George and Elizabeth 

They first lived in Du Quoin, Illinois. Father was a 
merchant in that city. As he was not in the best of 
health and had heard that the mountain air was good 
for lung trouble — also, I suppose, there was the lure 
of gold, as word had reached them that rich gold mines 
had been discovered in the Rockies — he and his broth- 
er Jacob Yearian and family decided to "cross the 
plains," ... to the Rocky Mountains. 

In April, 1864, they left Du Quoin, going to St. Jo- 
seph, Missouri. There they prepared for their trip, buy- 
ing oxen and covered wagons and such goods and pro- 
visions as would be needed on their way; then they 
were off for the West. 

Their only fear was the hostile Indians. They never 
encountered any Indians, nor saw any . . . Traveling 
eighteen to twenty miles a day, they were on their way 
about three and one half months before reaching Ban- 
nock, Montana. 

They were desirous of procuring mining property at 
Horse Prairie, near Bannock. It was up a gulch, which 
father called "Horse Prairie Gulch." Father and his 
brother purchased some placer ground from a few 
chinamen who were mining there. They wintered in 
Bannock. The next summer they built some cabins and 
prepared for their families to live there. 

In the fall of 1865, father returned to Du Quoin. He 
road the stagecoach for sixteen days and nights with- 
out stopping (except for food and a change of horses) 
to the railroad terminus . . . 

In the spring of 1866, father left again for the west, 
with his wife and two sons, John and Thomas ... He 
hired two young men to drive the ox teams. On this 
second trip, a milk cow was led behind the wagon, also 
a pony. It was important to have milk on the way as 
the younger son was only two years old; the older boy 
John was six years old . . . Father's train fell in with 
another wagon train going west, so they traveled to- 
gether, covering the usual eighteen to twenty miles a 
day. When they stopped at night, they placed their 
wagons in a circle and camped inside, as a protection 
against the Indians. They arrived at Bannock after about 
three and one-half months travel and spent the winter 
of 1866-1867 in Bannock. The next spring, father, his 
brother, and their families settled in the Gulch. Then 
the relatives began to come west and settle in the Gulch: 
father's two brothers, John and Joseph, and their fam- 
ilies; mother's two brothers, John and Elijah Stroud, 

and their families; mother's sister and husband Zeph 
Yearian and their son, Edwin. 

Some of the men worked in the mine and some in 
the blacksmith shop. The mining was done by water 
power and in order to have pressure, a ditch was dug 
twelve miles long. The water came from a mountain 
stream high up in the canyon and the ditch carried it 
along the hillsides and down a steep hill, through an 
iron pipe, to give pressure for hydraulic mining, wash- 
ing the gravel into sluice boxes which caught the gold. 
Once a week, father and his brother cleaned up the 
gold in the sluice boxes, getting, usually, a half gold 
pan full. Father would take it home and put it under 
the bed for safekeeping. The next morning he did the 
retorting. The gold dust was kept in buckskin bags, 
closed with a drawstring at the top. Gold was valued 
at eighteen dollars per ounce. 

During the winter months, father and his brother 
Jacob made long gold watch chains for their wives and 
themselves. Mother's was about six feet long. Father 
had gone to Bannock and learned a pattern from a 
jeweler there. He practiced first by making a long silver 
chain. They also made plain gold rings for their families 
and short chains for the boys. Neither of them was a 
jeweler — just handy men. They worked in the black- 
smith shop which had a dirt floor. A number of years 
later, after our folks all moved from the Gulch to Lemhi 
County, the chinamen "panned" the dirt in the shop 
and recovered about five hundred dollars in gold that 
had been wasted in making the jewelry. 

All the cabins in the Gulch had dirt floors and home- 
made furniture — bedsteads, tables, stools, and cup- 
boards. The families had to make their own amuse- 
ment. They would get together in the evenings and play 
games, such as blindman's buff. Uncle Joseph played 
the "fiddle." Later they were able to get lumber for 
floors in their cabins, so they danced too. 

There was one family that came to the Gulch that 
was not a relative — Mr. A. M. Stevenson, his wife, and 
widowed daughter with one small child. He was a car- 
penter and built the sluice boxes for father and did any 
work in his line that was needed. 

Our lighting system was tallow candles. They sold at 
one time for one dollar a piece. Flour was one dollar 
a pound and was bought by the fifty pound sack. 

In the spring of 1869, father and family went back 
to Du Quoin on a visit. They went by team and wagon 
to the railroad point, which by then was at Green River, 
Wyoming. They feared being robbed and, as a precau- 
tion, my Uncle Jacob built what he called a false bot- 
tom to the wagonseat and the bags of gold were placed 
there . . . 

They went to St. Louis first. Mother said they were 
all shabbily dressed and wanted to fit themselves out 
in the best attire before meeting their relatives and 


friends in Du Quoin. When they went into the store, 
mother told the clerk she wanted to buy some clothing 
and asked for a coat and bonnet. The clerk brought 
out a very cheap looking coat and bonnet. Mother said, 
"I don't want such as that. Don't judge us by our looks. 
I've come here to dress up. We are from the mountains 
and have the gold to pay for what we get. We are on 
our way home to visit relatives." Then, as the saying 
is, they "fell all over themselves" to wait on mother. 
She bought a coat and paid fifty dollars for it. That was 
something good, as prices were then . . . 

After a few weeks visit, they returned to their home 
in the west and father continued mining until the richest 
ground was finished, producing about a million dollars. 

I was born in the Gulch in 1869. When I was three 
and one-half years old, we moved over to Idaho and 
settled on a ranch in the upper Lemhi Valley. Father 
had purchased the ranch the year before (1871) from 
Joseph Pattee. All the relatives moved over too and 
settled on ranches. Mr. Stevenson settled about eight- 
een miles up the valley from our place, at the junction 
of the roads-one coming from Montana and the other 
one running through the valley down to Salmon. Mr. 
Stevenson become postmaster at Junction and served 
through his lifetime. 

After a time, father built a new frame barn, quite a 
large with one with a good floor. All the other buildings 
in the valley were made of round logs with dirt roofs. 

Dr. William C. Whitwell and Nora Yearian Whitwell - 1890 

Lemhi County Museum photo 

This barn was something to take notice of , as it was 
larger and different. So a dance was given in the new 
barn. People came from Salmon and Junction. This was 
the first event I remember, and I remember the dress 
I wore — a white brocaded material with a little black 
figure scattered over it (something like a dollar sign) 
and a sash of red ribbon which father had bought for 
me in Bannock. And was I dressed up! I was as proud 
as a peacock and I danced that night and ever after 
through the years. It is an amusement I enjoy very 

The next thing special that I remember was my first 
school. Father employed as teacher, a beautiful and 
charming young lady, Miss Belle Vernon, who had come 
out from Missouri to visit her sister, Mrs. Anna B. 
McCaleb, in Salmon. She lived with us in our home. 

Father added a large room for a billiard hall and pur- 
chased a fine marble-topped table. He loved to play 
the game and would sometimes stop strangers on their 
way to Salmon and have them stay overnight to play 
billiards with him. My brother Thomas became a near 
expert at the game. One end of this room was used 
for our school room. I remember one of the lessons 
in my reader: there was a picture in the lower corner 
on the left-hand page of a little boy with a hatchet and 
a small tree broken over and a man and a verse — the 
George Washington story. 

When father took possession of the ranch, only a 
part was under fence. That was the meadow land of 
wild grass in the valley. Some of that was cut for hay. 
Then the bar, as father called it, soon was cultivated. 
It was an elevated piece of ground sloping nicely for 
irrigation — still one of the fine fields in the valley. It 
was thickly covered with sagebrush, so the land was 
plowed by single plow and team. Then Indian squaws 
were employed to pull out the sagebrush and pile and 
burn it. (The bucks were indolent, except a few would 
work in the hay field for some of the ranchers). As 
many as twenty squaws would work at a time. Mother 
served them the noon meal. They sat on the ground 
in the yard and that was where they were served. There 
was one squaw that washed for mother, regularly. 

We still used our tallow candles for a time after we 
came to Lemhi; then we were able to get coal oil and 
lamps. We felt that was quite an improvement. The 
lamps were portable and we carried them from room 
to room as needed. There was the chore of cleaning 
the smokey chimneys and trimming the wicks each 

Soon each rancher had a vegetable garden. Seed 
was selected from a catalog and purchased in the east. 
It was really a treat to get our first early spring vege- 
tables — lettuce, radishes, and green onions; then peas. 
The hardier vegetables were also grown and matured 
and stored in our cellars for winter use — potatoes, on- 
ions, beef, pork, fowl, wild game; also milk, cream, and 
butter; some eggs were packed in the summer for win- 
ter use. 


The year 1876 was a presidential year. Hays and 
Tildon were the candidates. Our mail came in from 
Dubois. A carrier went out and one came in each day. 
The Post Office was at Fort Lemhi. Mr. Sharkey, a 
rancher, lived there. The post office was in his house 
and he was the postmaster. His ranch was at the lower 
edge of the Lemhi Indian Reservation, which extended 
up the Lemhi Valley for ten miles. Our ranch on Yearian 
Creek was two miles above the reservation line. The 
agent for the Indians lived near the lower end of the 
reservation on Agency Creek, as it was named. The 
mail carrier's route was from Fort Lemhi to Dubois, 
Idaho. As they passed the ranch houses, one (the re- 
publican) would shout, "Hurrah for Hayes;" the other 
(a democrat) would shout, "Hurrah for Tildon." That 
continued for about a month as it took that long before 
the results of the election were known. Rutherford B. 
Hays won by one vote. 

George L. Shoup was in the mercantile business in 
Salmon. His freighters brought goods for his store from 
Dubois and they camped at our ranch on their way in 
to Salmon. We bought staple groceries, getting it off 
the wagons: flour, sugar, hominy, and dried corn. Green 
coffee was bought by the fifty pounds. We browned it 
in the oven and ground it as we used it. Some dried 
fruits were available: apples, peaches, and pears. Later 
we were able to get some canned goods; at first, corn 
and tomatoes. Gradually we were able to obtain other 


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varieties. The only fresh fruit we had was wild goose- 
berries. The squaws gathered them and sold them to 
the families in our neighborhood. Mother paid the 
squaws in sugar, butter, or money, whichever they 

In the earliest days in the valley, our only vehicle for 
travel was the dead-ax (axle) wagon — no springs at all. 
Then, later, we were able to get the spring wagon; light- 
er weight and with springs under the box and also un- 
der the seat. Quite an improvement, we thought. Fa- 
ther bought the first buggy in our part of the valley. A 
friend of his, Mr. N. I. Andrews, who lived farther down 
the valley, had ordered it from Springfield, Ohio. When 
it came, the price was more than Mr. Andrews wanted 
to pay, so father bought it. It was of fine quality, with 
a leather adjustable top and leather cushioned seat. 
Then a span of horses was needed. Father's brother, 
Joseph, had gotten a span from Canada. Father ad- 
mired them so much, his brother sold them to him. 
They were small but strong and good travelers. Father 
always called them "my little blacks." They were shiny 
black and very pretty. He sometimes drove them fifty 
miles in a day. He also bought from the Indians, saddle 
horses, as others in the valley did. They were small- 
bred and spoken of as Indian Ponies. We children each 
had a pony, as did others in the neighborhood. Horse- 
back riding together for pastime. Girls had to ride side- 
wise in those days and wear long riding skirts to look 
their best. 

Another amusement was families visiting each other 
on Sunday — our social day. Families took turns enter- 
taining, as dinner was always served. Then we often 
went visiting relatives or friends and stayed over night, 
as everyone did. We had visitors too. It took some time 
to travel in those days. Another pleasure was playing 
croquet, as we young folks did. 

One of the hired men made a beaver robe for our 
family; it was lined with red flannel. It was used as a 
lap robe when riding in the buggy in cold weather. The 
beavers were caught along the Lemhi . . . 

The first ministers that came to "our neck of the 
woods" were Mr. Riggin and Mr. Van Orsdale, later 
known as Brother Van. They were sent from Helena, 
Montana, by the Methodist organization. They would 
spend their first night in the valley with my Uncle Joe's 
family, near Junction. They would have prayer service 
for the family and some of the neighbors; then they 
would come on down the valley and stay at our home 
over night and again have a prayer meeting; then go 
on their way to Salmon for church services. On their 
way back, their stops were at the same ranches and 
meeting were held again. Brother Van was the songster 
and led the singing. He had a large mouth and opened 
it as wide as he could, so it seemed to me, and I was 
fascinated. Those meeting gave us children our first 
knowledge of a religious service . . . 

The first cattle in the upper Lemhi were bought by 
father in Corrine, Utah, and were driven from there to 


John Yearian's ranch near Junction. The cattle were 
divided among three Yearian's — John, George, and 
Zeph. Each would choose a head, in turn, and place 
his own brand on the animal. George leased his share 
to the Stroud brothers, John and Elijah, for a few years. 
As the herds increased, the best cows were chosen for 
butter-making and that became quite an industry. Lat- 
er, George bought some Texas Long Horn cattle in 
southern Utah, the milk cows, ranged the year round, 
out in the open in the foothills and mountains. There 
were no restrictions on grazing land then. In the fall, 
the steers were brought in from the range and sold. 
The stockmen rode in groups and gathered up the cat- 
tle for each other. Large three and four year old steers, 
with some younger ones, were priced at fifteen dollars 
a head. In the spring they rode again and gathered in 
the cows in order to brand the calves. 

Through the years, mother made her own soap; it 
was of a soft consistency, like jelly; a good quality soap 
for all cleaning purposes. She had plenty of tallow and 
obtained the lye by saving ashes as they accumulated 
and placing them in a barrel and pouring water on them 
to drain through the lye. 

After father had his nice buggy, we visited rather 
often along the valley. On one visit to Uncle Joseph's 
home, we children had been playing around outside 
and in the late afternoon we decided to have prayer 
meeting. We had learned something about conducting 
such a meeting from two ministers. So, we sang some 
hymns, then called on Lizzie Perry, a cousin who was 
visiting there, to pray. We knelt by our chairs and this 
was her prayer: "Oh, Lord, ain't this a hell of a day!" 
Outside a fierce blizzard was raging. Sometimes through 
the years, if we planned something and couldn't carry 
it out, we would say, "Well, this has been one of Lizzie 
Perry's days" — a fitting expression once in a while. 

In 1877 came the Indian Scare. No one can know 
the torture of fear unless he has experienced it. All the 
ranchers watched all day through field glasses for signs 
of the Indians approaching. At first we watched mostly 
across the hills toward Hayden Creek, as a trail came 
from the Pahsimeroi side of the mountain and down 
the creek. 

Early in the summer, my father and my brother, John 
who was grown then, left home for a week. I think they 
went over to the Gulch. During that week we had such 
a fear of the Indians that, when night came, we packed 
some bedding on a horse and went down into the field 
and made our beds in the thickest brush we could find. 
Each night during that week we went there to sleep. 
We understood Indians would not enter thick brush. 

Then General Howard and his soldiers came, coming 
over the Hayden Creek trail and to our place. They 
camped near our house for two weeks. And, oh, what 
a relief! We slept athome, feeling so safe. General Ho- 
ward and his men just trailed the Indians, but never 
did catch up with them. The people thought he wasn't 
brave enough to fight. I don't know how many soldiers 

were there, but a good man, and father furnished them 
with fresh beef while they were camped at our place. 

After the soldiers went on out of the valley, we went 
to the fort near Junction. It was built in a central place 
relative to the homes around it and very near the school 
house. The women and children stayed in the fort and 
the men folks went to attend to necessary work. We 
children played games around the fort during the day 
and at night the older people danced in the school 
house. Evidently they were not too unhappy. 

Late in the summer we went back home. Our Lemhi 
Indians had fear and were watching too. They sent 
scouts out to learn what they could about the hostile 
Indians. One Indian, Bannock John, a good friend of 
ours, came to our house every day or two to learn if 
we had any late news. It was believed that a few of the 
young Indians of the Lemhi tribe were treacherous. 
They left the valley and one, Major Jim, whom we knew 
and whom the whites didn't trust fully, never came 
back to the reservation until the Indian scare was all 

The next summer, 1878, the Indians were on the 
rampage again. We went to Junction and the men held 
a meeting to decide if it was not best for all of us to 
go to Salmon, as there were not many people all to- 
gether. Some wanted to go and some didn't; so, our 
family, all in our neighborhood, and a few in Junction 
went to Salmon and camped on the Salmon River bank, 
just north of the town, in a little meadow along the 
river — a nice place. There we camped all summer. 

In the spring of 1876, two more families had come 
from Du Quoin and settled on the ranches in our neigh- 
borhood. They were the Thomas Pyeatt and Gillihan 
Rees families. They were fine people and we had a good 
friendly neighborhood all through the years, each one 
always ready to lend a helping hand if needed. So, they 
were here to pass through the frightful experience and 
went to Salmon and camped with us. 

One day in Salmon we had a dreadful fright for a 
brief time. About noon a horseman came galloping into 
town shouting, "The Indians are coming! The Indians 
are coming!" The word spread quickly and in a short 
time people were running to the fort, some with kettles 
of food they were cooking. Mrs. McCaleb was running 
with her two children: a daughter named Hope and a 
son, Hugh. When she got near the fort, she was calling 
"Hope, Hope, Hope," and those in the crowd who heard 
her thought she was trying to give them encourage- 
ment. Instead, she had gotten separated from her 
daughter and was calling her name. The women and 
children were all placed inside the fort and the men in 
a trench around the fort with an earth embankment; 
from there, they were to fight. We, inside, expected 
them all to be killed and then the Indians to come in 
to torture and kill us. No one could ever know that 
dreadful experience of fear, unless they were there. It 
was a short duration for the big dust up the Lemhi 
about a mile and a half, which was seen from town. 


proved to be a man driving a band of horses. 

Later that summer, the Indians did come into Junc- 
tion. A girl who was playing in Mr. Stevenson's yard 
saw them coming out of the Road Canyon. So, the mad 
rush to the fort was on. It was told that Mrs. Stevenson, 
who was hurrying to the fort and carrying a kettle of 
beans, set the kettle down in the road and in her ex- 
citement rushed on without it. The Indians came down 
the road, passed Mr. Stevenson's house across the 
valley, and camped on the west side of the Lemhi River 
in sight of the fort. There were only twenty people in 
the fort, but fortunately, the next morning the Indians 
moved on, got out of the valley and over on to Birch 
Creek, where they met some freighters. The wagons 
were loaded with goods for George L. Shoup and Com- 
pany in Salmon. The Indians murdered the four men 
and burned their wagons and took their horses with 
them. A chinaman who was with them escaped. He ran 
to the creek and hid in the willows. Later in the season, 
we all came home from Salmon and there was no more 
"Indian Excitement." So we were all back on our ranch- 
es and thankful that we could live peacefully. 

After the scare was all over, the young Indians came 
back to the reservation. Major Jim would come to our 
house often and always in time for the noon meal. One 
day Mother said to him, "Jim, you come so often and 
have your dinner. I think you should pay me." He spoke 
English well and he said, in a firm voice, "All right," 
and he went into the living room, borrowed a quarter 
from father, and then went back to the kitchen and 
paid mother. 

A school house was soon built in our community; 
about eleven children attended. We who were the far- 
thest away rode horseback to school in the winter time. 

Soon after we were back on our ranch, father put 
up a building quite near our house for a store. He car- 
ried groceries, hardware, dry goods, yardage, Indian 
blankets, and shawls in beautiful colors for the squaws; 
also beads which they used in trimming their buckskin 
gloves and moccasins. The Indians were good custom- 
ers and good pay and good friends of my father. They 
called him "George Yaggett" as the word Yearian 
seemed difficult for them to pronounce. Their Chief, 
Tendoy, was a good friend, a man of fine character, 
honored and respected by the white people. His own 
tribe adored him and put great faith and trust in him. 
He was a staunch friend of Colonel Shoup and his busi- 
ness partner, M. M. McPherson, and other leading men 
of the valley. He often consulted them on problems in 
which he thought he needed advice. During the Indian 
Scare he would consult with these men. In that way 
we were in touch with our Indians. We thought they 
feared the hostile Indians too. 

Then father added a tin shop to his store. My older 
brother was attending school in Kansas City and father 
wrote him to sent him a good tinner, which he did. This 
man, Mr. Tyler, could make almost anything that could 
be made of tin. The principal work was making milk 




ggUent^ral Merchandise.^ 



MM tared*. 

pans and butter cans. The pans held four quarts and 
the butter cans, ten to twenty pounds of butter. Each 
rancher had a herd of milk cows, fifteen to twenty head. 
They used the pans for milk, placing the pans of milk 
on shelves in the milk house. They packed the butter 
in the cans, which were sealed, and sold. This was one 
means of income for the ranchers. 

In about 1880, father and two of our neighbors bought 
organs, the "Beaty." They were the first brought into 
the valley. Then a music teacher was needed. Out tin- 
ner, Mr. Tyler, knew a widow in Kansas City who's 
daughter was a music teacher. In due time, Jessie 
Bucklin came out, lived with us, and taught us. We 
didn't advance very far but learned the fundamentals 
of music, my brother Thomas and I, and to play some 
selections. A pleasant pastime. A little later, Jessie's 
mother came out and married our tinner, Mr. Tyler. 

In the early 1880's, a rich quartz mine was discov- 
ered at the head of the valley and the camp was named 
Nicholia, for Mr. Ralph Nichols who owned and oper- 
ated the mine. That made Junction a "boom town." 


Father bought lots in Junction for a store building and 
a dwelling. The former was a two story building — the 
upstairs was a hall used for dancing, socials, Christmas 
entertainment, etc. Father sold his store goods at the 
ranch and went into business in Junction. He bought 
the rancher's canned butter in the fall and shipped it 
by freight wagons to Challis by way of Birch Creek, 
Arco, and through the Big Lost River Valley, on up the 
Salmon River to the mining camps at Clayton and Bay 
Horse. Father had bought young wild mules over in 
Montana and they were tamed and trained to drive, 
so they made up the team. He had a good driver to 
do his own freighting. His goods for the store were 
brought from Red Rock, the railroad point, to Junction 
by his freight outfit. In 1883 the dwelling for the family 
was completed and we moved to Junction that fall. 

Mr. Stevenson had put up a new two story frame 
building for a hotel. The post office was in this building; 
Mr. Stevenson was the postmaster through his life time. 
He and Mrs. Stevenson were the only grandparents in 
the county and he was always called "grandpa." There 
were two other stores in the town, a blacksmith shop, 
and also three saloons — a "necessary evil" I suppose. 
Even so, I believe they were less harmful than the pres- 
ent day so-called "lounges." Minors, women and chil- 
dren never entered the saloons in those days. 

About 1885 the Methodist Conference sent in a min- 
ister; he was located at Junction, and made regular 
visits to Salmon. His home was next door to ours and 
our families became close friends. Church services were 
held in the Junction school house, as well as Sunday 
School and church socials. Later, the minister, Mr. 
Mintzer, was sent to Salmon and that was his head- 
quarters. He would then make his trips regularly up to 
Junction to preach . . . 

So we lived on in Junction attending school there 
until 1887. Father was in failing health and he sold his 
store to his son, John. 

That summer, father and mother and I spent in the 
Gulch. Father owned a hay ranch above Junction about 
a mile and a half and when it came time to make hay, 
mother asked me which I would rather do — go to the 
ranch and cook for the hay men, or stay in the Gulch 
and keep house for father and she would go. I chose 
the former. Father had sick spells that frightened me. 
So, off I went to the ranch! My cousin Milt Reddington 
and family had come out from Kansas City a couple of 
years before and his daughter Sadie helped me with 
the cooking. She and I were pals as well as second 
cousins. It was a "lark" for us. On this ranch lived a 
cousin of mine, her husband Thompson Denney, and 
their children. Mr Denney worked for father and raised 
the hay. They lived in the only house on the ranch and 
it was just one large room. They cooked at one end of 
the room and we at the other end. We were there for 
six weeks and cooked for six men. We slept in a covered 
spring wagon placed by the side of the house. 

Sadie and I pulled a "stunt" one beautiful moonlit 

night. We asked our cousins if we could sleep on the 
hay stack which the men had put up in the corral near 
the house. The hay stack was only partly built, so it 
was not very high. They gave their consent and we 
gathered up some bedding and out we went. Soon we 
were in bed and, when the light went out at the house, 
we got up and were off to town. We walked, of course, 
and when we got to Junction we located some young 
folks and our boyfriends. We visited around a while, 
then the two boys walked back to the ranch with us. 
That was one secret we kept from our cousins. In the 
late summer, we moved back to our home ranch. 

That year Miss Emma Russell came out from Ches- 
ter, Illinois, and taught our school. My cousin Sadie 
lived with us for a while and we attended school to- 
gether. That was our last term of school, 1887-88. Sa- 
die's home was on a ranch up the Lemhi where the 
house stood on the bank of the creek that flowed into 
the Lemhi. It was too far from our neighborhood school 
house for her to live at home and attend school. 

In 1887, Dr. W. C. Whitwell and another man. Bob 
Stocker, came to Lemhi. They and Miss Russell came 
in on the stagecoach the same day and stopped at 
Fort Lemhi, the stage station and post office. It was in 
the ranch home of Frank Sharkey, who was postmas- 
ter. Then Dr. Whitwell and Bob Stocker went on up to 
Lemhi Agency and Miss Russell went on to Mr. and 
Mrs. Thomas Pyeatt's home, in our neighborhood, to 
teach our school. They had come in from Red Rock, 
Montana, our nearest railroad station. The stage road 
had been built up Agency Creek and on up the canyon 
over the high mountain that divided Idaho and Mon- 
tana. It was a shorter way than going up the valley 
through Junction. At that time the mail was carried 
each day to the Agency and on to Junction. Previously 
the mail, and passengers, were brought from Dubois, 
Idaho, then our nearest railroad point. 

There was a rural system for the ranchers of the 
upper Lemhi. The stagecoach went on to Salmon each 
day. They changed horses four times on the way to 
Red Rock — at the Seventeen Mile house out from 
Salmon at the foot of the mountain, then over the 
divide, and changed horses again at the foot of the 
mountain on the Montana side where they stayed over 
night, then down on Horse Prairie Valley for the noon 
meal and a change of horses, and on to Red Rock. 
Coming in from Red Rock to Salmon, they stopped at 
the foot of the mountain over night on the Montana 
side, called Midway. It was a hard pull over the moun- 
tain. In the winter time they took two days to make 
the trip, but we received the mail each day. There were 
no oiled roads or even graded roads in those days. I 
have seen the mud so deep and the road so sliding in 
the canyon that a man was put out to stand on the 
brake on the upper side to keep the coach from turning 

Dr. Whitwell was a native of Tennessee. He finished 
his medical course at Vanderbilt University in Nashville. 


At graduation, he was awarded a gold meal of honor 
for being the highest in his class in gynecology. He 
began his practice in his home town, Linden, Tennes- 
see. He moved to Decatur, Texas, then he accepted 
the Government appointment as doctor on the Lemhi 
Indian Reservation in Idaho. 

I never knew the Doctor well until the late summer 
of 1888. Father's health continued to fail and Dr. Whi- 
twell was often called to see him. It was then we learn- 
ed my father had heart trouble. His case was incurr- 
able, and he never seemed to gain . 

The Government for several years had been planning 
to move the Lemhi Indians to Fort Hall Reservation in 
southern Idaho. Government representatives would be 
sent out to consult with Chief Tendoy and others about 
moving, giving their reasons, but the Indians never were 
willing to move. While Dr. Whitwell was at the Agency, 
again officials came to consult, meeting with the In- 
dians and the white employees. After the case was 
again presented to them. Chief Tendoy made a reply, 
giving the reasons for their not wanting to move. He 
told how they had lived there through many years, had 
reared their children, fished in the streams, hunted the 
deer in the mountains, buried their dead on the hills, 
and that it was their home and dear to them. It was 
an eloquent speech. Will Kadletz, the blacksmith, was 
the interpreter. 

A few years later, the Indians were moved to Fort 
Hall, but against their will. They trailed out through the 
valley with their families and pack horses, dragging their 
wickiup poles. They were weeping as they went and 
the white people were sorry for them. Chief Tendoy 
died soon after, of a broken heart, and was buried on 
the Lemhi Reservation. The white people placed a 
monument to his memory at the grave. 

Several physicians had preceded Dr. Whitwell at the 
Lemhi Agency. Dr. Wright succeeded Dr. Whitwell and, 
after a few years, he also located in Salmon. Dr. Ken- 
ney was there from the very early days. Then Dr. Mur- 
phy came to the Agency, later going to Salmon. Dr. 
Hanmer was practicing in Thunder Mountain, a boom- 
ing mining camp. After the mining business decreased, 
he, too, came to Salmon. While there were several 
doctors in Salmon then, the population had increased 
in the town and county. Dr Stratton came for a few 
years, they went away for several years, then came 
back again. He was in poor health and did not live very 
long. Dr. Murphy died after a few years. 

The former doctors at the Agency, as well as Dr. 
Whitwell, practiced among the white families too. Dr. 
Whitwell made strong friends with both the white peo- 
ple and the Indians. 

The employees at the Agency, except the school 
teacher, were all single men and they lived together in 
a two story building (which still stands). They had a 
cook who was also their housekeeper. A school had 
previously been established for the Indian children, al- 
so a cooking school for the girls. They attended through 

the winter, then back to their wickiups and into their 
native dress. The parents of the children objected to 
their being educated. They thought the confinement 
was injurious to their health. After a time, they were 

In April 1889 my brother, Thomas, and Emma Russell 
were married. They lived at the home ranch and Thom- 
as carried on the business as father was not able to. 
In June of the same year. Dr. Whitwell and I were mar- 
ried. We spent our honeymoon at the Agency. 

In the fall. Doctor resigned his position and we moved 
to Salmon. (For a number of years after we located in 
Salmon, some of the Indians would come to see him 
to have him prescribe for them). Before we settled in 
Salmon, I went to Dillon, Montana, our nearest railroad 
town, with my Uncle Zeph and Aunt Jane, to buy fur- 
niture for our home, getting what was necessary for 
housekeeping. Some of that furniture is still in use in 
my home after sixty five years! 

After we rented a year, we bought the house and 
built on to it, as we needed more room. We also bought 
more ground as it was necessary for Doctor to keep a 
horse and buggy. We kept a milk cow and chickens. I 
did the milking; I still like ranching. Doctor made his 
many calls throughout the county by horse and buggy. 
He also made some trips by horseback, the only means 

.i% -v. 


Gladys Whitwell (Radford), Laura Whitwell (McKinney) 


of travel to see his patients at mining camps, riding on 
trails high along the mountain side with the Salmon 
River swiftly flowing far down below in the canyon. Gib- 
bonsville was then a prosperous mining town and he 
was often called there to visit the sick. A wagon road 
extended that far from Salmon. 

Dr. Whitwell was a Mason and affiliated with the Lodge 
in Salmon, No. 11, A. F. and A. M. He was active in 
lodge work and served as Worshipful Master a few times. 
In 1891 Doctor and I joined the Hugh Duncan Chapter 
No. 2 of the O.E.S. He served a number of years as 
Worthy Patron in the Chapter. 

In 1890, our first child was born, a son named Earl. 
We were proud parents. In 1892, our daughter Laura 
was born. Another joy. 

In 1893 the Doctor and I took a trip to the Chicago 
World's Fair. A most enjoyable time and wonders to 
see. Father had died in 1890, and mother kept our 
children while we were gone. Daisy, a daughter of our 
good friend, N. I. Andrews, accompanied us; also my 
cousin Arthur Yearian, who was going to Chicago to 
continue his studies in dentistry. That trip to Chicago 
was a wonderful experience for people from the "back 
woods country." After we came home, mother came 
to live with us. 

In 1894, Gladys was born. Ours was a family to be 
proud of. Parents should have the right to praise their 
children, I think. 

We were still using oil lamps for lighting, although 
they were somewhat improved over the kind we used 
in the earliest days. In about 1896, a few local citizens 
put in a small power plant on the Lemhi River east of 
town. Allen Merritt was interest in this project and 
placed the poles through the town for wiring. This plant 
provided enough current only for lighting through the 
night, so it was turned off at the plant each morning. 
After a few years, another larger plant was installed. 
Then we were able to get electric irons. Although very 
heavy and awkward, they were a great improvement 
over the cold-handle irons that had to be heated on a 
coal range. 

From the earliest days we had one church in Salmon. 
It was attended by Methodists, Presbyterians, Baptists, 
Episcopalians, and sometimes a Catholic or two; also 
nonmembers. It was one big family that worshipped 
together. No one thought of denominationism. We 
worked together in church affairs, socials, religious 
concerts, Christmas exercises, etc. The minister was 
never paid a fixed salary. The women members, and 


•O-Omcc iq the McNicolI 

nonmembers, would take turns (two or three at a time) 
canvasing the town each month for money to pay the 
preacher. The nonmembers were generous also in pay- 
ing the preacher. There was always good attendance 
at church; at the evening worship, the church was filled. 
Happy times! That little church knew the joys and sor- 
rows of the community . . . 

Most of the people worked together in obtaining es- 
sential improvements. Dr Whitwell was always inter- 
ested in the welfare of the community, as was Allen 
Merritt. The water supply for the town came from some 
shallow wells and it wasn't considered healthful. So, 
steps were taken to get water piped into our village 
from Jessie Creek, a mountain stream coming high up 
on the west side of the town. It was the purest and 
best water in the world! In due time the pipes were laid 
and water reached every home; a luxury enjoyed by 

Then a new school house was needed. The old one 
was deteriorating and not large enough, so Dr. Whi- 
twell, with Allen Merritt and others, labored for that. 
There was some opposition from a few of the oldest 
citizens, but they did accomplish getting a two story 
brick building to replace the old one. That was about 

Dr. Whitwell was interested in politics too. He served 
three terms in the State Legislature as Senator. I vis- 
ited Boise during the 1903 session. We were royally 
entertained . . . 

In 1907 Dr. Whitwell was elected Grand Master of 
the Grand Lodge of Idaho and served through 1908, 
visiting most of the lodges in the State. That was elec- 
tion year and Doctor was a delegate to the Democratic 
State Convention. There was some strife in writing their 
platform and some of the delegates bolted and nom- 
inated a ticket, so there were two tickets. Doctor was 
nominated for Governor on the regular ticket. When 
he arrived home, he was met at the stage station by 
many of his friends and escorted to his home. We ap- 
preciated the honor. Then the State officials had to 
decide which was the legal ticket and the decision was 
made in favor of the bolters, so Doctor was out. 

I don't remember when the Gilmore and Pittsburgh 
Railroad began building out from Armstead, but I re- 
member the company buying right-of-way through the 
valley. Mrs. Stevenson (the second) owned the land 
around Junction, and the company wanted ground for 
a depot. Her price was so high that they went across 
the valley and bought ground on the west side of the 
Lemhi and built their depot and round house, leaving 
Junction high and dry. The businessmen moved over 
to Leadore, as the village was named, some moving 
their buildings as well as their goods. In 1910, in the 
month of May, the road was finished to Salmon. The 
first train arrived in the afternoon and there was the 
driving of the golden spike and in the evening, a ban- 
quet. It was one interesting and exciting time for Salm- 
on. The Railroad Company did some surveying on down 


the Salmon River and the people of Salmon thought 
the road would continue on to the coast, but they were 
disappointed. Then we had train service only three 
times a week, when with the stage, we had mail each 
day. After a few years a special gasoline car was put 
in operation, bringing mail and passengers every day — 
going out from Salmon in the morning and back in the 
evening . . . 

So, the years passed. We educated our children in 
Salmon through high school; then each, in turn, went 
away to college; and, in due course, married. 

In the fall of 1918 came the dreadful flu epidemic, 
hitting us hard, as well as all the country. The doctors 
were exhausted from over work, going day and night. 
Doctor Whitwell had a flu treatment that was quite suc- 
cessful. Some would say, "We won't mind getting the 
flu, if we can get Dr. Whitwell." He also had a treatment 
for simple goiter, which was very good and which re- 
moved the goiter without surgery. 

Late that year. Dr. Whitwell was stricken with pneu- 
monia and died December 29, 1918, leaving many 
friends in the county and State to mourn his loss. I 
wondered how I could ever carry on without him, but 
life has to go on. There were many lonely years. My 
mother was with me, after having lived a few years at 
the home ranch, and she was a great comfort to me. 
In August, 1920, my mother died; another great sor- 
row. In 1923 my family began to scatter. At different 
times I visited my daughters in San Francisco, St. Louis, 
Cheyenne, Washington, D.C., and Boise. I also spent 
several winters with my cousin in Miami. 

I am now ninety two years of age, February 1962. 
The years have brought many changes. The happen- 
ings of the later years are known to residents of Salm- 
on, so there is no need for me to include them here. 
It has been a pleasure for me to think back over the 
years and set down on paper for the Lemhi Historical 
Society the events of the early day, as I remember 
them. I hope these reminiscences may be of interest 
to the younger generations — and perhaps to those to 

edited by History Committee 

LEMHI LODGE NO. 1 1 , F. & A. M. 

Slated cninmtinic:ition5; n( I.cmlii 
l.f.'lcre No. II, V.& A. M. will be 
Ik Id ;U llnii Ilnll tiiitil fnillirr 
IK. tier, nt y'A o'clock I". M. on tlic 
cvciii^jj (if llic Satiii'Iny on ui 
bcloic lull moon cnrli niontli. All 
Mn-tcr Mason."; iiicood si niulinj; 

nre cordi^IIv invited to allcnd. 

\V. C. Wimwr.i.i., \V. ^L 
Will.. U. Slioi'i', Sccictaty. 


Tl2<^ Bevrben. 

Shaves 3 inches closer than any 
barber in town. 

1 9 18 - J. D. Bohney, Tendoy rancher, told of a swarm of bees that 
literally tried to pitch on his team while at work in his hay meadow. 
The bees also swarmed around Mr. Bohney's head covering himself 
and horses, but not a one of them stung man or beast. Mr. Bohney 
said he thought he was in for the time of his life until, after stopping 
the mower and its noise, the little insects could then hear and heed 
the hum of thier queen in her commands to take them away about 
their business. 

about 1910 

by Bessie Cannon 

I was born in the Sandy Creek area in 1894, ninety 
years ago. The years went by. I knew of and attended 
the Basket Socials given at the old log school house. 

The one that stands out in my memory most was 
when I was sixteen years old. It was my first date with 
a boyfriend. I made a basket shaped like a boat, cov- 
ered it with green crepe paper, decorating it with red 
buttons, beads and artificial flowers. It had a wire bail 
wrapped with white baby ribbon, but I carried it in a 
flour sack so no one could see it. I had it filled with 
fried chicken, ham sandwiches, cake and fruits. 

We went with my family in the old lumber wagon 
getting there just as the dance started with a waltz, 
"The Good Old Summer Time." 

After several dances my boyfriend came to me say- 
ing, "You're brother Roy Moore wants to see you out- 
side." I went out and he said, "Will you go over to the 
neighbors and sew my pants. I climbed over the barb- 
wire fence and tore my new pants on the seat." Of 
course I went with him. When we got there, there were 
only two little ones four and six years old. They didn't 
know where anything was, so I searched and found a 
darning needle, but no thread. Roy went to bed with 
the kids while I darned the tear with hair from my long 
braids of hair. 

It was close to eleven o'clock when we got back to 
the dance. Mother said, "Where have you been," so 
angry, but laughed when I told her. 

They were making arrangements to sell the baskets, 
first one a shoe box with wild roses "first of the spring" 
sold for one dollar, then two dollars, and two dollars 
and fifty cents and three dollars, then mine sold for 
four dollars. I was to get the prize as it sold for the 
highest price. 

There was an old goat named "Charlie" who roamed 
the valley, all the girls were afraid he would get their 
basket, but he got mine. I wasn't going to eat with him, 
but my mother said, "Oh yes you will," but when he 
wasn't looking I gave my boyfriend a sandwich. I said, 
"Why didn't you buy my basket?" He said, "I did try 
but I couldn't give but three dollars." 

The sad part of the Basket Social was when I had to 
dance the "Home Sweet Home" waltz with "Charlie." 

Oh yes, my prize was a bar of Lysol soap. I gave it 
to Charlie hoping he'd take a bath. 



At the mouth of Big Eightmile Canyon in a pictur- 
esque setting along the creek with a backdrop of pine 
covered mountains, miraculously springs a large flow 
of warm water at a "just right" temperature, feeling 
warm if one is cold and a bit cool if one is hot. 

A structure was built for bathing and swimming here 
sometime in the 1880's and the Dunlap family resided 
there. The community used and enjoyed the benefits 
of this marvelous spring. 

Catherine O'Callahan obtained the property in 1897, 
and shortly afterward, the Bohannon family became 
the owners, adding to the acreage through the follow- 
ing years. The property stayed in the Bohannon family 
until it was sold to George Carl and Elizabeth Udy short- 
ly after they moved onto the ranch in 1937 and began 
leasing from the Bohannon family. Eventually, Orion 
Peterson enlarged the swimming pool area to be about 
thirty two feet by sixteen feet while he and his widowed 
mother were living there in the late twenties. The 
pool was always busiest in the evenings. Whether they 
came by hiking, horseback or auto, the children, young 
people and families came for wholesome recreation, a 
good soak, just relaxation or for health benefits. They 
came at all time during the day or evening. The pool 
was also used by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter 
Day Saints for baptisms. The occupants preceding 
the Udy family, concentrated on income from the 
swimming pool and selling food and "drink." Carl and 
Beth concentrated on building up the ranch, their cat- 
tle herd and having a wholesome environment for their 
three children and so no food or "drink" were sold and 
the pool hours were limited. They did continue to sell 
swimming privilges for twenty five cents which included 

a towel, swimming suit and a bar of Ivory soap. Ivory 
was used as it stayed afloat during use or when left in 
the pool. The swimming pool, with a large flow through 
of the natural warm water, was drained and the plank 
walls and floors scrubbed each morning. The opening 
at the floor on the back side was then closed and the 
water rose to about four and a half feet to the overflow. 
The suits and towels were washed in Beth's gasoline 
run Maytag washer. The water was carried from the 
spring and heated in a boiler on the wood range in the 
kitchen and the children carried little buckets of warm 
spring water to fill the three rinse tubs. The kerosene 
lanterns, which were hung above the pool, in the hall- 
way and the two dressing rooms, also had to be filled 
and the chimneys cleaned. 

Under the large Cottonwood trees which arched over 
the entrance of the building, was a little boxed in area 
with a lid where the main spring rose before flowing 
under the dressing rooms and into the pool. Water was 
carried the few steps from here to the home for do- 
mestic use. Water for drinking and cooking was carried 
from the creek. 

Before the power lines were put into the area, con- 
sideration was given to generating electricity from the 
fall of the warm water as it tumbled down the hillside 
into Big Eightmile Creek. The potential was great for 
this warm water spring in this beautiful natural setting; 
however the family was forced to close down public 
swimming, which the residents of the valley from Gil- 
more all through the Lemhi valley had enjoyed for so 
many years, because of the 'sue fad' and the high cost 
of liability insurance. The building and pool was com- 
pletely dismantled about 1958. 


by Roberta Goodman -1991 

The mining camp of Gilmore, originally called Horse- 
shoe Gulch, started when gold was discovered there 
in 1873. In 1906 the principal part of the townsite had 
been built on the hill, but in 1910 A. S. Ross laid out 
the present townsite. The old road, replaced by High- 
way 28, ran through the lower part of Gilmore, along 
the base of the mountains. The town was to be named 
after Mr. J. R. Gilmer of the Gilmer and Salisbury Stage 
Company, but in the process of getting a Post Office, 
the spelling was altered, apparently by mistake, in 
Washington, D. C. Mrs. Grooms was the first Post- 
master in 1900. 

The town's existence was dependant on the profits 
received from working the mines. In 1903 a flume was 
built from Meadow Lake to the mine. It brought water 
about three miles to the mine and from the mine water 

flowed by way of a creek through the town for domestic 
use. In winter water was hauled in from Spring or Clear 
Creek, or snow was melted. Some families kept a water 
barrel standing in a corner of the kitchen and by adding 
fresh snow, had water for household purposes. "Water 
was sold for twenty-five cents for a five gallon can, at 
one time", remembers one of the old timers. Near the 
townsite was a large reservoir where ice was cut and 
stored in winter for summer use. 

Gilmore had three hotels. The Jaggers Hotel was the 
stage stop and the last stage arrived in April 1910. 
There was also a livery stable, a general store, and a 
bank known as the Lemhi Valley Bank. A. S. Ross was 
president of the big mining company and of the bank, 
which was later moved to Leadore. Gilmore had a drug 
store, a saloon called "The Blazing Rag", a butcher 


shop, blacksmith shop, three doctors and a four ward 
hospital of log construction. The Catholic Church was 
never used, however the Methodists used it for their 

In 1914 the population was between six and seven 
hundred people, dwindling to about twenty-five in 1946. 
The store continued to keep its doors open for business 
and also Eve Daily's boarding house and the saloon. 

The Company Store was operated by Mr. Fitch, and 
later by Grover Tucker and his brother Elmer, from the 
east, who took over until they closed the doors per- 

When Grover Tucker arrived from the east in 1911, 
he stopped at the hotel. The following morning, while 
he was out, looking the town over, the hotel caught 

fire, and everything he had burned, except the clothes 
he was wearing. Elmer and Grover had a quarrel over 
a woman friend in their early years and never spoke 
to one another again, although both continued to work 
in the store daily. Even on the coldest days of winter, 
they both stood about the old pot bellied stove and 
never spoke a word. Elmer was the water boy for the 
store and he could be seen carrying water in two large 
pails, on a neck yoke, from the stream to the store. 
The store used coal-oil lamps hanging from the ceiling 
and later they used gasoline lamps. These, too, were 
hung from the ceiling, with the gasoline being pumped 
to them from outside the building. At the peak of busi- 
ness, Grover said they did $100,000 a year and bought 
merchandise by the carload, even candles, before they 

Tt- 111 "IS 

Wm)^ 111 

The Jaggars Hotel in 1915. Proprietress Ann Jaggars could whip any man in town. 


••*. M, 

The mining town of Gilmore, located near Gilmore Summit on Highway 28. It is a ghost town today. 


had other lights. 

The Latest Out Mine was originally staked by a man, 
or two men, who sold it to R. A. Nichols from Birch 
Creek, for $300 and a barrel of whiskey. The Latest 
Out, when Nicholia was operating employed one hun- 
dred twenty-eight men. It was a rich mine. 

The Gilmore and Pittsburg Mine produced galena that 
sparkled like diamonds. At the time they were also em- 
ploying two hundred men. 

In 1902 the Pittsburg-Idaho group of claims uncov- 
ered quality gold, lead and silver ore and began freight- 
ing it to the railroad at Dubois, by horse and wagon. 
Between the time the smelter at Nicolia was torn down 
in 1890, and before the no rail "Iron Monster" came 
on the scene in 1909, they freighted the ore by horse 

^»^> • •»- 

Meadow Lake in July 

Doug Carlson photo 

Gilmore, located at the base of the 
mountains, with beautiful Meadow 
Lake a short distance away. 


The Jaggars Hotel show its age. Destroyed by arson in 1980 

is tlie New Town of 


Terminus of. the Gil- 
more &L Pittl'Jburgh 
R.'R., Over Which 
the Mines of 


Are xOaily 


Shipments of 

High Grade Lead Ore 


DOBtlil; payroll is Lenlii Coosly 
Write for leros asi prices 

Gilmirs Townsih Co., 


drawn wagons. The drive for additional tonnages of 
lead-zinc ores has renewed the interest of prospectors 
in the old Gilmore district of Lemhi County. 

By far the most interesting sight along the rocky hills 
and flats of the area, is the remains of the "Iron Mon- 
ster". The Gilmore Mine at the head of Lemhi Valley 
was eighty-five miles from the nearest railhead of the 
old Oregon Short Line Railroad. Freighting by horse 
drawn vehicles at the height of the mine's operation, 
in the early 1900's, was costly; almost prohibitively so. 
As a consequence, backers of the mine organized a 
separate company called the Dubois and Salmon 
Transportation Company and they bought a "traction 
wagon"; a steam engine which ran on land. It was ca- 
pable of hauling four cars, each containing fifteen tons 
of ore. The trip to the railroad took four days. Mostly 
it was downhill running over the flat, ancient lake beds. 
Streams were bridged, but the "train", during its jour- 
ney, was capable of fording small creeks on its own. 

Cowboys, hunters and prospectors frequently en- 
countered the one hundred ten horsepower monstros- 
ity, clanking over the countryside. The train was kept 
moving, day and night, its way lighted with a large acet- 
ylene lamp when darkness fell. Travel was possible only 
during late spring, summer and early fall, when snow 
or moisture was absent from the arid lands traversed 

When you coiiio to 

errin and 

niLiMOKE. neiTin i 

j^ot nicHls at the Kriiitt, 
\Jilniore Hotel. 1 rops. 

by the engine. The tram crew rotated duties. Those off 
duty, retired to a sheep wagon at the end of the train 
to sleep and rest, while the ore caravan groaned over 
the dusty desert. 

In 1910 the Gilmore and Pittsburg railroad arrived, 
offering new stimulus to the miners at Gilmore. The 
decline of Gilmore started about 1929 when the De- 
pression was sweeping the country and Idaho mines 
were closing down. The railroad hung on until 1940, 
when the rails were torn up during the drive for scrap 
metal to help the war effort. The Gilmore Post Office 
closed its doors in 1956. Gilmore, a town which once 
was lived in, is now deserted, with a mixture of recent 
construction. It is strange to walk down the empty 
streets, trying to imagine the pulsating life which once 
made the town so alive. 

The "Iron Monster" was used to haul ore from Gilmore before the 
railroad arrived. 

Information taken from the Salt Lake Tribune 
These Mountains, by Pearl M. Oberg. 

and from Between 



The Gilmore Mercantile Compay sold general merachandise in earlier days. One of the last businesses to close at Gilmore. Photo 1970. 



Idaho t 

Opened for Business f 
November i6, 191 1 ^ 

Domestic and Foreign 


We Solicit Yoor 

""lesident [ 
V. Pies. \ 
Cashier > 


A. S. Ross. 

J. H., 
■ W. J. Crehan, 


A. 5. Ross, J. H. Crehaii 
H. F. White, ]'.. C. Ross 
V\', J. Crehaii. 

Top, ,Widdowson & Ransom's Livery Stable. 
Below, Perriii e^ Pruitt's Gilmore Hotel. 



by Lyie Longhurst 

At the turn of the century transportation in Lemhi 
County left a lot to be desired. Although the automobile 
had been invented, no one could predict the future of 
cars and trucks. Water transportation was non-exis- 
tent. Freight wagons could cover ten to fifteen miles 
in a day. It was a two day ride on a stage coach over 
Lemhi Pass to Armstead. Better and faster transpor- 
tation was of prime importance if the area was ever to 
develop. The only answer was rail transportation. The 
G&P appeared to be the answer, and served the Lemhi 
and Salmon River valleys for thirty years. 

The Union Pacific and Central Pacific joined tracks 
at Promontory Point, Utah, to complete the first trans- 
continental railroad on May 10, 1869. The first railroad 
in Idaho began as the Utah Northern in 1874. It be- 
came the Oregon Short Line, a subsidiary of the Union 
Pacific. The Oregon Short Line was completed from 
Salt Lake City to Butte, Montana in 1881. In 1884 the 
OSL completed a line across southern Idaho. The Great 
Northern completed its transcontinental line across 
northern Idaho in 1883, followed by the Chicago, Bur- 
lington & Quincy in 1884, and the Chicago, Milwaukee 
& St. Paul in 1909. By the early 1900's four transcon- 
tinental railroads crossed Idaho. But Central Idaho was 
still without a railroad. For a time there was a frantic 
race to see who would be the lucky concern to build 
a railroad into the area. Surveyors swarmed over all 
of Central Idaho. 

The winners of this struggle incorporated in 1907 as 
the Gilmore and Pittsburgh Railroad company. Cor- 
porate officials were W. A. McCutcheon, President, 
Thornton, Pennsylvania. From Pittsburgh, Pennslyvan- 
ia were R. B. Little Vice President, J. H. Crehan, Sec- 
retary, and C. H. McCracken Director. W. F. Stone was 
the Director from Gilmore, Idaho. 

McCutcheon owned 696 shares in the in the cor- 
poration and the other four men each owned one share. 
It was McCutcheon who financed the building of the 
G&P until the Northern Pacific loaned the G&P four 
million and put up other monies from time to time to 
help cover expenses. 

Construction began in 1909. The original line ran from 
Armstead, Montana to Leadore, with one branch to 
Salmon and another to Gilmore. In addition to this orig- 
inal line, they planned many more miles of track. 

The most impressive of their plans was a line from 
Salmon down the Salmon River to Riggins and on to 
Lewiston and the west coast. A branch from this line 
was to run through Dixie, Elk City and Stites to Lew- 
iston. Just below Riggins there is only seven miles sep- 
arating the Salmon and Snake Rivers, but the Salmon 
is about four hundred feet above the Snake. Plans and 
surveys were made for a tunnel from the Salmon to 
the Snake. Water flowing through this tunnel would 
power a large power plant to operate the train on its 

run from Salmon to Riggins. 

From Salmon, a branch was planned to run up the 
Salmon River to Stanley Basin. From there it would 
continue on to Boise. A branch of this line was to run 
up Morgan Creek and down Panther Creek to the Salm- 
on River and join the line going down the river. Another 
branch was to run up the Pahsimeroi, and down the 
Lost River to join the Boise line. A branch was planned 
to leave Leadore and, utilizing a long tunnel, cross the 
mountains to the Pahsimeroi Valley and join the line 
coming up the valley. From North Fork a branch was 
planned to go over the mountains to the Big Hole and 
join the line coming from Horse Prairie. Most of the 
above mentioned track was surveyed and filed with the 
State of Idaho. Many other branches in southern Idaho 
and Montana were planned, and others were planned 
but never completely surveyed. 

The railroad arrived in Salmon in April 1910, and an 
impressive golden spike ceremony celebrated its com- 
ing. The honor of driving the golden spike was given to 
Frank Sharkey, one of the discoverers of Leesburg. 

There were great expectations for growth in the area 
with the coming of the railroad. The mining industry 


was expanding and appeared to be a permanent source 
of freight. It was hoped that the cattle and agricultural 
industries would double in a short time. These were 
only dreams, and as Thomas T. Taber once wrote, "It 
started from no place, ran through nothing, and ended 
up nowhere." He also stated that, "The G&P was 
doomed from birth." 

Almost insurmountable problems were a common 

everyday occurrence. Snow and floods made opera- 
tion of the train a gigantic job. Wrecks were common 
along a line that was poorly maintained. There were a 
few years that operating income exceeded operating 
expenses, but not in any year did the income cover 
interest and taxes. Several solutions were tried but 
failed. Sugar beets, potatoes, and peas were all given 
a chance, but trying to make farmers out of ranchers 


Frank Sharkey drives the Golden Spike, others unidentified. 

Loading wool onto car at Tendoy 

«[®,^ia;ijit y •JpiiiiP'^'*'' 


— ""V, 

- Map showing the tunnel at Bannock Pass and the switch- 
ing arrangement on each side of the tunnel. 

Engines no. 10 and 11 outward bound from Leadore for Armstead. 

■UP^H^EC^ ■■"■ .'*^^'*'*^^ ^ j'^ i_^"*-"* X.' ~* "-*.^_ 

A wrecker - Ed Lambert, shop foreman, at left. 

Snow cut near Bannock Pass. 

l^* ^1^" 

High water caused problems along the Lemhi River. 




was a complete failure. Freight service was cut to one 
round trip per week to Armstead. Tonnage on the line 
never approached original estimates, in fact it was less 
than half that figure. The line slowly deteriorated, due 
to lack of proper maintenance. It was soon apparent 
that it was just a matter of time till the G&P must 
abandon the venture. On May 1, 1939 the G&P ceased 
operations. During the next year the tracks were pulled 
up, equipment salvaged. The rails were sold to Japan 
as scrap. It is possible that some Lemhi County service 
men could have been hit by ammunition made from 
those rails during WWII. 

Not much remains of the G&P. From Clark Canyon 
Reservoir to Leadore and on to Gilmore the railroad 
bed can be seen in most places. There were sidings all 
along the line. Just west of Clark Canyon Reservoir was 
Medicine Lodge, Grant, Brenner, Donovan, and Wyno 
on the Montana side. On the Idaho side was Keefe, 
Cruik, Leadore, Purcell, Gilmore, Cottom, Maier, Lem- 
hi, Tendoy, Baker, and Salmon. Armstead was buried 
by the Clark Canyon Reservoir. The tunnel at Bannock 
Pass is still visible but impassable. The remains of a 
fancy passenger car can be seen in Leadore, as well 


A Slide at Desmond Cut, five miles west of Grant, Photo shows 
passengers walking over the slide to board another train, in order 
to continue their journey. 

as a couple of not so fancy freight cars. The foundation 
for the Leadore depot remains, as does a large storage 
shed. The boxcar that served as the station house at 
Lemhi still stands, and the foundation for the Salmon 
water tank is seen just off Shoup Street. When the line 
was abandoned the right of way from Salmon to Lea- 
dore was deeded to Lemhi County for a highway. Very 
few people traveling state highway 28 realize they are 
taking a ghost ride on the old G&P. The right of way 
from Leadore to Gilmore wad deeded to the Lemhi 
Telephone Company. 

A number of local people worked for the G&P over 
the years, but not many are still with us. Names that 
come to this writer's mind include Kenneth Yearian, 
Vern Chandler, Chuck Lipe, Bob Smith, Eli Smith, and 
Harvey Lipe. Seth Daniels was one of the hardy men 
who surveyed the G&P line down the river to Lewiston. 
Pete Mckinney, an area rancher, was one of the di- 
rectors from shortly after the G&P began operations 
until abandonment. 

The G&P owned two ranches, just south of Salmon, 
called at that time, the Andrews place and the Steele 
place. They purchased the original telephone line that 
came into the valley and incorporated the Lemhi Tel- 
ephone Company primarily for necessary communi- 
cations for the railroad. They also had their own bank, 
the Citizens National Bank of Salmon. They bought 
ground, laid out a city and sold lots to build the town 
of Leadore. Total investments in property and equip- 
ment over the years was about five million dollars. In 
1939 the total capital liabilities amounted to nearly 
eleven million with the Northern Pacific Railroad hold- 
ing the bag. The G&P was a grand effort by a few daring 
men. Hand the money been available to finish all the 
planned track nearly two thousand miles, it is possible 
that things would have turned out quite differently for 
Lemhi County, and all of Central Idaho. Many believed 
Salmon was destined to become the transportation hub 
for the entire Northwest. Who can argue that it would 
not have happened? 


^gir-i '. 't^Si.Mfm^.r^;^^^^^ 


This was the town of Junction before 1910 when the G & P Railroad put its route through the present town of Leadore, and almost everything 
in Junction moved to Leadore. The number on this old photo indicate that #1 was the schoolhouse, #2 - Granpa Stephenson's Hotel, #4 
George Yearian's home and #5 The Yearian Tin Shop & Store. George Yearian constructed his store so that it might be moved, if necessary. 
Later he moved it to his son Thomas' ranch when others moved to Leadore. 

The Leadville Mine near Junction 

The depot at Leadore - a busy place when the G & P railroad was in operation. The old depot 
burned to the ground in the 1970's. 

Stock the Lqirgest. 

Prices the Lowest. 

Satisfac.ioii Guaranteed. 



Caskets, rdid 



G. T. PAUL, Manager. 








,| IM.l ltl^ 111 Ml" rn» I ol I 11 

The Junction Postoffice moved to Leadore when the railroad arrived and everyone moved to 
Leadore from Junction. 

photo courtesy of Micheal Hernandez 


Early patrons of the Railroad Tavern at Leadore. 

photo courtesy of Michael Hernandez 

it it Ihc division point of the new tailrnad 
vilh cttablished «hup!i, round houfes and supply 
de|(ot; the three terminals of the tob'I (ho far a» 
completed) heinu Salmon on the north, G'Imore 
on the aouth and Armslead on the cast. 

Beeiden the 25,000 acres of land now under 
cultivation, 30.000 more acrca under the Carey 
act ia bclne reclaimed adjoining and aurtoundini; 
Iht new town. 

The aliver-lead mining camp of Gllmore lo the 
eoLth, 15 niiica; the rich fungalen mines of 
Pa:lcraon creek to the west, 20 mllea; and (he 
extenalve lead silver-cupper belt, itnown aa the 
Leidville contact, to the east, three miles; are 
all tributary lo the coming city of Leadore. 

The center of the largest,^ stock range in the 

rO SOMMAniZE- Railronda, Farmlne, Slock- 
raialng and Mining. 

If you Want lo know more about us, address, 


(L. A. Klinger. I'ub.) 

Belter still subjcribe for it. Secure a copy 
and judge for yourself. 

Our bureau of Information pertaining to the 
resources and eapeciallv (he mines of Lemhi 
county is open to all. 

January 11, 1912 


A fairly complete list of the bUEJ- 
ness concerns of Leadore, gleaned 
mainly from the advc;rtising pages of 
the Standard, is as followa: 

Bdndanza, P. M., barber. 

Biough, Fred,- hotel. 

Campbell, T. F., physician and 

Christensen, H. C, hack and trans- 

C. 0. D. meat market. 

Friedorff, M. W., lumber and fuel. 

Hotel Sullivan, John Sullivan, prop. 

Ivie, S. M , pool hall. 

Leadore cafe. 

Leadore Commercial club. 

Leadore Livery stadle, J. E. 
Shorett, prop. 

Leadore Pharmacy. 

Leadore Standard, L. A, Klinger, 
editor and publisher. 

Leadore State Bank. 
Lee, r.oy H., general merchant. 
Lemhi Telephone Co. 
Lipe, J. H , blacksmith. 
Nichols, Geo., bowling alley. 
Noble, G. W., attorney at law. 
Poole & Pyeatt, contractors. 
Stone, W. F,, general merchant, 
Vezina, Wm., soft drinks. 
Walcott, F., dentist. 



by Jo Whitcomb 

If you are shot, or need one, in Lemhi County, what 
can you do? In the eighteenth and nineteenth centu- 
ries, those were difficult questions to answer. By the 
middle of the twentieth century the practice of med- 
icine had made significant strides, and alcoholic bev- 
erages, for medicinal and other purposes, were legal 
and readily available. 

In early times in the country, whether you were shot 
by arrow or musket ball, your treatment was rendered 
by anyone near at hand. A skinning knife and poultices 
of leaves were almost the only items available. If you 
needed a shot for pain, you didn't get it via a hypo- 
dermic; you were given a quantity of fermented grains, 
fruits or herbs, and your next- day pounding headache 
was cured only by time. 

When Lewis and Clark and their men spent about 
three weeks in the area, beginning August 12, 1805, 
any medical needs were taken care of by the two Cap- 
tains, who had some knowledge of first aide. Merri- 
weather Lewis was the more skilled of the two, and 
bleeding was a popular cure for many illnesses. 

The Indians who roamed the valleys and mountains 
discovered the therapeutic value of the various hot 
springs nature provided. The Indian's use of herbs and 
sweatlodges was the first line of care. When the Lemhi 
Indian Agency was established in 1875, a white doctor 

was sent to the Agency by the government. The "Great 
White Father" neglected to discuss the presence of a 
doctor with the Indians on the reservation. Dr. George 
A. Kenney became a good friend of the Indians, but his 
medical prowess was wasted. Dr. Kenney left the Agen- 
cy in 1886, setting up practice in Salmon. In 1887, Dr. 
W. C. Whitwell became the Agency doctor. He moved 
to Salmon in 1889 and was replaced by Dr. F. S. Wright 
of Boise, who remained at the Agency for over a year. 
Dr. A. E. Murphey was the Agency doctor from 1900 
until it closed in 1907. 

Dr. Kenney, who had been a nurse during the Civil 
War and had practiced as a veterinarian, was eventually 
educated in homeopathic medicine, a philosophy not 
accepted, then or now, by medical societies. A ho- 
meopath relied on herbs and botanicals, but Dr. Ken- 
ney did not limit his skills to homeopathy alone. He 
performed surgery and was considered to be a general 
practitioner. When he left the Agency he developed a 
large practice among those white settlers who were 
beginning to populate the county. Dr. Kenney visited 
his patients in their homes, always traveling horseback 
with a six-shooter strapped on his hip. In 1900 he built 
Brooklyn Hospital on Courthouse Drive, across the 
street from his home. After the devastating Spanish 
flu epidemic in 1918, Dr. Kenney, then about eighty 

Dr. William C. Whitwell 

Dr. George A. Kenney 


years of age, essentially retired from his practice of 
medicine. Dr. Kenney lived to the age of ninety-two. A 
conversation with anyone who lived in the area during 
the early decades of this century will bring forth hair 
raising and humorous tales of Dr. George A. Kenney, 
the man and the doctor. 

Doctors in Salmon, following Dr. Kenney, were Dr. 
W. C. Whitwell in 1899, joined by Dr. F. S. Wright in 
1900, Dr. Wrights's partner Dr. Charles L. Kirtley in 
1902, Drs. A. F. Murphey and C. F. Hanmer, who formed 
a partnership in 1907, and Dr. 0. T. Stratton, in 1911. 

Practicing medicine in Lemhi County between 1911 
and 1918 could be hazardous to your health. On July 
28, 1911 a farmhand by the name of Neff Pratt, suf- 
fering with an impolite disease, for which he believed 
Dr. Murphey was taking his money, but not affecting 
a cure, entered the doctor's office, and pumped eight 
shots into the doctor's chest and abdomen. Afterward, 
he left the office which was upstairs in the Brown Block 
(504-6 Main Street), went down to the street and fired 
one shot into his own chest. He was treated in the 
County Jail by Drs. Whitwell and Wright, but did not 
survive, and, of course, neither did Dr. Murphey. 

In 1918 an epidemic of Spanish influenza swept the 
county. At that time Dr. Hanmer and Dr. Stratton were 
serving with the Army Medical Corps, leaving Dr. Whi- 
twell and Dr. Wright as the only active physicians in 
the county. The doctors worked around the clock for 
weeks, exhausting themselves. Dozens of deaths were 
attributed to the flu, in some instances entire families. 
Among the victims was Dr. Whitwell, who died on De- 
cember 29th. Dr. Stratton had been discharged and 
returned to Salmon within ten days of receiving a tel- 

Dr. Owen T. Stratton 

egram from Dr. Wright, telling of the desperate situa- 

Between 1925 and 1940 several doctors came and 
went. Dr. J. L. Mulder practiced from about 1940 to 
1966, and in 1948 Dr. Walter Blackadar joined him. Dr. 
Zach Johnson joined Dr. Roy D. Sinclair in the 1950's. 
If Dr. Kenney was the source of hair raising and hu- 
morous tales, the same could be said of Dr. Blackadar. 
As medical practitioners they could not be faulted, but 
wearing a six-gun or driving at breakneck speed is not 
the image most have of doctors. 

The most chronic, recurring "ailment" was preg- 
nancy and the ensuing birth of the baby. Travel to town 
could involve a whole day, so every creek or group of 

Dr. & Mrs. (Fanny) John L. Mulder - 1940's 


If You Suffer 

■ « 

From Epilepsy, Epileptic SpellsVFits, 

St. Vitus' Dance, Falling Sickness,. 

Vcrtlfo, etc., tiavc clitldren or 

relatives that do 'so, or know 

people that arc afflicted, 

My New Discovery, 


Will cure Ihom, nntl nil jou Aro*5kctUo 
«lo is lo send for n I'rce Uottlo imllry it 
1 ftm (jiiite propairctl to abide by tlio 
resuItT 7th;\scu red" thousands— whcr», 
everything liRfl failed. Please give 
fun name, ACVIil, and posloflicv^nnd 
express nddrcss * ' 

WM. H. MAY, M.K)., May Uboratory, 
94 Pine St., new York aty. 

"Not to 'ak* m run tor an cKh<rr»llM fatal 
«ll>«aa« It t* fx-actlcall/ comnilt •uKI>l«." 
KniTOR'i ^'OTK — All •itfTtrer* «rr aJvlnoJ to tenvl (or Ciratultout R»p«rt Advice and a Frr« 
llotlla of thli New Discover jr. whU h U an Unfailing Cure for an jr and a1l| of the (rif htfal f»rni» «< 
Bpner»y^«"d allitd nervou« dUeaict. When wrilinf Doetor May, plea»« tnenllon thla pap«r. 


ranches had at least one resident who was experienced 
in midwifery. Mrs. Chandler was a midwife to dozens 
of pioneer women in the Baker area. At the turn of the 
century, an Indian woman Angelic Bartle, delivered most 
of the babies born in the North Fork area. The doctors 
had their share of deliveries, but midwives were in great 

One branch of medicine that cannot be ignored in- 
volved the treatment of animals. It is known that both 
Dr. Stratton and Dr. Blackadar occasionally aided in- 
jured dogs; other doctors must have also. Dr. Kenney 
had the only hospital in Salmon in the early 1900's, 
but Dr. J. D. Lee, D.V.S., maintained a hospital that 
accommodated horses, cows etc. 

Salmon Hot Springs is located six miles southeast 
and 950 feet higher than the townsite. It is known that 
Indians often stopped to bathe and to drink the water. 
Around 1880 it was used as a "mule hospital", to rest 
and restore the many mules used in hauling freight 
from the railhead in northern Utah. As early as 1890, 
under the ownership of Thomas K. Andrews, it was a 
popular spot for its "healing waters, as well as excellent 
cuisine". At the turn of the century news articles de- 
scribed elaborate plans for improvements that would 
turn it into a health resort to rival similar resorts in the 
East. Salmon Hot Springs never achieved such an el- 
evated status. Through the years and through many 
changes in ownership, until it ceased being used as a 
recreational facility in 1971, many local citizens knew 

1892 - Miss Addie Rippey arrived from Challis on Thursday via the 
trail. She rode the entire distance, sixty miles, in one day, over half 
the journey being made on horseback over a dangerous trail. She came 
in response to a message summoning her to the bedside of her mother 
who is very ill. 

IMrs. Angelic BartI, 2-Mabel (Sylvia Gill's mother), 3- Laura, 4- 
Rachel, 5-Lucy Leiande, 6-Nellie Sullivan (Reese), 7-To!bert BartI, 
8-Rena BartI, 9-Charlie Trowbridge, 10- Thelma (Laura's oldest). 

courtesy Julia Randolph and GIA 

lol Ifor 


— THOt. K. Andkbwb, Prop'r.— 

At all leanons of the year. These Springs 

unTer fail to c jro all kinds of disoaBos. 

TUrj are silu-ited six miles 

•outheadl of 



j^ :^3e:.a.tjti:e'xjxj 


for rionic Parlies, Excursion Parties, Eti , 

3Px>ioefii IVCod-oxTA/te. 

EniTORiAL Norr.— The Doctor Slocum System is Medicine rotluced" lo as 
Exnct Sciciicoby'lhc World*s>n1osl I'nmons Physicinn.- All renders of this pT^V 
nnxioiHMxKnrtliMfj the IichIiIi of. Ujonisolvos. children., relatives OC. friend*, m«f 
hrtvc Ihrcc froo IxUllc^ a.>; represented in the obovo iUnslrnlion, wub comp1el9 
direct iuiis. v«»'"p'''<^'^- lc''tii»<>'>"ds. ndyico, etc., by Bcndipc their full address to 
Dr. T. A. Sloc\nn. tIioSlocun> MuildinR, New York- City. This is n plain, honest* 
FtrniKhtf«)r\vnrd olTer. nnd i3 nmdc to introduce the merits of Tlio NeWSystem of 
Treatment that Cures, nnd we ndvisenll siifTcrers to accept this philanthropic 
offer nfonce. When writing tlio Doctor jileaso mention this poper. All Icltcrt 
receive imi\jcdlate and careful nltcn.lion. 



'^ '^ 

Dr. Walter Blackadar died doing what he loved most ■ Kayaking. He drowned in the Payette 
River in 1978. 

Dr. Zach Johnson - 1955 

of, and made use of the therapeutic benefits of the 
water's temperature, which was at or above one hun- 
dred degrees. 

Prescription drugs, as we know them today, were 
non-existent at the turn of the century. All doctors 
compounded for themselves, any medicines or oint- 
ments that their patients used. Many doctors. Dr. 
Stratton among them, had originally trained as phar- 
macists. Around 1910 the Red Cross Pharmacy was 
begun by Dr. A. E. Murphey. By the time it became 
what is now known as the Rexall in 1925, its operation 
had been taken over by Dr. W. C. Whitwell and by a 
dentist, Dr. Hubbard. In the early 1900's the W. C. 
White store advertised "Pure Drugs and Chemicals". 
In 1910 Meitzler & Co. Drug Store was constructed at 
505 Main Street, current site of the Owl Club. 

Except for Dr. Kenney's hospital built in 1900, the 
only other building designed as a hospital did not come 
to fruition. Begun in 1910, the Murphey-Hanmer Hos- 
pital is the structure on State Street now known as the 
Salmon Apartments. This hospital was to accommo- 
date thirty patients, and was to include a kitchen and 
dining room, laundry, an operating room and nurses 
quarters. The assassination of Dr. Murphey a couple 
of months prior to opening, halted the enterprise. From 
1916 to 1918, Dr. Stratton operated a hospital in the 
large frame house on Fairmont at Broadway. It was 
equipped with six beds, an operating table, coil x-ray 
machine and a large kettle as an autoclave. Early hos- 
pitals were usually large two-story houses, owned or 
operated by nurses. Buchanon Hospital, also called 
Salmon General and operated by Mrs. Buchanon and 

Mrs. Chamberlain, took over the Stratton Hospital, 
closing it in 1941. The only facility with an operating 
room was the Rose Hospital, now the site of the Shady 
Nook Restaurant. Bertha Rose, a practical nurse, op- 
erated the hospital from the 1920's until closing in the 
late 1940's. The Spahn house, built in the 1890's on 
Main Street at North Daisy, and now moved south to 
Twelve Mile, was a hospital twice. From 1940 to 1946, 
Ala Stine, a midwife, provided care for new mothers 
and their babies. In 1946, Ala bought the house next 
door and re-located the Stine Maternity Home there. 
Dr. John R. Goggins opened the Goggins Hospital in 
the Spahn house in 1946. One room served as an op- 
erating room. 

The need for small hospitals was ended in February 
1950 with the opening of Steele Memorial Hospital. At 
present, the hospitals closest to Steele Memorial are 
a small one in Arco, 140 miles to the south, and one 
in Hamilton, Montana, 99 miles north. Health care be- 
yond the abilities of Steele Memorial is now available 
in less than and hour through the service of small planes 
and helicopters. Salmon doctors and nurses are still 
practicing "general" medicine in the same spirit as they 
did one hundred years ago: they are ready and capable 
of setting a fracture before they deliver a baby, as they 
mentally prepare to perform major surgery. If you are 
shot, or need one, professional service is close at hand. 

The Idaho Recorder 1910-1912 & 1918-1919 Patchwork. Salmon 
High School, 1987,89.90,91. Medicine Man. Owen Tully Stratton, U. 
of Oklahoma Press 



by Harvey Lipe 

I started working for the railroad when I was just a 
boy about fourteen years old. (About 1913) I was an 
apprentice for the machinist trade. It paid twenty cents 
an hour and I had to be on the job ten hours a day. 
Then in six months they raised us up to twenty-two 
cents and eventually after four years we machinists 
were getting thirty-five cents an hour. The engineer 
was getting fifty- five cents, the conductor fifty cents, 
the fireman forty-five cents, and the brakeman forty 
cents. The train crew could get in eight, ten, or fifteen 
hours a day, so I transferred from the shop to the train 
crew, and fired the locomotive out of Salmon for two 
years. Then they put me on running the bus that 
connected from Salmon to Leadore. The Galloping 
Goose was the bus that left Salmon every day, except 
Sunday, at 6:15 a.m. The bus held about eighteen pas- 
sengers and had a baggage compartment for five tons 
of mail. It was built on a Big Mack frame with a Big 
Mack truck motor; a four cylinder motor. In the winter, 
the only way you could leave Salmon was by the train 
service. Many days we had standing room only. I had 
as many as forty-eight passengers on the bus, the seats 
were full, people standing, and others riding on the 
front fenders, the hood and the pilot in front. 

The train left Salmon and the first stop was Baker, 
the next stop was Tendoy, then Lemhi. On the train, 
we hauled all the cream out, and every other day we 
would pick up cream from Salmon to Leadore and load 
it onto the train there. Many times we had a thousand 
pounds of cream out of Baker and sometimes as high 
as fifteen hundred pounds at what they call Meyer's 
Lane. They had a big dairy up on the D C Bar with 
about a hundred fifty cows. Some days we got so much 
cream they had to put a trailer on behind the bus. The 
trailer box car would carry about eight to ten tons and 
we had to pick up those milk cans and load them into 
the trailer. 

They used to ship butter out of Salmon by parcel 
post. Sixty pounds was the limit in a package and I 
have taken out as high as three to four tons of butter 
at one time. They shipped parcel post, which was 
cheaper than the freight rate. 

Once we were hauling three trainloads of stock out 
of Salmon in the winter time. They were having a dif- 
ficult time with the snow on Bannock Pass. The first 
train made it over going through drifts that were eight 
to ten feet deep. We had a train with seven cars of 
stock and two engines and a snowplow. At one of the 
switchbacks we became stalled, the snow had blown 
in so fast that they had ten foot drifts. They decided 
to back the train into the tunnel, but while doing this 
they pulled the snowplow apart. I was firing on the one 

The Galloping Goose ■ the "bus" that left Salmon daily carrying up to eighteen passengers. Harvey Lipe on left. 


engine and had the Superintendent of the Railroad with 
us. Before we got to the tunnel, my engine was out of 
water, but we still had the steam on. All three of my 
superiors got off and said, "Well kid, drain her." 

I had no tools and it was impossible to drain the 
engine at forty below zero. So I decided to unhook the 
engine and back down to a big snowslide, where I could 
push snow into the tank to make water. It took about 
three hours to get the water back up and I got my 
steam back on again. The other engine was separated 
about a mile away with four men. We all worked all 
night. The first car in the tunnel had about twenty-five 
or thirty cows freeze to death. It was severely cold and 
a blizzard. We were there for four days with no food 
and nobody came to look for us. Finally they got a snow 
plow from Livingston, Montana and plowed us out. I 
quit the Railroad in 1926. 

Editor's note: This information taken from an interview with Harvey 
Lipe by KSRA radio. Tape courtesy of Melva Kauer. 


by Harvey Lipe 

Few people in the valley remember anything about 
the large circus that came to Salmon in the early days. 
The Ringling Brothers brought in fifty train carloads 
and they had twelve Pullman cars with their cooks, 
crew and everything, and then they had thirty-two cars 
of stock. 

I was working on the railroad as a fireman at the 
time. When we got to Leadore we split up the train. 
They brought the circus in on three trains. We had an 
extra engine from Montana because we didn't have 
enough engines to run three trains. They brought the 
stock over the hill first and down to Leadore. Then they 
had to send the engines back over the hill to pull the 
pullmans over the hill. That left one engine to bring the 
thirty-two cars down. My engineer got sick and there 
was nobody to run the engine so I became the engineer 
from Leadore to Salmon. 

When we got to Salmon we unloaded the first car of 
elephants at the dock. Then they dismissed the engine 
and the elephants pushed the cars around, unloading 
all the other cars. The Circus people felt so good about 
getting to Salmon without getting wrecked, going 
through rough country, sharp curves, and everything, 
that they gave me four passes to get into the circus, 
in the finest seats they had. 

They had a three ring circus, and the three tents 
were packed. I have pictures of the elephants, about 
twenty-six I think, coming down Main Street. 

The rotary snowplow cleared the way. 


by Heather Smith Thomas 

The following is from bits and pieces of stories about 
our creek as told by old-timers and their descendents 
who have returned to visit. Its colorful past gave With- 
ington Creek the nickname "Desperado Creek". 

Long ago, mountain buffalo roamed these hills, as 
evidenced by the old horn shells we find on our cattle 
range. This range was also a hunting area and summer 
horse range for Shoshoni Indians. Chief Cameahwait, 
Sacajawea's brother, ran horses here, and traded 
horses to Lewis and Clark. 

White settlement began in the late 1800's when the 
Withingtons homesteaded at the mouth of the creek. 
Lester P. Withington had the oldest water rights on the 
Lemhi River. Mr. Withington came from Apollo, Penn- 
sylvania in 1864. He homesteaded on the bank of the 
creek, building a home of cottonwood logs, and With- 
ington Creek is named for him. The logs were hand- 
hewn and the roof was of sod. The home originally had 

eight or nine rooms and was used as a freighter stop. 
Mr. Withington and his wife had twelve children, all 
born in this home. The first homesteaders on the 
creek itself were Martin and Louise Chandler, who 
crossed the plains by ox team in 1877. They home- 
steaded 160 acres in 1884. The Chandlers had eleven 
children, three of whom were born here in the log house 
they built in 1885. We live in that original log house, 
with additions we have built onto it. 

The Chandler children walked three miles to the Bak- 
er School, which had an attendance of about 20 chil- 
dren at that time, usually walking barefoot, carrying 
their shoes. When neighbors fell ill, Mrs. Chandler did 
a bit of nursing, and was also midwife to dozens of 
pioneer women in Lemhi County. When a neighbor came 
for help because his wife and infant son were desper- 
ately ill, Mrs. Chandler had one of her sons hitch up 
the team, and she hurried up the road in the wagon. 


By the time she got there, the baby had died. She 
ministered to the young woman and sewed a little gown 
for the baby, then helped the young father bury his 
small son under a big fir tree on a hillside covered with 

A number of homesteads were established along the 
creek, but some soon passed into other hands. Most 
of the creek ranch land changed hands many times in 
those early years. It was difficult to make a living on 
places that were too small to support enough livestock 
for a viable ranching operation, and some places were 
sold for delinquent taxes. The homestead at the upper 
end, taken up by Tillie Cheney and her husband, went 
back to public domain, and is now BLM land. The old 
ditches are still visible, as is the caved in cellar and 
remains of old buildings at the forks of the creek. Til- 
lie's parents, Arthur and Matilda Cheney, were from 
Kentucky and settled on the creek in 1916. The Che- 
neys were a "wild bunch" and were probably the rea- 
son why people started calling this Desperado Creek. 
Old man Cheney, whenever he was indoors, always sat 
facing the door with a gun close at hand. The local 
suspicion was that he had come west to escape the 
law. The Cheney boys were a bit outside the law; their 
favorite sport was stealing horses. One time they stole 
a buggy and hid it under a straw stack, and Deputy 
Sheriff Bo Roberts had to come and get it. One of the 
Cheney boys spent time in prison for a crime assumed 
committed by their father; the young man "took the 
rap" because the family feared that doing time would 
kill the old man. 

When Tillie Cheney was very young, she and her little 
brother took the family buckboard to Baker to meet 
the stage at the Baker Hotel, to pick up chewing to- 
bacco their father had ordered from Kentucky. On the 
way home with the tobacco, the children tried it, and 
by the time they got home they ere sick and gagging, 
lying in the wagon bed. 

Tillie was an adventuresome tomboy. She had no 
horse of her own, but loved to ride, and often borrowed 
a horse from the Dawsons, who lived on the old Chan- 
dler place by that time. One time she arrived just as 
the Dawsons were leaving for town, and they told her 
she could ride old Nelly who was down in the corral. 
Also in the corral was a young, frisky grey horse and 
she thought he would be a lot more fun to ride. The 
grey was a rodeo bronc, left in the corral by a friend, 
but Tillie didn't know that. She and the bronc got along 
just fine. 

Tillie spent a lot of time riding in the hills. Once, over 
in Baker Creek, she came across some men who had 
rustled a cow and were intently skinning and butch- 
ering the animal. She quickly departed before they no- 
ticed her. Another time she came upon two men at a 
hidden still up Cheney Creek, but when they fired a 
couple of shots at her she rode out of there in a hurry. 

Another family that homesteaded on the creek was 
the Bartletts. Thomas Bartlett filed on 320 acres above 

the Cheney ranch and Richard Bartlett on 320 acres 
over on Baker Creek a few years later. These home- 
steads were steep and rough, with no bottom land to 
speak of for making fields. They tried to make a home 
on the lower one, building a cabin, putting in a well, 
and blasting the rocky hillside to put in a cellar. That 
site turned out to be a rattlesnake den, and Mr. Bartlett 
collected two big cigar boxes full of rattles. The cabin 
they built was later moved down to the ranch where 
the Witteborgs lived from 1934 to 1955; the logs were 
numbered and lettered when the cabin was taken apart, 
so it could be easily reassembled at the new location. 

The Bartletts had a hard time making a living on their 
rough homestead. The old Indian who drove a freight 
wagon to the Harmony Mine with supplies for the min- 
ers, would often stop at their place on his way and 
quietly leave off a side of bacon or a sack of flour. Mrs. 
Bartlett always offered to pay, but he wouldn't take 
money, telling her the miners would never miss the 
stuff. Big sheep outfits farther up the Lemhi (Yearians, 
Tobiases and others) trailed their sheep across the low 
foothills on their way to summer range, and took them 
across the homesteads on Withington Creek. Some- 
times a few lambs would get left behind, and the Bart- 
letts would round them up and raise them to butcher 
in the fall. A Bartlett daughter married a Cheney and 
homesteaded nearby, planting the maple trees on the 
property now owned by Gordon Binning. 

The Harmony Mine was operating in the 1920's and 
a power plant was built at Baker to supply the mine 
with electricity. An earlier power line built from Salmon 
was not successful, and the old wires can still be found 
going across Mulkey Creek and upper Withington Creek. 
One of the cooks at the Harmony Mine, Nancy Jane 
Campbell, lived in a cabin she built by herself, at the 
upper end of the Bartlett place. 

Eventually, the various homesteads coalesced into 
three ranches: the Dawson place, which included the 
old Chandler homestead; the Wilson place, just above 
Dawson's, was later owned by Johnsons and then War- 
ren Gooch; and the Witteborg place which included one 
of the Bartlett homesteads. The other Bartlett place 
eventually ended up as part of the old Dawson place. 
It was later owned by Morgans, Grounds and then 
Thomases, with several other owners in between. 

The Dawsons built a large barn and corrals, using 
their big round corral for Sunday rodeos, bucking out 
horses they rounded up off the range. In those early 
days many ranchers had more horses than cattle. The 
horses stayed out on the range most of the time, only 
being rounded up as needed for sale. 

The Witteborg place had a small round corral with 
very tall sides for breaking horses, and their rangeland 
pasture on Cheney Creek had wide gates on the ridges, 
for running in horses off the range. 

Johnsons lived between Dawsons and Witteborgs and 
owned a lot of horses. They had an Army Remount 
stallion, a Thoroughbred named Cheyenne Chief, who 


was a son of Pillary. Pillary won the Belmont and the 
Preakness and placed second in the Kentucky Derby 
in 1922. 

During the 1930's two of the Dawson boys died of 
typhoid, contracted, some thought, from drinking creek 
water that may have been polluted by the Harmony 
Mine upstream. 

The range area was used mainly by the large sheep 
outfits and local horses from 1900 to the 1930's. In 
the 1940's, after the Taylor Grazing Act of 1934, sheep 
use declined and range use was predominantly cattle 
and horses. Most horses were removed from the range 
by 1955. 

This is only a sampling of the things we have learned 
and the tales we have heard during our years here. I 
have lived here since 1956, and it is always fascinating 
when old-timers drop by and tell us other interesting 
stories of earlier days. 


by Velma Ravndal 


Jerry Ravndal began packing and guiding in 1931. 

The year 1920 saw the beginnings of the first guest 
ranch business in the Salmon area, when Colonel Hen- 
ry Adams, Mrs. Adams and their three daughters came 
from New York City to spend about six weeks "rough- 
ing it" in tents pitched at the Diamond L Ranch located 
on Hughes Creek and owned by Eric Ravndal and fam- 

Colonel Adams had made arrangements through 
George Oliver of Salmon who at that time had a livery 
stable in New York City. A main tent and smaller sleep- 
ing tents were set up. Evening meals were taken at the 
ranch house, in the spacious kitchen presided over by 
Mrs. Ravndal, who was a fabulous cook. 

The Adams family enjoyed horseback rides, hiking, 
fishing and being amused by "Bitterroot", the pet year- 
ling buck deer, who made himself at home right in the 
middle of their camp. 

From this beginning grew the idea of building three 
small log guest houses and a larger cabin for a family 
with a unique bath house nearby. In 1924, Jerry Rav- 
ndal began running a summer pack and hunting trip 
service in connection with ranching. 

In 1931 , he helped pack out the Zane Grey party into 
the Middle Fork and Roosevelt mining site for material 
for Zane Grey's book. Thunder Mountain. 

The first bus service from Butte to Salmon over the 
Gibbonsville hill via Wisdom, Montana, was started by 
Hana Lawson of Wisdom. Visitors of the guest ranch 
were brought in over the route. 

The Diamond L Ranch was the first guest ranch in 
the Salmon area and the only one until the Indian Creek 
Guest Ranch was begun twenty years later. The Dia- 
mond L Ranch, later known as the Rocking Horse Ranch 
served its last paying guest in 1951. 

The Zane Grey party on the trail. 

Zane Grey, a dentist, performs emergency dental work at camp. 



by Julia Randolph 

Lena Dellen Heidt, an early pioneer of the town, en- 
titled her book about Gibbonsville, The Ghost Town 
That Would Not Die. Located on the west side of the 
Bitterroot Mountain Range, Gibbonsville was named for 
General John Gibbon who fought the Nez Perce Indians 
in the Big Hole Valley in Montana in 1877. But, General 
Gibbon was never in Gibbonsville! 

The first cabin was built by George D. Anderson and 
he also had the first mining claim. Gold mining was at 
its peak between 1880 and 1900, at which time the 
population rose to approximately 2500 to 3500. By 
1899 the American Development and Reduction Min- 
ing Company had produced $560,000 in gold bullion 
In just four years. This company was the major cor- 
poration and when, in 1907, a disastrous fire took their 
mill and chlorination plant, it brought about a quick 
decline, which left the town destitute. Due to the re- 
moteness of the area, the mill was never replaced. 

Gibbonsville, Idaho about 1902. View is from A. D. & M. mine. 

Lean Dellen, Mrs. Dellen, Rose Carl, Tom Glavin - Main Street. 



A 1905 baseball game at Gibbonsville with the school in the 
distance. Now the GIA Center, the building was constructed in 

GIA photo 


Idaho Dept. of Highways 
Volunteer Fire Depart- 

Emergency Medical Tech- 
G. I. A. 

Lost Trail T. V. Association 
Cemetery Custodians 

Community Church 

Westland Bible Mission 

Keating Outfitters 

Deanies Collectables & 


Broken Arrow Store & 


Lost Trail Inn and Motel 

93 Club 

Gibbonsville Post Office 

Bernie Bradshaw 
Wayne Randolph 

Don Smith 

Larry Webb 
Maurice Usher 
Wayne Randolph 
Earl Keating 
Joe Eraser 
Pastor Sam Gupton 
Earl Keating 
Ludine Webb 

Ron & Rose Marie Ramey 

Wayne & Barbara Young 
Ted & Connie Holeman 
Norma Scarborough 

All photos courtesy of Julia Randolph and the GIA. 

The town is still far from dead! The Gibbonsville Im- 
provement Association, known as the G. I. A., is the 
hub of the town. It consists of under a hundred mem- 
bers, who elect a Chairman, Secretary/Treasurer, and 
three board members. There is a meeting once a month 
in the old school building, to discuss social and eco- 
nomic business of the area. 

The old school, built in 1902, serves the community 
in many functions and is called the G. I. A. Center. 
Besides community affairs, the G. I. A. sponsors the 
Volunteer Fire Department, the Emergency Medical 
Technicians, and acts as caretaker of the Gibbonsville 
Cemetery. Quilting parties as well as Church services 
are held in this center. Weddings and funeral dinners 
are held here. Easter Egg hunts, Halloween Spook Al- 
leys, and Valentine Box Socials all come to life here in 
this old building. 

Yes, Gibbonsville is far from dead, although relics 
from a time gone by can still be found. Amidst the 
television antenna's, power poles, and many other 
modern conveniences one can still find parts of a tram- 
way hidden by trees and brush. A small lake, where 
iron remnants still protrude, now abounds with fish, 
and strangers must be made aware of old mine portals 
and shafts which could be dangerous. 

Yes Gibbonsville is very much alive! One can enjoy 
prizes and dancing at the annual Hunter's Ball every 
October; and on the second Sunday of August each 
year one can find newcomers and old timers alike at 
the annual Old Timer's Day Dinner. 

If Lena Dellen Heidt were here she would surely say, 
"This town will never die!" 



Nations Right Whcol 

3E'ox*x'^«^x'ca 3VXA.x*ola t 


33. 23^. tE-Xc>iiax3AlnLgoi*'ei 

new nnJ po|iiil:ir resort on NCaIn Mroet at 
Olblionsville, Malio, whero llie besl nt 

Wines, Liquors and (Jigars 

nro oonxtftiitly on liuiiU. Only 125.; cents (i 
••.imllc." Drop In and sample goiKlc. 
/tfo "DAD." 


by Philip Rand ■ 1936 

The following are the introductory remarks by Philip Rand at the 
celebration held at Tendoy, Idaho on July 26, 1936, to mark the 
birth place of Sacajawea. Courtesy of Phyllis Caples. 

Mrs. Laura Tolman Scott of Armstead, Montana, in 
an interesting paper on Sacajawea, read before the 
Montana Federation of Women's Clubs at Lewistown, 
Montana, June 1914, claims that, "Sacajawea belongs 
to Montana by right of birth." She explains further, "It 
will never be known which state was her birth place, 
but Montana seems justified in claiming the proud dis- 

It is true that the Shoshones of the Lemhi Valley in 
certain years crossed the continental divide to hunt 
buffalo. It might be possible for an Indian baby to be 
born on the march, but not probable in this case, as 
the squaws as a rule were left at home, and if not left 
at home it is most doubtful if Sacajawea first saw light 
of day on any such expedition. This statement of Mrs. 
Scott cannot be taken seriously. The oldest Indians in 
Lemhi Valley for years have stated that Sacajawea was 
born in, or near, the old Shoshone camp near Tendoy. 
The oldest white settlers have always believed it and 
have ever taken it for an established fact. 

In 1934 Mr. Charles Snook of Lemhi valley, who grew 
up with the Indians and can talk their language, and 
myself had a long conversation on old Indian lore with 
Joe Nappo, an old Indian of some ninety years. It seems 
when Joe was a little boy his mother talked to him 
often about Sacajawea. His mother told Joe that Saca- 
jawea was born on the right hand side of McDevitt 
Creek and lived there several years after, then disap- 

peared. She also told him that Sacajawea came back 
later and lived in the valley, then went away again. Joe 
Nappo was positive as to these statements made to 
him by his mother. 

The late John E. Rees, Lemhi historian, is authority 
for the following statements contained in this para- 
graph. "Sacajawea returned in 1835 to live perma- 
nently in Lemhi County. At this time her nephew Snag 
became chief of the Lemhis. This was soon after Chief 
Cameahwait, brother of Sacajawea, lost his life in a 
battle with the Pahkeeks." Chief Snag, a son of a broth- 
er to Cameahwait and Sacajawea, in 1863 was wan- 
tonly shot down at Bannock, Montana by Buck Stinson, 
notorious road agent, whom the Vigilantes hanged in 
1864. "On the day following the assassination of Snag, 
Chief of the Shoshones, Tendoy was selected chief in 
his place." Statement by George L. Shoup, first Gov- 
ernor of Idaho, who was at Bannock at the time. Ten- 
doy was a nephew of Snag. Tendoy's mother was a 
distant cousin to the mother of the renowned Was- 
hakie, Chief of the Shoshones at Wind River, Wyoming. 
This made Sacajawea also distantly related to Was- 
hakie and after the killing of Snag they removed from 
Idaho to Wyoming and took up their abode with one 
of Washakie's bands. Sacajawea visited her people in 
the Lemhi valley in 1882 and died at the Wind River 
Reservation in Wyoming in April 1884. 

Mr. William C. Smith, the first white child born in 
Lemhi County and at present time County Treasurer, 
is authority for the statement that Sacajawea was not 
only born near the site of the recent marker erected 
at Tendoy but also that she visited her people in Lemhi 
in the year 1882, thus substantiating the statement 
made by Mr Rees. Mr. Smith states that when he was 
a lad of fourteen living at Tendoy, he heard a conver- 
sation between his step father, Mr. Pattee, and Two 
Bits and Major Jim, two Shoshone Indians, both over 
eighty years old, concerning Sacajawea, and his father 
told him what the Indians had said. Mr. Smith remem- 
bers vividly the statement that Mr. Pattee made to 
him, namely, "Billy, Sacajawea is here!" 

It was a nice spring day in May of 1894 when John Tumidja (an 
Indian policeman at the Lemhi Agency) and his wife were working 
a short distance from their cabin when John told her to go and fix 
dinner. She left and an hour later when John opened his cabin door 
he found his wife dead on the bed. He hurriedly summoned other 
Indians and soon the Agency Physician, Dr F. S. Wright, was there 
too. He examined Mrs. Tumidja, but first he had to remove a scarf 
that was tight around her neck, with a knot under each ear. There 
were numerous bruises on her neck and chest. The actual cause of 
death was probably from beating or strangulation. John was known 
as a wife beater and her family had to be restrained from taking a 
hand to John. However, it seems that everyone had the wrong slant 
on Mrs. Tumidja's untimely death. The court ruled . . . .could it 
have been suicide? 

-Julia Randolph 



by Candace Burns 

Elizabeth Reed once wrote, "No story of the pioneer 
schools would be complete without an acknowledg- 
ment of our debt to them as a valued American insti- 
tution. They were cradles of democracy because they 
were community centers where all the people could 
come together for their good times and to consider 
their problems. That close cooperative spirit and unity 
of effort is what rural communities lost when they gave 
up the rural school." 

Built and funded by parents, the one-room school 
was every bit a community effort. Families generally 
boarded the teacher, supplied the firewood, provided 
hay for the children's horses, and tended to other 
physical and financial needs. Students split the wood, 
often hauled drinking water from a nearby creek, and 
kept the fire stoked during school hours. After hours, 
the school house was the hub of the community, host- 
ing such gatherings as weddings, funerals, dances, par- 
ties, and public meetings. 

It seems that nearly every young woman in the coun- 
ty took her turn at teaching in the school house. Many 
of the first teachers were young ladies who had come 
West on stagecoaches to find a job and husband. Later, 
the young women who filled in had a year or two of 
training before they taught. A few, in emergency sit- 
uations, began teaching even before they had finished 
eighth grade. 

When the very earliest schools were started, teach- 
ers were so scarce that they stayed at each school 
only three or four months before they moved on to 
the next one, usually teaching at three different schools 
in a year. But then as families moved into the valley, 
and as young teachers from the East began to come 
West, each school had its own teacher for an eight- 
month long school year. Class sizes ranged from seven 
to fifty pupils. 

Teacher Mabel Kadletz, 1907, rides to school in Gibbonsvllle. 

It seems that if a teacher was firm, loving and rea- 
sonable, the students cooperated with her and there 
were only the ordinary pranks; but if she was mean, 
or just not able to keep order, the kids played havoc 
with her. Some teachers say their word was law. I sus- 
pect they were respected by students and parents alike. 
Parental support was important, because what was 
dished out at school had to be fortified at home. This 
was important with some of the bigger boys, who could 
(and did) easily get out of hand. 

Not everyone, though, had the full support of the 
parents. One old-time resident recalls a dispute at the 
Leesburg School that resulted in some parents throw- 
ing all of the teacher's belongings out into the street. 
The problem was eventually resolved and the teacher 
finished out the year. Others were driven off by the 
devilish tricks and rebellions by older boys. Many taught 
for just one year before they either moved on or were 
whisked away to the tune of wedding bells by a nearby 

Oren Sassman, retired school superintendent, says 
a teacher's life was not her own, as her social life was 
under constant scrutiny. However, Mae Mulkey and 
others report that being a teacher was fun. They were 
the belles of the ball, and were invited here an there 
for dances and parties. It wasn't long before each 
teacher was snatched up by a lonesome rancher in 
search of a bride. Most teachers boarded with district 
families until the teacherages were built. They had no 
idea who they would end up staying with when they 
took on a job. 

Teachers were paid about $60 per month plus $5 
extra if they did their own janitorial work. Unless they 
lived near the school, they generally boarded with one 
of the trustees who charged about $20 for room and 
board. Teachers were not, by any means, given the 
deluxe bedrooms. 

Students devoted much energy to devising creative 
and outlandish pranks. Teachers could expect to find 
mice, snakes or frogs in their desks. If they reacted 
hysterically they could expect to find more of the crit- 
ters, but if they were nonchalant, the pranks quickly 
subsided. On Halloween it was tradition to tip over the 
school outhouses. On Sandy Creek the kids once locked 
their teacher into the outhouse. One teacher was so 
scared by a critter in her desk, that she jumped up on 
the chair and wet her pants, reports one of her ex- 

Because they had so far to walk and so much work 
to do, children often got to school late, especially if 
the snow was deep or the weather bitterly cold. Many 
simply played hooky or meandered to school, arriving 
as late as 2:00. Some simply sneaked out the window 
to play while an elderly teacher snoozed in the after- 


Kids went to school, come hell or high water. Most 
everybody had to walk, or ride at least two miles to 
school, no matter what the weather. When it was bit- 
terly cold, some parents would hook the team up to 
the sled and pick up kids along the way. Mother would 
heat rocks to put under the robes and keep the chil- 
dren warm. If it was too far to school, even the very 
young children often boarded with relatives or neigh- 

Recess was a high old time for kids and teachers 
alike. The teachers regularly played such games as 
Softball, Annie Over, Fox and Geese, Tag, and Pom Pom 
Pullaway. In the winter they had snowball fights or sled- 
ded, if there was a nearby hill. Irene Bolander recalls 
a "sledding train" roaring down the hill behind the Gib- 
bonsville School where she taught. Some of the boys 
also made skis out of old barrel staves. Nearly all the 
old timers mention the Field Days in which students 
would get together with other country schools to run 
races, etc. 

Old timers remember their school days with great 
fondness, and when asked to compare them with life 
these days, almost all agree they'd rather be living then 
than now, when people worked harder, but had more 
time for each other. 

The following are the numbered school districts of 
Lemhi County: 

DISTRICT #1 - SALMON. The first school in Salmon 
opened its doors in 1867 with nine students from the 
Holbrook, Ellis, Wimpy, Carmen and Demoss families. 
Fannie Price was the first teacher in the school which 
was behind the Odd Fellows. The next year the school 
was moved to a "doby" building near the southeast 
corner of Main and Water Street, then in 1870 to a 
larger log building with a dirt floor and shakes, near 
the northeast corner of Main and North St. Charles. 
The students were very wild and gave their teachers 
a bad time. 

As the number of students increased, the elemen- 
tary school stayed in the log building and the second- 
ary students moved into the Odd Fellows building. Lat- 
er both elementary and secondary classes were held 
in the Odd Fellows until a frame structure was built. It 
was sold in 1899 to make room for the Lincoln School 
which contained ten rooms and cost $18,000 to build. 
It was built by W. W. Schultz of Carbondale, Kansas, at 
the present site of the athletic field bounded by Daisy, 
Lena and Challis Streets.. 

Lumber for the Lincoln School came from Wagon- 
hammer Creek and over 200,000 bricks were burned 
on-site by Frank Pollard. The site of the brick kiln was 
later used for a community skating rink cared for by 
the students. The Lincoln School was opened for use 
in 1902. The first high school classes in Salmon began 
in 1904. Three students graduated in 1906 from the 
two year high school. In 1909 the high school became 
a four year institution. 

The new Lincoln School opened in 1902. 

191 BEB 

The Brooklyn School was built of local brick and completed in 1911. 

Built on swampy ground, the Lincoln School building 
began to sway and was torn down in 1940. The ground 
was made into a football field. 

Meanwhile, the Brooklyn School was completed in 
1911. Designed by Allen Merritt, it's bricks were also 
fired at the Pollard kiln. In 1940, the building which is 
the current Junior High was completed and used as 
the High School until 1979. At that time the present 
High School opened its doors in a new building costing 
just over $3 million. The Pioneer Elementary School, 
so named by Marjorie Sims, opened its doors in 1958. 

DISTRICT #2-LEAD0RE. The first school in what is 
now the South Lemhi School District, was a one room 
log cabin located between the old "Highhouse" in 
Junction and the Ed McRae Ranch. Founded in 1873, 
a Mr. Ramsden taught four students. In 1878 this school 
became School District #2. By the early 1880's en- 
rollment had so grown that parents built a larger log 
structure with a sod roof. At the turn of the century, 
a frame building was built in Junction and Grade school 
was held in this building until 1918, when a magnificent 
new brick building was contructed in the new railroad 
town of Leadore. It was two stories, sported ten class- 


rooms, an auditorium, a gymnasium, an electric light 
plant, steam heat, and "long corridors which became 
the delight of the students and the frustration of the 
teachers for over thirty years". Both elementary and 
secondary schools were housed in this building. 

DISTRICT #3 - PLUM. Established in 1878 in a log 
building on the Tom Pyeatt Ranch, currently the Sam 
McKinney Ranch. Mr. Don Pyeatt, son of the early pi- 
oneer, recalls that there were no outhouses, and the 
location of the school was near the river in dense brush. 
"It was ladies to the right and gents to the left", said 

The 1888 Census Marshal's report, indicated twenty- 
eight students who came from a handful of families 
and included such names as Yearian, Cottom, Red- 
dington, Rees and Pyeatt. 

DISTRICT #4 - FOUR MILE. In 1889, earliest records 
show forty-one pupils, including children from the Hol- 
brook, Cockrell, Goodell, Elder, Schofield and Beattie 
families. Originally called the "Bridge School" because 
it was built near a bridge that crossed the Lemhi, the 
school house was later moved closer to the center of 
the district. Philip Goodell says that at one time the 
Four Mile School was a log building near where the Van 
Almelos now live. According to Philip, the school was 
torn down, log by log, before 1916, and moved to its 
present location on the south side of Highway 28. Bill 
LaMunyan who completed grades 1 - 8 says, "That's 
all the education I had. In them days experience was 
more important than your education." He also says he 
walked four miles to and from school, wearing gun- 
nysacks on his feet to keep them from freezing. "We 
all walked in those days, there was no such thing as a 
school bus. We learned what the weather was like. The 
wind used to blow hard enough that we would jump 
into a culvert to keep from freezing our faces." 

The school appears to have closed in 1943 since 
playground equipment was moved to town in 1944. 
The census for the final year included Capps, Clark, 
Smith and Studebaker. 

DISTRICT #5 - BAKER. The earliest records of the 
Baker School in 1899 included children from the Geert- 
son. Barrack, Bohannon, Mulkey, McDevitt, Chandler, 
Rippey, Ball, Withington and Schofield families. Be- 
cause census reports began in 1889 it is difficult to 
know exactly when this school opened its doors. The 
forty-six students, in 1889, must have been quite a 
handful for one teacher. 

The last census show thirty students from the 
Kadletz, Withington, Hayden, Wiegand, Malcolm, 
Muenkres, Searle, and Baker families. The school closed 
in 1955, along with the Sandy Creek School. 

DISTRICT #6 - GIBTOWN - 1888 is the earliest record 
of the Gibbonsville School, but the school was built 
much earlier. Maple Jones McElvain was a student there 
in 1915-16, and taught therefrom 1926-28. She recalls 
that one of her two male teacher had a very quick 
temper and would get bright red when angry. "He would 

grab a kid by the hair, drag him into the adjoining room 
and pound him to death with a board paddle. It was 
terrifying. When he came back the teacher would be 
white as a sheet and shaking, and would have to sit 
himself down till he calmed down." 

The Gibbonsville School closed in 1965 because of 

DISTRICT #7 -Bohannon Creek. In 1888 the first re- 
cords show thirty-four students and include the Har- 
graves and Miller families. By 1930 there were just five 
students, including the names Schofield, Marshall and 
England among others. Because enrollment was so low 
and the 1930 census was the last, one must assume 
that the Bohannon Creek School closed about then. 

If i'^^^-fc' 

The Gibbonsville School - about 1918 

FRONT: Edna Knock, Gladys Glavin, Donald Gott, James Kellogg. 
MIDDLE: Francis Gott, Dick Bradshaw, Claire Bradshaw, Mrs. 
Verna Kellogg. BACK: Curtis Ricketts, Marion Glavin, Warren 
Trowbridge, Clarence Bauer, Clyde Bradshaw. 

The Gibbonsville school about - 1940. 


DISTRICT #8 - TENDOY. Earliest records, 1890, show 
thirty-three students, including those from the Shar- 
key, Pattee, and Pyeatt families. The first school was 
at Sunfield on Pattee Creek, about two miles from its 
present site, to which the school was moved in 1912. 

One day Margaret Ball Morphey fell from a swing, 
landed on her head and was knocked unconscious. Old- 
er boys carried her to her home just around the corner. 

One teacher, Mrs. Woods, was well known for taking 
naps that extended past the lunch hour. The big boys 
would open a window and sneak out, while the rest of 
the students would be very quiet so that their recess 
would last longer. 

In 1945 the school still had thirty-three students, 
among them children from the DeCora, Alder, Ma- 
haffee, Holbrook, Shoup, Riggan, Pope and Gage fam- 

Still in operation today, the school has seventeen 

DISTRICT #9 - SANDY CREEK.The earliest record of 
the Sandy Creek School is an 1889 school census, but 
the school probably opened earlier in a rented house 
or someone's outbuilding. By 1889 there were twenty 
students, including children from the Snook, Holcomb 
and Kadletz families. Only five of the children lived with- 
in two miles of the school; the rest traveled a long way, 
either by foot or on horseback. 

Fred Snook Sr. remembered a male teacher at the 
Sandy Creek School who seemed to have two suits — 
one blue and the other brown. The first half of the year 
he wore his blue suit, and the second half, his brown 

The Sandy Creek School, 1917-18 

Frances Donlan taught at Sandy Creek, and for sci- 
ence she took students on long walks during which they 
would find arrowheads. "It seems the salmon would 
go up the creek to spawn. The Indians would sit and 
make arrowheads, and the long ones they would spear 
the fish with. Anyway, we would take these arrowheads 
and make pretty collections with them ... We did a 
lot of things like that, that they don't do in today's 
schools." The Sandy Creek School closed in 1955. 

(Quote from 1988 Patchwork article by Shawn Ankrum) 

DISTRICT #10 - BANISTER. An 1890 school census 
showed thirteen students on the roster. The school 
was built on Queenie Lane near the Ellsworth cow camp 
and Mr. Bruce was the first teacher. As the population 
changed, the school was moved, first down Texas Creek 
to the Stewart place, then to the north side of Texas 
creek close to where Highway 28 crosses it. Finally the 
school was closed and the building moved to Leadore, 
where it served as housing for the janitor. It was sold 
to Smith Implement and is now located just north of 
Lee Creek on the Farm to Market Road. 

DISTRICT #1 1 -MAY. Records begin in 1890 at which 
time there were twenty-three students. The last cen- 
sus in 1934 showed forty-six students including the 
Mulkey, Ziegler, O'Neal, Popejoy, McDowton and Cor- 
rigan families. 

Why the census stops in 1934 is a mystery, since 
the school clearly carried on for many more years. It 
consolidated with the Patterson school in 1961. 

DISTRICT #12 - Patterson. Earliest record is 1894 
when there were eighteen students including children 
from the Snodgrass, Bohannon families. The last rec- 
ord shows forty- six students and included those from 
the Mahoney, Prestwich, Popejoy, Crofts, Kirkpatrick, 
Lish, Patterson, Shurtliff and Whing families, among 
others. The school still operates but is in the Challis 
School District. 

DISTRICT #13 - ULYSSES. Records begin in 1909 
with thirteen students from the Hibbs, Bevan, Arms- 
trong and Trowbridge families. The last census, 1923, 
showed fifteen students from the Downing, Hale, Casey 
and Barton families. This may have been the last year 
the school ran, since the town of Ulysses came and 
went as quickly as the gold that brought it into being. 

DISTRICT #15 - ELLIS. 1895 records name children 
from the Eldridge,, Hudson and Morrell families. There 
were twenty- eight students. Billie Cannon taught at 
Ellis from 1936-38. She remembers three children, one 
a six year old girl, who lived about seven miles away. 
They walked over the hills from the river, and never 
missed school except one week when it was -45 de- 

Billie lived with a family and walked across their field 
to school. She swept the floor, built the fires, some- 
times curled the girls' hair, and taught them to tap 
dance. She says she had three boys in about the 6th 
or 7th grade who said right off they weren't going to 
work for her. "OK, we'll just sit here until you decide 



,^- ' .^'Ife'' i— f« -.-^f- ^jt^-^'t:f'f^ft^ 

you are going to work", Billie said. She kept the fire 
going until after dark, when the boys finally decided to 
start their work. "I had them eating out of my hand 
the rest of the year." The last census was in 1941 when 
they had a whopping forty- seven children from such 
families as Coleman, Coiner, Hamilton, and Ellis. Like 
other schools in the Pahsimeroi, this school probably 
consolidated with Patterson and May in 1961. 

DISTRICT #16 - CARMEN GENERAL. The 1888 cen- 
sus recorded thirty-seven children from the Young, 
Palmer, White, McCracken, Mulkey, McKinney and Nei- 
mann families. The school was probably built in the 
seventies. Winnie Sassman attended first grade there 
in 1906, when she was seven years old. Winnie says 
her parents kept her home the extra couple of years 
so that she would be more able to make the four mile 
ride with her brother. That is why her father built the 
Big Flat school the following year. 

The 1944 census show seventeen students from the 
McCracken, Daniels, Brown, Slavin, Burch, Kohl and 
Stevens families. The school probably closed in the late 

DISTRICT #18 - Cobalt (Lower Forney). An 1889 cen- 
sus shows seventeen students began school with no 
school house. By 1945 the number had dwindled to 
eleven and the school may have closed, but the 1949 
school board minutes show the hiring of Mrs. Morrison 
for the Blackbird Mine School. In 1950 a bid of $27,000 
was accepted to build the Blackbird Mine School. Jim 
Caples says it was a four room school and that a bond 
issue was levied. It was built by the Calera Mining Com- 
pany, under budget! 

In 1964 Teddy Miller moved to Cobalt, but taught 
her children at home. The next year, after the mine 
opened and other families with children moved in, Ted- 
dy resurrected the ofd schoolhouse, restocking it, since 
everything had been removed. The children held fund 
raising carnivals to raise money for books, encyclo- 
pedias and school supplies. 

The Carmen Creek School: These children walked or rode 
horseback for miles from around the countryside, which was not 
too densely populated. The dress code - plain and simple, 
designed for work and wear. FRONT: Arlen Matthews, Harvey 
Mylander, Warren Matthews, Vernon Matthews, Cecil Palmer, 
Stanley Daniels, John Palmer, Georgia Palmer, Eloise Barton, 
Willard Rood, Daniel Slavin, Ida Wenzig, Bessie Carlson, Sarah 
Palmer, Jessie Palmer, Virginia Palmer, Adeline Palmer, Evelyn 
Slavin. BACK: Lester Barton, Edgar Daniels, Hazel Hemstead 
(teacher), Dorothy Daniels, — Conley, — Carlson. 

DISTRICT #19 - BIG FLAT. Built in 1907-08 by Winnie 
Sassman's father, it may have replaced a school known 
as the Red Rock school, built before 1889; or it may 
have replaced the Red Bluff school that was down clos- 
er to the river. 

Irene Bolander boarded with her grandmother, aunt 
and cousins, because they lived closer to school. They 
took their own lunches of roast beef, pork or peanut 
butter sandwiches, cookies or cake and as Irene says, 
"Everybody on Big Flat had apples". Irene remembers 
that in 1918 a boy who lived near the river, would bring 
one huge, thick pancake, soaked with chokecherry 
syrup and the hind leg of a rabbit. His father was a 
trapper. If there were only ten or twelve students, the 
mothers would take turns making stew or scalloped 
potatoes or other hot, one-dish lunches. 

This school closed in the late 1940's. 

DICTRICT #20 - GILMORE. A tent was the first school, 
with dynamite boxes from the mine serving as desks 
and seats. Some of the boys chewed tobacco, so each 
had a tin can by his box, serving as a spittoon. An 1889 
census shows thirty-four students from the Denny, Lipe, 
Lee, Reddington, Stroud, and Yearian families, al- 
though the tent school was probably prior to this cen- 
sus. The first school building was an elaborate frame 
structure with four rooms, that served the community 
until 1937. Two of the rooms opened to each other 
with French doors, to accommodate social gatherings, 
and each was heated by a coal furnace, one of which 
caught fire and burned down the building. After the 



fire, the county decided not to maintain another school 
there, so two mining companies went together and 
built a cinder block structure. It had an upstairs class- 
room, and a basement storage room that doubled as 
a recreation area for recess, during inclement weather. 
This school served Gilmore until Leadore schools con- 

DISTRICT #21 - LEE CREEK. A 1909 census records 
seventeen students. Among the names present were 
Mulkey and Gautier. School started in an old sod roofed 
building until a frame structure was built near where 
Carol and Cal Whittaker now live. It was later skidded 
across the snow by several teams of horses, to a spot 
across the creek from the Darrell Net Ranch. In 1930 
a barn was built next to the school to house the stu- 
dents' horses, and remains, although the school house 
has been moved to Leadore. 

In the first grade. Bob Carlson played hooky with 
George Swanson every day for four to six weeks. When 
Bob's mother found out, she took a piece of rope, a 
Sears Roebuck Catalog and a pair of scissors to school, 
telling the teacher to tied Bob to his desk and keep 
him occupied by cutting out pictures from the catalog. 
Each fall parents got together to saw wood for the 
school woodstove. The last census, 1945, recorded 
twelve students. 

opened about 1909 with twelve students, including 
names such as Buster, O'Neil, Noble and England. In 
1945 there were twenty-three including the names 

Gilmore School about 1920 

Stenerson, Gautier, Hoffman, England, Casey and In- 
fanger. The school closed in 1948. 

DISTRICT #23 - IRON CREEK. There were ten stu- 
dents on the first census in 1909. Schultz, Ibach, Sha- 
nafelt and Hellman families were represented. Schultz 
and others apparently built the sixteen by twenty foot 
structure in 1903. There may have been another school 
as early as 1895. 

John Waddington remembers one winter when his 
father, Mr. Waetzig and Mr. Benjamin all jacked up the 
school house, hooked it onto a team of horses and 
skidded it about a mile down the district, so that the 
kids at the lower end wouldn't have to walk so far. The 
parents at the upper end called the Sheriff, who round- 
ed up the three fathers and hauled them off to jail for 
the night. A last census, 1944, shows eighteen students 
named Benjamin, Waetzig, Kilpatrick, Evarts, Marvin, 
Gage and Goodwin. 

DISTRICT #24 - TEN MILE. Thirty students were on 
the 1909 census including Yearian, Pyeatt, Carrigon, 
Tobias, Pugh and Holbrook. The number of students 
suggests that the school was established much earlier, 
and the names suggest that the school was in the Up- 
per Lemhi. It is difficult to tell which more common 
name was applied to this school. In 1945 twenty- three 
students represented the Tobias, Frazee, Yearian, Ma- 
haffey, Lish, Pugh, Blood and Baker families. 



DISTRICT #25 - BOYLE CREEK. 1909 was the first 
census for this school located on the present Norton 
Ranch at the forks of Tower Creek. John Jewett, Mrs. 
F. B. Winterowd, and Donald Martin, later Judge Martin, 
were listed, among others. Later, Gladys Swanson and 
her sister rode "Old Nancy", and if Nancy felt like going 
to school, they went. Some days she didn't, and they 
stayed home. She also remembers the Adams boys, 
who lived down by the river, and the very cold day 
when the teacher took off their shoes and put their 
feet into a pan of water to thaw them out. Gladys re- 
members wearing gunny sacks on her feet during the 
Depression. Winnie Sassman (Miss Winnie), not much 
older than her pupils, taught there. She remembers 
the superintendent coming while she played "Annie 
Over" with the kids. She sat in her car for a while; 
watching, trying to decide which was the teacher. 

The school closed in 1948 and the building was sold 
in 1952 and moved to the Joe Scobel Ranch. 

DISTRICT #26 - LEMHI. A 1909 census records thir- 
ty-six students from the Tobias, Yearian, Pyeatt, Pugh, 
Porter, Holbrook and Hikson families. Probably estab- 
lished at the turn of the century. Jean Simonson Amon- 
son recalls her years at the school. 

I went to teach at Lemhi in the fall of 1939, after I 
had finished two years of teacher training at Pocatello. 

Boyle Creek School 1928-29. FRONT: Twins Varnie and Virgil 
Aikens BACK: Stella Aikens, teacher Irene Smith (Bolander), 
fourth from left, Dorothy Aikens. Other children are from the 
Frey family. #16 

Iron Creek School about 1907. 

FRONT: Jennie Lambeth, Dave Lambeth, John Lambeth, - 

Redwine, Dave, Dora, and Florence Schultz. BACK: Jessie and 

Viola Schultz, Myrtle Campbell (teacher), Viola Shanafelt, Laura 



I was nineteen years old and felt capable of the task. 
The course of study for elementary school had been 
phased out with nothing to replace it, but we had good 
textbooks for each grade. We started on page one and 
progressed through the year. Everyone learned to read, 
write, and spell, do arithmetic, and a few other things 
too. We had a wonderful case of maps and the students 
learned where the countries were. England's colonies 
were all in deep pink. 

I had gone to a one room school in South Dakota, so 
I did many things at Lemhi that my teachers had done, 
including a hot lunch program. Our school room had a 
large airtight heating stove with a flat top, and it made 
a good place to do our cooking. We got a tea kettle, a 
large cooking kettle, an oven grate and an ash box from 
the unused teacherage, to set up our kitchen. In the 
morning, we filled the stove with wood that lasted until 
noon. The children had a bowl, cup, and spoon, and 
brought a baking potato with their initial carved in it. 
During recess, it went on the grate, covered by the ash 
pan and was done by noon. Parents sent some money 
and milk, and during the week, we had cocoa, baked 
potatoes, and Campbell's soup. The tea kettle was al- 
ways on to warm water for handwashing, and for the 

This desolate looking building, once the Nicholia School, must have 
been rather dark during those long school days. 

team to wash the dishes. 

One Friday afternoon, we made popcorn balls. An- 
other time, we made taffy and in spite of everyone lining 
up for handwashing, some of the taffy got strange shades 
of gray. 

One time, we had a good, packed snowfall. The chil- 
dren cut the snow into blocks and made an igloo that 
measured fourteen feet across, with a tunnel entrance. 
The whole school of twenty-six students and the teach- 
er could crawl inside at once and sit down. The children 
were very resourceful. 

When the weather was good, we played Softball and 
volley ball. It was the first athletics for some of the 
children. I was young and energetic, and enjoyed the 
teaching and activities as much as the children. 

At the end of each school day, I swept the floor while 
listening to music. We had a phonograph with nice re- 
cords, including Fritz Kreisler playing 'Liebestraum'. 
Whenever I hear 'Liebestraum', I close my eyes and 
remember the Lemhi School. 

The last recorded census was in 1945 and claimed 
twenty three students from the Frazee, Williams, Ma- 
haffey, Yearian, Lish, Cope, Blood and Baker families. 

DISTRICT #27 - HOOPER. This was somewhere in 
the Pahsimeroi. A 1910 census records fourteen stu- 
dents from the O'Neal, Marley, Bauman, Turner, Howe 
and Hooper families. It probably was somewhere on 
the Hooper Ranch. 

school opened in 1908, but the first census was 1912, 
recording seventeen students from the Roske, Conroy, 
Hull, Eldridge and Jones families. In 1945 there were 
ten students from the Walchli, Hitesman, Montgomery 
and Prestwich families. The school closed in 1949. 

DISTRICT #29 - COTTOM. Ernest Benedict, John 

The D C Bar School ■ 1921 or 1922. 

Greta Hudelson, Edna Sims, Veola Ling, Isabelle Berridge, Vonda 
Ling, Bonita Denny, Harry Sims, Vincent Swanson, Bernard Swan- 
son, Gilmore Denny, Oscar Swanson, Elmer KesI, Everett Denny. 


Reddington and Morris Cottom financed and con- 
structed this school about 1910. Morris Cottom fur- 
nished the land and the county furnished the equip- 
ment. A 1911 census shows ten students all from the 
founding families. 

Elsie Chandler started school there in 1914 when 
she was five. She says she walked two miles to school. 
They took their lunches in a pail, and sometimes they 
had "beautiful sandwiches made with homemade bread 
and lots of beef". There was also apple butter, as well 
as gooseberry, crabapple and currant jelly sandwiches. 
The teacher boarded with the Cottoms. 

DISTRICT #30 - RENO. This school was beyond Gil- 
more in the Birch Creek area. The earliest census, 1912, 
records seventeen students from the Nichols, God- 
dard, and Worthing families. The school may have re- 
placed another built in 1895. The final census in 1934 
lists nine students from the Worthing, Barzee and 
Chandler families. 

DISTRICT #31 - same as #1 

DISTRICT #32 - HAYDEN. A 1913 census records six 
students from the Barnett, Holbrook, and Schwartz 
families. In 1924 there were twelve students from the 
Negus, Clemmens, Call, Coiner and Mahoney families. 

DISTRICT #33 - GOLDBERG. A 1914 census shows 
that this school began with eighteen students from the 
Christian, Andrus, Barsalou, and Park families. It notes 
that "the Park children are not here yet but Mr. Park 
wrote that they would be in here by the beginning of 
school. Mr. Park is a landholder on Big Creek." The 

school may have closed shortly after the 1932 census 
showing twelve students from the Marshall, Bates, 
Jones, Wornek and Ziegler families. But, again, in 1958 
Teddy Miller taught grades one through six until the 
school consolidated with Patterson and May in 1961. 
The Goldberg school house was moved into Challis and 
used as a music room at the old high school. 

DISTRICT #34 - D. C. BAR. The school opened De- 
cember 7, 1914 and ended the first school year on 
April 23, 1915. A 1915 census shows thirty-four stu- 
dents bearing the names Swanson, Doty, Ling, Jarvis, 
and Amonson. Edna Sims Gentle moved there with her 
family in 1917. The second oldest of thirteen children 
she says they walked three miles to school after doing 
their morning chores. In 1945 the fourteen students 
recorded, bore the names McFarland. Pearson, Mc- 
Arthur, KesI and Allen. 

DISTRICT #35 - SHOUP. A 1916 census shows twen- 
ty-one students from the Westfall, Hibbs, Hall, Pope 
and Grove families. The school may have opened and 
closed according to the rise and fall of mining activity 
near Shoup. In 1942 there were thirty-one students 
from the Cox, Wiederrick, Powers, Stanger, Mahoney, 
Tweedy, Barrack, Sturmer and Broadhead families. 
There is no record of the school closing, but Judy Lish 
attended as late as 1948 or 1950. 

DISTRICT #36 - UPPER CARMEN. Nineteen students 
in 1925 bore the names McFarland, Palmer, Cook, and 
Pyeatt. The school was built so that the children who 
lived farther up Carmen Creek didn't have to travel so 

\Vc llnvr'.liist RiTi-lvol 




— OP — 



Gcnls' . Furnishing GocdS; 

Lillie Swinyer and 1961-62 Class. FRONT ROW: Terry Boots, Kyle Copeland, Jimmy Pearson, Roger Hillman 
and Kelly Thomas SECOND ROW: Barbara Kane, Ramona Jacovac, Dawn McDermite, Teresa Aldous, Zolene 
Schnieder, Ton! Scoble THIRD ROW: Larry Thompson, Steve Belter, Adrian Quanda, Mary Parsons, Dennis 
?, Mrs. Swinyer BACK ROW: Tamara McFarland, David Jacovac, Maria Claussen, Vicky Walchli, Joyce ?, 
Mark Smith, Freddy Rhodes. 



far to the Lower Carmen Creek School. Jack Cook at- 
tended in 1924-25 and remembers it as being a "cold 
little house". The outhouse was cold too. "We were all 
comfortable anyway. Nobody knew any different. Then 
all of a sudden money came into your life." 

The 1944 census showed fifteen students from the 
Bielby, Black, Coles, Cook, Hamilton and Johnson fam- 

DISTRICT #37 - KIRTLEY CREEK. The first census 
taken here records fifty-six students in 1935 from such 
families as Parmenter, Burgraf, Bielby, Baker, Beck, 
and Johnson. Former sheriff Bill Baker started school 
here about 1934. He says there were about fifty kids, 
eight grades and one teacher. 

One day Bill's brother, Luke, climbed up a pole and 
onto a roof to put a wash tub over the chimney. His 
friends took the pole away so he was stuck up there. 
Bill recalls one flighty teacher, "a little French gal", in 
her first year of teaching. One school boards member 
was "stuck on her" and came around about three times 
a week. Bill says she did all right, despite the fact that 
she was half the size of most of the bigger boys. 

Kids started drifting away. A third of the school room 
was partitioned off for use as a cloak room. The school 
closed about 1948. 

Other unofficial schools include such schools as the 
Yearian, Leesburg, Boomer, Hull, Snook, Pyeatt, Basin 
Creek, Blackbird, Beaver Creek, and North Fork 
Schools. There may be more, but usually these schools 
were the forerunners of the official school districts. 
Most of them began either in makeshift buildings or in 
people's homes and were named after the ranchers 
who hosted them. 

The Kaiser - The Beast of Berlin 
with two shows beginning at 8:30 
Price - children 25 cents - adults 50 cents 


With the exception of the first appointment of James 
Kirtley, June 1869 to January 1873, all appointments 
were from January to January of the year recorded. 

J. P. Jewell 1873-83 

Thomas Elder 1883-89 

Vernon Tingley 1889-91 

Thomas Elder 1891-99 

Miss Hope McCaleb 1899-1903 

Flora A. North 1903-05 

Margaret Huggins 1905-07 

Ethel Goodrich 1907-09 

Elizabeth McDonald 1909-13 

Elizabeth M. Sims 1913-15 

Clara A. Digles 1915-19 

Ethel G. Watkins 1919-23 

Isabelle Ryan 1923-25 

Mrs Rose C. Kirtley 1925-27 

Isabelle Martin 1927-29 

Bess E. Stroud 1929-35 

EInora Donnelly 1935-37 

Edith Mulkey 1937-39 

Mae Louise Ellis 1939-50 



by Warren Smith 

My learnin' readin', writin' and arithmetic, started 
and continued for eight years in a single roomed, clap- 
board, unpainted, shack of a building, perched on the 
highest point of ground within a radius of ten miles. 

There are not many of us still around who attended 
school in a one room building, where a single teacher 
taught all eight grades. If there are any, they are kind 
of like one of them old window blinds a person can pull 
down, but can't get to go back up! 

In those days people didn't take a bath very often. 
I have a sneakin' hunch the school house was pur- 
posely built where the wind could hit it from all four 
directions for a reason. As the builders calculated, it 
never stopped blowing. 

This particular neighborhood culture center, place 
of learning, little theater on occasion, and Saturday 
night dance hall, was appropriately name "Rocky 
Point". During the period of time under discussion, 
there were many such "Rocky Points" scattered 
throughout Lemhi and Custer Counties, the State of 
Idaho, and the nation. 

Although the donor's name has been misplaced in 
the rag- bag of memory, it is safe to assume that a 
homesteader donated the land for the building site from 
a corner of his claim. It is easy to understand why a 
person would not donate his best piece of ground, and 
why most schools were built on scab land. In the case 
of "Rocky Point" the giving of the ground upon which 
it was built, must have been a burst of generosity sel- 
dom witnessed. The place was almost solid rock. Any 
soil was not visible. A chipmunk stopped there one time, 
and starved to death. 

To obtain drinking water these early day promoters 
of education, dug a cistern to store rain or melting 
snow which ran off of the roof from time to time. It is 
said, a city slicker drank some of the water from that 
cistern and, as a result, had stomach cramps and much 
worse for the remainder of his life. It was a well known 
fact at the time, that outsiders did not have immunity 
to a lot of stuff like us natives. 

For instance, I remember a city kid who moved into 
the neighborhood when I was in the third grade. He 
never was able to swaller chewin' tobacker juice. In all 
my life I've never seen anyone get so pale. Hell! My 
little sister could do that without gettin' sick! 

In the fourth grade I discovered girls. For the next 
several years I was in love with either Cheryl or Patty. 
Of course I never told anyone, and neither one of them 
knew it either. In those days such stuff was kept secret 
and the only one who knew it was my dog. 

In addition to readin', writin' and arithmetic we learn- 
ed quite a few other things in these one room schools. 
Things like pitchin' horse shoes, playin' steal sticks, 
and which kid's horse could run the fastest. 

When digging around in the cobwebs of my mind it 

is difficult not to think of a young woman who taught 
a number of years at Rocky Point. I think she is quite 
typical of the one room school teacher. 

She boarded with a family about two miles distant 
from the school house and walked back and forth, wad- 
ing snow in the winter and mud in the spring. Each 
school day, if some joker had not nailed the door shut, 
or stuffed gunny sacks down the chimney during the 
night, she kindled a fire in the heating stove, brought 
in a bucket of water from the cistern and did the jan- 
itorial work. An hour or so later when the students 
started arriving she assisted the little ones, taking off 
overshoes, hanging up wraps and wiping runny noses. 
By nine o'clock she had everyone in their seats ready 
to go. From that moment on, school was a serious 

Even though she had corrected papers at home for 
two hours the night before, this remarkable woman 
found the time and energy to go outside and play base- 
ball with the kids during recess and lunch hour. During 
bad weather, when we were unable to play outside, 
she read a couple of chapters from one of Zane Grey's 

We are getting old now, but about every year or two, 
we should stop by, where we once went to school. 
Perhaps, as in the case of Rocky Point, the building is 
gone now; but I look east to where the farm land gives 
way to timber and canyon. Coming up from below, it 
was here that the wind caught me full in the face. The 
chill of it reached down into the bones. It made the 
stomach knot and the skin tight. It was only half a mile 
to the school house from that corner, but in the winter 
it was like half way around the world. 

It was here that the horse got kicked into a trot, and 
my little sister, behind the saddle, hung on tight. In the 
spring it was different. Wild flowers bloomed and mead- 
ow larks sang all along that stretch of wagon trail lead- 
ing toward the school house. 

Who are these people who say big is better? 

If it had not been for Rocky Point and similar one 
room schools which dotted Lemhi and Custer Coun- 
ties, our state, and the nation, we would be unable to 
sign our name when we make a credit card purchase. 

1893 - Sheriff Johnson discovered an attempted jail delivery in time to 
prevent it. The bolts of the main door had been filed off and the 
prisoners were only waiting for the stillness of night to shield their 
escape. Ed Vale, Jim West and Jack Craig, three alleged horse thieves, 
were the inmates. Being discovered, Vale made way for liberty, but was 
overtaken and recaptured by Will Shoup and Murd McPhersonafter 
a Tom Longboat sprint that left a wide crack in the atmosphere. Vale 
admits having performed the blacksmith work. 



by Viola Schultz Waetzig & Doris Morton 

All men are builders, some build boats, some books, 
some build streets and roads. Mr. W. W. Schultz was 
a builder of buildings, chiefly school houses, and that 
is why he came to Salmon, Idaho. 

Mr. Schultz of Carbondale, Kansas, was given the 
contract in 1899 to build the Lincoln School in Salmon, 
Idaho. He had built numerous schools in the middle 
west and upon completion of a school in Lexington, 
Missouri, moved his crew to the west. Among the crew 
were his brother John and Jay Vee Vanderlip, both 
stone masons and brick layers and perhaps jacks of all 
trades. These two men were to play an important part 
in the lives of Salmon's youth during the next several 
years - which is a story in itself. 

Most of the materials used in construction of the 
Lincoln School were prepared locally. Mr. Pollard 
burned the bricks at the building site. The hole dug for 
burning the bricks was later used as a skating rink. Ice 
skating was the favored winter sport; everyone, young 
and old skated. John Snook and son cut the lumber 
on Wagonhammer Creek. 

The building was opened for occupancy in 1901. It 
consisted of a full basement containing furnace and 
rest rooms, four classrooms on the ground floor, two 
classrooms and an auditorium on the second floor, a 

The Lincoln School 

belfry and bell that could be heard all over town. The 
principal of the new school was Mr. Mullen, who taught 
the seventh and eighth grades. Nellie Reynolds taught 
the fifth and sixth grades. Flora Hugguns taught the 
first and second grades. The first high school classes 
were held in 1904, offering only two years. The first 
graduating class was April 15, 1906, graduating Kester 
and Manson Soule, and Beulah Clayton. Kester Soule 
is the only living member of that class. The first four 
year graduating class was in 1911, consisting of two 
members, Laura Whitwell and Helen Chase. R. R. Al- 
exander was the Superintendent. Thus began the fifty 
year career of the Lincoln School constructed by Mr. 

Finding the climate of this area had greatly improved 
his health, Mr. Schultz moved his family from Kansas 
in 1902 to become permanent residents and builders 
of this community. The family first lived in a log house 
where the Steele Memorial Hospital now stands. Mrs. 
Schultz ran a boarding house and soon become famous 
for the wonderful meals served. 

Mr. Schultz's next building project was the Redwine 
Building. It housed the M & L V-Store until they moved 
across the street. 

Early in 1903 the community was stricken with an 
epidemic of small pox. By this time the Schultz family 
had moved into the building now known as the Shady 


Nook; which of course has been added to and im- 
proved. But the original building is still there. Mrs. 
Schultz was still in the boarding house business, but 
had also become a nurse. The entire family and all the 
boarders were stricken with the disease, although she 
was the only one to escape it. 

The Schultz's had purchased a ranch twenty miles 
south of Salmon in January 1903 but had not been 
able to move before the epidemic. With the coming of 
spring the family moved into their new home. Mrs. 
Schultz was happy for she was a farmer. Mrs. Schultz, 
her four daughters; Viola, Jessie, Florence, and Dora, 
two sons; David and Clarence ran the ranch and tended 
the builder's lime kiln, which consumed a great deal 
of time year round. The work included hauling wood 
from the mountains for fuel and tending the fires. 

Faced with the problem of educating their children, 
Mr. Schultz organized the community and built the first 
Iron Creek School; which was a twenty by sixteen foot 
one room structure. The first term was four months, 
after that the average was six months. Only grades one 
through seven were taught. Then arose the a problem 
of boarding the children in Salmon. 

Mrs. Schultz ran a way station for travelers coming 
from the Pahsimeroi going to Salmon in the spring and 
fall for supplies. It was a two day trip with team and 
wagon. Often four horse teams were used. Occasion- 
ally these farmers would leave their children with Mrs. 
Schultz so that they could better enjoy their visit to 
the city. Sometimes it was hard to find enough beds 

for everybody but no one was ever turned away. 

In 1908 Mr. Schultz was awarded the contract to 
build Lemhi County Court House. The materials in- 
cluded granite foundation blocks from the Shoup Stone 
Quarry located just west of Salmon, bricks made by 
Mr. Pollard, and lumber furnished locally. Many people 
have been curious to how they raised the statue to the 
top after the building was completed. Simple, a hay 

Mr. Schultz built several of the county schools in the 
valley. He also built the school at May. His last project 
was the present Tendoy School. The interior was not 
quite complete when the Great Builder called him. He 
died in January 1917, at the age of fifty eight. His heart 
had not been too strong for years. 

Mrs. Schultz continued to run the ranch with the help 
of her sons and daughters. Her fame as a cook created 
another source of income - Sunday dinners. It was well 
worth the twenty mile drive over bumpy, dusty roads 
in your shiny new Ford for the dinner of fried chicken, 
fresh vegetables, home-made ice cream and angel cake. 
With the advent of the telephone, if you called ahead 
you got the full meal; however, there was always food 
for everybody. 

1918 - The public should resent the establishment of a rock crushing 
plant on the border of the cemetery . . . The present board of county 
commissioners has exploited the living to the limit, and now the board 
is invading the precincts of the dead. 

Gi-o. W. Bryan, 

— IS THE — 

]is .?5^ i^ :^ je: i^ . 


Shop Situated Next Door to the 

The Lemhi County Courthouse under construction. 



— Force of fifty men being called 
for resumption after shut-down 

Forces of fifty men are to start up the Harmony mine 
within the present month. This is the cheering news 
given out this week by General manager Earl E. Nie- 
mann. Wages under the adjustments now made under 
the general decline are to be $3.50 to $4.50 per day, 
with one dollar off for board. The Harmony closed last 
year. Employment thus afforded will be mighty wel- 
come in the community in these present piping times 
of peace. The revival of work at the Harmony is in 
accordance with the alert management of that prop- 
erty. It is certainly good for Salmon to be able to say 
this of the mine. 

Idaho Recorder, January 6, 1922 


'^ ii\ 

« S 

Copper was the big attracation at the Harmony Mine, developed in 
1916 at Withington Creek. The Concentrator was the largest build- 
ing ever built in Lemhi County at the time. The light colored area 
is the deteriorating roof. 


It is conservatively estimated that there were three 
hundred people at the picnic at Leesburg last Sunday, 
celebrating the 70th Anniversary of the discovery of 
gold in that historic spot. Many of the old pioneers of 
the country were present and enjoyed the day ex- 
changing reminiscences of the early days in that active 
mining center. 

Many of the old log buildings that were erected in 
the early days are still standing. Some of them had 
shown signs of decay, so they were repaired and put 
back as nearly as possible to their original state, of 
course, many of the buildings that were erected during 
the gold rush have disappeared because of fire or de- 
cay. But there is still evidence on all sides of the im- 
mense amount of placer mining that was done in that 
district in the early days. Old placer workings are piled 
up everywhere just as they were left by the pioneer 
miners who helped to extract the millions of dollars in 
the placer gold that were taken out of the Leesburg 
Basin. And it is also noted that the activity of the camp 
is not all in the past, as many placer outfits are at work 
in considerable quantities. Most of them to show the 
visitors conclusive evidence that there is still a supply 
of precious metal hidden away in spots for those who 
are industrious and lucky enough to find it. 

After the crowd had arrived, groups and family gath- 
erings scattered to the nearby woods and spread their 
picnic dinners. The lunch hour is the highlight of any 
picnic and in this instance it was no exception. 

About two o'clock, a speaking program was held from 
the front porch of O.E. Kirkpatrick's office building. Mr. 
Kirpatrick presided and introduced Governor C. Ben 
Ross as the first speaker. Governor Ross had just driv- 
en in for a brief talk, during which he said he had saved 
the State of Idaho a million dollars a year during his 

administration of three years. He also said that he was 
the only man in Idaho who had held the office of gov- 
ernor for three successive terms and was also the only 
native son who had ever held that office in Idaho. He 
promised that there would be no state ad valorem tax 
for 1936, because he had reduced taxes in Idaho one 
hundred percent. In fact, the governor made his usual, 
typical, Ben Ross speech. 

Other speakers were: Lot Feltham, attorney: Charles 
F. Hanmer, Salmon; Arthur Campbell, mine inspector, 
Boise; B. K. Dillon, Salmon; Frank Butschke, Leesburg; 
L. E. Glennon, attorney, Pocatello. 

It was interesting to hear some of the old timers 
visiting together and telling of their experiences in the 
old Leesburg camp. Seth Ball, now operating a large 
ranch near Tendoy, said that fifty- three years ago, 
when he was a boy of fourteen years, he assisted with 
the operation of a pack train that brought supplies from 
Salmon over the old trail before the road was ever built 
to Leesburg. Horace Pope, new city clerk of Salmon, 
said that forty-six years ago, when he was a boy, he 
packed mail from Salmon to Leesburg on his back to 
the miners that were working in the camp. He also 
worked in many of the mines in that district in his 
younger days. 

Mrs. Alice Mahoney of Salmon was present at the 
gathering. She spent many years in and conducted a 
hotel there in the early days and was noted for her 
culinary ability. Lou and Lee Ramey of Salmon were 
the earliest Leesburg residents present. Harry Waters 
now of Challis, lived in the camp in 1893. He spotted 
his old cabin on Main Street, which is still in very good 
state of preservation. He served Lemhi County as sher- 
iff, deputy sheriff and assessor in the old days and was 
getting a thrill out of meeting his old friends. 


Murd McNicoll of Salmon was present. His father 
conducted a general merchandise store in Leesburg in 
early 1889. Mrs. McNicoll was the daughter of Frank 
Sharkey, one of the five original discoverers of the 
camp, and it was her first trip to Leesburg last Sunday. 
Her mother was an old time resident. 

E. E. Randolph was among those present, but he was 
a youngster compared to some of the others. It was 
only 40 years ago that he first saw Leesburg. Then 
there was Will Shoup, a native son of Salmon, who 
visited Leesburg many times when he was a boy and 
that was back in the pioneer days. Joe Pattee of Ten- 
doy said he drove cattle in Leesburg Basin thirty-six 
years ago but that reaches back a little more than half 
the distances to the original pioneers. 

Those who braved the prospects of the hot day to 
drive to Leesburg Sunday were well repaid for their 
efforts. Everyone seemed to have a decidedly good 
time and the result was a happy, contented crowd. 0. 
E. Kirkpatrick, who has resided in Leesburg for forty- 
two years, was the father of the picnic and general 
master-of- ceremonies. He is to be congratulated for 
his efforts in bringing to the attention of the general 
public the 70th Anniversary of the old Leesburg camp. 

Following is a list of persons attending the picnic: 
Hon. C. Ben Ross, Governor of Idaho; Arthur Campbell, 
State Mine Inspector; Henry Nicols, Probate Judge of 
Custer County; Colonel A. J. McNabb, U.S. Army; Hon. 
L. E. Glennon, Pocatello, Idaho; Hon. Don C. Reed, 
Baker, Idaho; Hon. 0. E. Kirkpatrick, Leesburg; Hon. 
Roy B. Herndon, Dillon, Montana. 

OF THE SALMON AREA: Dr. Charles F. Hanmer, May- 
or of Salmon; Emerson Hill, Probate Judge of Lemhi 
County; Hon. L. F. Ramey; John Igou, Lemhi County 
Assessor; Mr. Ralph B. Knepper, editor. Recorder Her- 
ald; Dr. Frank S. Wright; Lot L. Feltham, lawyer; Horace 
G. Pope, City Clerk, Salmon; Harry S. Waters, Leesburg 
pioneer, former Lemhi Co. Sheriff, and Grace Waters; 
Georgeine and Walter Pope; Mrs. Alice Mahoney, for- 
mer Leesburg postmaster for 21 years, Ray and Vanta 
Mahoney, and Delia Mahoney Glennon, (Pocatello, Ida- 
ho); Wallace W. Slavin, Leesburg pioneer freighter; Mrs. 
Emerson Hill; Kester T., Delia, Eloise Jane, and Galen 
Soule of Baker; Mrs. Ralph B. Knepper, John Knepper; 
Mr and Mrs. George Hudlow; Dan McPherson, Jr.; Mr 
and Mrs James Murdock McPherson, pioneer mer- 
chant, Salmon; Sandy McPherson; Wm. B. Pyeatt, 
druggist; Esther Amonson Pyeatt, daughter of Lees- 
burg pioneers; Mrs. Anna Edwards Wright, daughter of 
Leesburg pioneers; Sam Jarvis, Mrs. Ellen Jarvis; Mur- 
dock McNicoll, son of Leesburg pioneer; Mrs. Clair 
Sharkey McNicoll; Mrs. Anna B. Sharkey, wife of F. B. 
Sharkey; Ben K. Dillon; Ira A. Gable; William H. Shoup, 
son of Col. George L. Shoup; Walter Gill; Chris Van 
Stratt; William C. Doebler; J. L. Pattee, Tendoy; Betty 
Joe Pattee; Mr and Mrs. Seth Ball; John Kapp, Carmen; 
Mrs. Lida Briney Kapp; Mr and Mrs. George Howell; 
George, Mary and Reed Broadbent; R. H. Gaver; Earl 

and Thelma Hutchison; 0. J. Long; Mrs. Lou F. and 
Rosemary Ramey; Frank H. Havemann; Allen Kieser; 
N. 0., Zula, Marjorie, Nadine, Eloise and Ina Claire Ward; 
William and Gertrude Mather Kadletz; Mrs. Louella Ig- 
ou; Mrs. Madge E. Reed, Baker; Lee F., Charlotte E., 
Edward, and Adele Fladeland; Florence Nelson; Herbert 
Coles; Marjorie Brower; Frank Hall, Sr.; Mrs. Erma 
Thurston; Thomas and Emma R. Yearian, Lemhi; Mrs. 
Cassie and Elaine Christenson; Fred and Eva Rose; R. 
E. Lee Ramey, born in Leesburg in 1874; Jesse Mills. 
Colson Creek Dude Ranch . 

OF LEESBURG: Professor F. A. Butschke of Lees- 
burg, George Butschke, Mrs. Elizabeth Butschke, Ar- 
thur Butschke and son, and Mrs. Cora Butschke; Mrs. 
Maud Fraker, postmaster, Leesburg, D. 0., Margaret, 

D. M., Patricia, and H. M. Fraker; Charles, Margaret, 
Velma and John Ernst; Judson E., Charles J. and Guy 

E. Goff; E. E. and D. A. Yarbrough; Frank E. Watterman; 
Rev. M. 0., Beulah, Ruth, Opal, Paul and Marvin Fitz- 
gerald; Walter McCofferty. 

foot; E. P. Oldslead, North Fork; Glen Bradley, Forest 
Ranger, Forney; Peter Ramsing, Idaho Falls; John Col- 
lett, Idaho Falls; William Lortz, Idaho Falls; Jean Mob- 
erly, Idaho Falls; G. M. Mosco, Idaho Falls; Miss Lois 
Pierce, Caldwell; Edward Briney, Moscow; John Boyd, 
Deputy Clerk of Custer County; Mrs. Arthur Campbell, 

FROM OTHER STATES: Dean Walters, T. A. Bruner, 
Carl Overham, H. M. Tuttle, all of Seattle, Washington; 
Mr. and Mrs. Otto Hanks, Olympia, Washington; Mrs. 
J. F. Geary, De Witt Van Evera, Salt Lake City, Utah; 
Edward B. Randolph, Leesburg pioneer, John Ran- 
dolph, Mr and Mrs Richard W. Randolph and their two 
children of Akron, Ohio; Mrs. Edyth Herndon, Dillon, 
Montana; Charles Clemmons Sr. and Jr. of Las Vegas, 
Nevada; F. E. Harmon, Tacoma, Washington; Miss Bet- 
ty Flaheraty, Missoula, Montana. 

No residence given: Jeff and Clarence Edmonson; 
John Sheek; Frank and Pearl Kerwin; J. 0. Learned; 
Tony Harris; Lynn Thomas; Crist Stuckey; Mrs. Edith 
Matley; Roy Ferris; R. B. Rodwell; Frank H., Florence 
and Arvel Bal Behman; Miss June Viel; Miss Billie June 
Webb; Miss Arlis Bradbury; Curtis Quinn; Forrest Wohl; 
A. B. Vinson; Harvey Baer; Mrs. Martha Price; James 
A. and Daniel Fry; J. S. Gise; Achille Tomasetti; Thomas 
Hungate; George, Velma, Robert and June Baer; Mr. 
and Mrs. John B. Hill; Mrs. E. McCoy. 

Many others who did not register. 

1902 - SALMON & BLACKBIRD STAGE LINE -Through line 
from Salmon City, Idaho to Leesburg, Blackbird, Forney, Yellow Jacket, 
Singiser. Comfortable stage making the run in one day. Leaves Salmon 
Monday, Wednesday and Friday. Arrives Salmon Tuesday, Thursday 
and Saturday. Freight and express promptly delivered. Evan Stephens, 



by O. E. Kirkpatrick, County Historian 

The following is an excerpt from tfie above titled document. 

. . . The new town of Leesburg soon had a population 
of three thousand people, and there were seven thou- 
sand people in the Leesburg mining district, an area of 
about two hundred square miles. 

At the time gold was discovered in 1866, the nearest 
supply points for wholesale provisions were Fort Ben- 
ton, on the Missouri River, and Walla Walla, Washington 
territory, and provisions were brought to Leesburg by 
pack trains of horses and mules, usually one hundred 
animals in each pack train. However, in a couple of 
years after discovery of gold at Leesburg, supplies were 
hauled to the new town of Salmon City, by ox teams 
and then packed over the mountain to Leesburg. 

The late Prof. John E. Rees, during the year 1924, 
spent quite some time at Leesburg, going over the en- 
tire Leesburg basin, securing data as to the amount of 
gold the Leesburg mines had produced. Prof. Rees put 

the total production at sixteen million dollars. Quoting 
from an article recently written by Prof. Philip Rand, 
on the Louisiana Purchase during the administration 
of President Thomas Jefferson, Prof. Rand says, "Pres- 
ident Jefferson was severely criticized and condemned 
for his act of paying fifteen million dollars for Louisiana 
and the great northwest and was called by his critics 
wasteful, outrageous, and unconstitutional," and con- 
tinuing Prof. Rand says, "The gold mines of Leesburg 
alone produced sufficient gold to pay the cost of the 
Louisiana Purchase — and more to boot". 

In conclusion, be it remembered that Leesburg gold, 
as washed out during the sixties (1860's), was at a 
premium, and at times was accepted for almost twice 
the value of paper U. S. currency during those hectic 
days of our Civil War. 

Submitted by Phyllis Caples 
from the collection of Philip Rand 


by Fred Snook 

Orion E. Kirkpatrick was born September 24, 1863, 
near Camden, Ohio. In 1884 he went to work on a 
tobacco plantation in Lexington, Kentucky. From Ken- 
tucky he moved to Salina, Kansas where he operated 
a steam laundry. He then went into mining and oper- 
ated in Utah, Wyoming, Arizona, Nevada and Southern 

Byrd Trego, Editor of The Daily Bulletin, wrote of him: 

When he came west he did not locate easily. He worked 
in a number of mines and when the panic of 1893 turned 
miners into wanderers, we call them unemployed today, 
he was at Nampa, wanting to go to Boise where con- 
struction work was in progress. He had a little money 
and considered whether to pay his fare to Boise, twenty 
miles, or to walk and save the money. He decided to 
walk. Three years later he was at Redrock. Montana, 
wishing to go to Leesburg. The fare was $12.50, the 
distance ninety-two miles and he had $100. He closed 
a deal with himself to walk to Leesburg for $20.00 and 
made it in a little over two days. With his small capital 
he got into the mining game at Leesburg, made friends 
and money, and in December, 1904, rode into Boise on 
a Pullman car with two thousand dollars in his pocket, 
as "The Gentleman from Lemhi", representing Lemhi 
County in the State Legislature. During the session that 
followed, he had a thoroughly good time, was consulted 
quite a bit on pending legislation by others, and by the 
time of the next political campaign he was into the min- 
ing business so deep, that he had more time to go to 
New York and Washington, than he had for going to 

His property was about a mile out of town and about 
five hundred feet higher in elevation. The mining prop- 
erty was known as the Gold Dust Group and 0. E. was 
the principal owner. He developed the property, and 
built a stamp mill that shook the hillside when in op- 

Kirkpatrick did not marry, but rather, fell in love with 
Leesburg. He was the bridge between the original boom 
and the eventual demise of the town. He was an ex- 
tremely capable, dedicated man. A gentleman who lived 
at the edge of the wilderness. He was a typical western 
man, made so by circumstances and by his habit of 
making the best of existing circumstances. 

He was a member of Lemhi Lodge No. 11, A.F. & 
A.M. of Salmon, and Hugh Duncan Chapter No. 2, O.E.S. 
of Salmon. He walked from Leesburg to Salmon to at- 
tend meetings, often times completing many miles of 
the journey on snowshoes. During his time in Leesburg, 
he traveled a total distance of about 6,000 miles on 
skis and snowshoes. He did not drive and was not a 
horseman. 0. E. was a religious man and would walk 
from Leesburg to Salmon and back, to attend church. 
This was not done once, this was his regular Sunday 
activity. Imagine that, when kids today say they cannot 
walk six blocks to anywhere. 

While hunting about a half mile from his cabin, his 
gun accidently discharged and shot away some of the 



Orion E. Kirkpatrick, Lemhi County 
State Legislator and author. 

0. E. Kirkpatrick and his hunting dog 
near Leesburg. 

The Gold Dust Mining Camp 

Kirkpatrick at age 17. 


muscle of his right leg just below the hip. It bled pro- 
fusely and he found that the only way he could travel 
was to sit on the ground with his back towards home 
and use his hands to hitch himself along. Arriving at 
the cabin and his phone, he seemed in danger of faint- 
ing before he could put in a call. He got through to 
Leesburg and asked them to get a doctor from Salmon, 
fourteen miles by trail. Leesburg went to the rescue, 
and a doctor arrived in three hours. 0. E. carried thirty 
birdshot pellets in his leg the rest of his life, and the 
injury prevented him from taking the hard walks to and 
from Salmon. 

As mining played out and others either died or left 
Leesburg, Kirkpatrick stayed. His mine basically closed, 
but he stayed there taking care of it by himself. 

0. E. loved animals and in most photographs of Kirk- 
patrick an animal is shown. He had chickens, a cat, a 
dog, pet bird, etc. His cat was named for his sweet- 
heart, who was called by death before the date of their 

In his last years, his telephone was a prized posses- 
sion, which he used to do his shopping, calling in or- 
ders, as to what to send out from Salmon by parcel 

Kirkpatrick was a studious person and had much good 
literature at his cabin. Sometimes when a guest would 
stop to visit, he would hand out one of his series of 
McGuffy's readers and it would be like going back a 
half of century — there were the old lessons, and the 

As others left, Kirkpatrick took it upon himself to 
preserve the history of Leesburg. He did this in many, 
different ways. He wrote a book. History of the Lees- 
burg Pioneers detailing the lives of the first pioneers. 
This was published in 1934 and was based on his own 
personal knowledge of the people. Plus, he was an ar- 
dent student of the lives and deed of those men, and 
his hobby included gathering data through all the years 
to publish his historical document. James A. Herndon, 
wrote the Foreword and commented, "He is rendering 

Kirkpatrick and newspaper editor, E. K. Abbott, 
outside the Kirkpatrick home near Leesburg. 

0. E. and his cat, named after his sweetheart, who died before they could be 

Winter at Kirkpatrick's home near Leesburg. 

Hunting deer at Leesburg. 


a distinct service to the State, in the compiling of this 
history; a service that the people of Idaho will preserve 
and appreciate." The hardbound book of 172 pages 
sold for $1.50 and proudly proclaimed "Printed in Unit- 
ed States of America". These books are scarce as hen's 
teeth today, and are a very valuable treasure to anyone 
fortunate enough to have one. 

Leesburg has a cemetery, and Kirkpatrick took it 
upon himself to decorate the graves of the veterans 
with flags and flowers the 30th day of each May. He 
kept a flag at the Post Office. He served as mining 
recorder in the Leesburg district for many years, and 
he organized a party to celebrate the Sixtieth Anni- 
versary of Leesburg, erecting a monument bearing a 
bronze plaque in memory of the five discoverers. Un- 
fortunately, this plaque was soon stolen. 

Undeterred, he organized an even larger Seventieth 
Anniversary of Leesburg ceremony, arranged for Gov- 
ernor Ross and other dignitaries to attend, served as 
master of ceremonies, and prepared a list of all persons 
present. ^ 

The Hardee Mill on Arnett Creek was the first quartz mill in the 
county. - 1888 

Chief Tendoy and son visiting Leesburg in 1896. 

Kirkpatrick, an astute businessman and civic leader. 

Friend and fellow miner, Lorton Prince. 


On June 10, 1937 Kirkpatrick mailed a letter and 
package from Leesburg addressed to his good friend 
Hon. E. W. Whitcomb, Salmon, Idaho. The letter stated, 
"As a very small return for the courtesies you have 
shown me, I take pleasure in sending you an album 
containing a number of Leesburg Views. With all good 
Wishes, Your Friend, O.E. Kirkpatrick". The package 
contained a scrapbook of many, many pictures of Lees- 
burg and Kirkpatrick. It is now in Elizabeth Snook's 
possession and was the basis for much of this article. 
0. E. died on December 18, 1939 at the Rose Hos- 
pital in Salmon, at age seventy-six, following an illness 
of many months. A few months before his death he 
had been appointed State Historian for Lemhi County 
by the State Historical Society. 

The Record Herald stated in his obituary: 

Mr. Kirkpatrick was one of Lemhi County's most high- 
ly esteemed citizens, and was universally respected by 
everyone who knew him because of his exemplary char- 
acter and kindly disposition. The hospitality of his Lees- 
burg home was known throughout this community. His 
passing has cast a shadow of sadness over the entire 

More than any person before or since, Orion E. Kirk- 
patrick was the spirit and guardian of Leesburg. We 
thank him today for all of his efforts made then, which 
helped preserve this important part of the history of 
Lemhi County. 

All photos in this section are taken from 0. E. Kirk- 
patrick' s personal photograph album. Courtesy of Eli- 
zabeth Snook. 


A. r. WILLS, 


Opposite Geo. L. Slionp k Co. 

HAViA'ia Lr>ANi:i> ritoM C'Ai»t. it. 
WIIMnma Jho "Olil Corner Saloon," 
U'hlcli I Imvo named tho ".Sialc of lUaho," I 
am now pie))ared to furnh^li (u I lio public 
the flnasi lot o/ 

Wiiios, Liquors, Beer and Oigara 

Ever brought to this city or J.cnihi county. 

in oonnccllon wlili H,»c sa- 
loon for 'III* licnriit of cus- 
lonicr«. Cull and sec n»'!. 


trick at age 70. 








Leesburg historian, Orion E. Kirkpatrick, a man of all elevations. 

19 19 - Albert and Henry Kurry brought the news to Salmon of the 
recent birth of the first white child in the Middle Fork country, a 
splendid boy born to Mr. and Mrs. Freeman Nepthkin at the Nerny 

19 18 - The Bradley- Watkins garage has gained the distinction of having 
sent out the first automobile that ever negotiated the Leesburg summit 
. . . The Bradley car covered the distance of i6 miles in two hours and 
fifteen minutes actual time. A consumption of five gallons of gasoline 
was necessary. 



by Genie Quinn 

In order to establish a Post Office, a gathering of 
people would apply to the Post Office Department in 
Washington D.C. requesting one, with a suggested name 
for the Post Office and also the name of a person sug- 
gested to serve as Postmaster. Most times both were 
granted as requested, unless the name for the Post 
Office had already been taken in the Territory or the 
State. If this was the case, then most often, the name 
of the Postmaster became the name of the Post Office. 

This is a list of the Post Offices, Territory of Idaho, 
Lemhi County from 1864 to 1878, taken from the 
Washington D.C. Archives: Baker, Bannister, Blackbird, 
Bohannon, Boyle, Caskill, Columbia, Copper Queen, El- 
lis, Forney, Fort Lemhi, Gibbonsville, Hover, Hunt, In- 
dianola, Jorden Creek, Junction, Leesbough (Lees- 
burg), Lemhi Agency, Linger, Loon Creek, McNutt, 
Morse, Nicholia, Rabbits Foot, Reno, Robinson Bar, 
Round Valley, Salmon, Spring Mountain, Sunfield, Ulys- 
ses, Woodland. 

Post Offices in later years included: Antna, Bonanza 
City, Carmen, Challis, Clayton, Cobalt, Crystal, Custer 
City, Gilmore, Hahn, Leadore, Lemhi, May, Meyers 
Cove, Noble, North Fork, Panarama, Patterson, Shoup, 
Singiser, Tendoy. Note that some of these Post Offices 
are in what is now Custer County. 

Many times the appointed Postmaster would hire 
another person to do the Post Office work, but in the 
official records that person was never listed. If you feel 
that I have omitted someone, this may be the reason, 
and I apologize. 

The mail first came into the valley over Lemhi Pass 
from Red Rock, Montana. When the railroad was built 
in 1909, the mail arrived by train, three days a week. 
The rest of the time it came by car over Bannock Pass. 
In 1940, after the railroad was discontinued, the mail 
came by truck from Armstead, Montana over Bannock 
Pass and Railroad Canyon. At present the mail arrives 
in the valley from Idaho Falls, Idaho by truck; stopping 
first at Leadore, Lemhi, Tendoy and then Salmon. An- 
other private contractor continues down the river, 
stopping at Carmen, North Fork and Gibbonsville. Mail 
also comes into Salmon from Mackay and Challis each 
day except Sunday. 

SALMON POST OFFICE: Salmon City was the cross- 
roads town at the confluence of the Salmon and Lemhi 
Rivers, and the supply point for mines in the area, as 
well as the central point of travel for the valley. Salmon 
City became a Post Office in 1869, but in 1895 the 
name was shortened to Salmon. Col. George L. Shoup 
was the first Postmaster and it is assumed that the 
first Post Office was in his store. 

Salmon had more Postmasters, not only because it 
is the oldest office, but because most Postmasters were 
politically appointed by the party in power at the time. 
In 1971 Congress changed the Post Office Department 

to the Postal Service, to be run as a non-profit agency, 
without the use of tax money, taking politics out of it. 
The job of Postmaster is now competitive within the 
Postal Service. The present Salmon Post Office is lo- 
cated at 600 Shoup Street, in the first Post Office build- 
ing not in conjunction with a store, shop, hotel or shar- 
ing another building. Jean Stokes the present Post- 
master is only the second woman to hold the position 
out of twenty-eight different appointments. 

Salmon's Postmasters: Col. George L. Shoup-1869, 
Wilson Ellis- 1870, George L. Shoup-1872, James Glen- 
denning-1877, M. M. McPherson-1883, Mary Kirtly- 
1886, Thomas Pope-1891, William H. Andrews-1898, 
Fred G. Havemann-1902, Philip Rand-1910, Roy B. 
Herndon-1914, Benjamin F. Meredith, acting-1918, 
Thomas H. Holbery- 1918, Oliver V. Vose-1919, Homer 
Holbert, acting-1920, William H. Shoup-1921, Kenneth 
E. McBride-1923, Frank A. McCall-1936, F. W. Hanmer- 
1942 (longest serving Salmon Postmaster), Vern Chan- 
dler- 1960, Forrest Wheeler-1972, Williston J. La- 
Munyan, officer in charge-1974, Willard A. Fullmer, of- 
ficer in charge-1974, David B. Johnson-1974, Larry J. 
Ungefug-1983, Jean Stokes-1988. 

LEADORE POSTOFFICE: Leadore is a town made by 
the railroad after bypassing Junction, Idaho, located 
on the other side of the Lemhi River. Junction lasted 
a few more years, but closed in 1919. Leadore Post 
Office started in 1911 on Galena Street. It has been in 
a few homes, but mostly along with another businesses 
in part of the building. One location was very hard to 
heat due to its high ceilings, and the Postmaster, Calvin 
Whittaker, often kept his insulated coveralls and over- 
shoes on all day. Even with the gas heater running all 
the time, the ink would freeze. 

The current Post Office is located on the south side 
of Main Street in the Tomchaks Building. Leadore Post- 
masters were: Lucien Klinger-191 1, George F. John- 
son-1915, Fred Chase-1920, Elvina Denny- 1924, Nellie 
Andrews-1945, Calvin Whittaker-1963, Phyllis Jones- 
1988, Marjean Faulkner-1990, Shirley DeCora-1991. 

LEMHI POST OFFICE: Lemhi became a Post Office 
in 1911, located in the Lemhi Store. The first Post- 
master, Lewis Ramsey, owned the store and a ranch, 
and nearby Ramsey Mountain was named for him. Af- 
ter his death, his sister Laura B. Murphy took the po- 
sition in 1934. 

Later Marian and Helen Benedict purchased the store 
and in 1937 Helen became Postmaster. She recalls 
being paid approximately $150 per quarter, based on 
revenue taken in. Helen married Bill Brown and moved 
to Hayden Creek. Her sister Lillie Swinyer became 
Postmaster in 1945. In 1950 Bill and Helen Brown took 
over the store and William S. Brown Jr. became the 
Postmaster. In 1951 Helen Brown took over until 1983, 
when her good friend Fae Smith was appointed. Helen 


sold the store to Mike and Phyllis Jones and Phyllis 
became Postmaster in 1987, until they sold the store 
to Dan and June Weber, the present owners. June We- 
ber became Postmaster in 1988 when Phyllis Jones 
became Postmaster at Leadore. 

TENDOY POST OFFICE: There have been three other 
Post Offices in the area; Fort Lemhi, Hover and Sun- 
field. In that order the mail was transferred from one 
to the next and finally to Tendoy, which became a Post 
Office in 1911. Fred Pattee was the first Postmaster 
and had a store building on his ranch near the railroad 
which also housed the Post Office. Mail came three 
times a week form Armstead, Montana to Salmon and 
on other days by car over Bannock Pass. The next 
move was to a new store on the Ball Ranch. When the 
State Highway was built on the old railroad bed, the 
Anglins moved the store and Post Office to its present 
location. Postmasters were: Fred Pattee-1911, Alice 
R. Rees-1913, Ora L. lgou-1915, Irene C. Mulkey-1919, 
Clara Pierce-1921, Clair Pierce-1944, Barbara Ques- 
nel- 1945, Irene Frazee-1946, Viola Anglin-1949, Kelly 



MAY POST OFFICE: The May Post Office is located 
up the Pahsimeroi River about twelve miles from the 
main Salmon River, between Challis and Salmon. It is 
east of Ellis, in a ranching and farming area. The May 
Post Office has traveled from home to home, and up 
and down Main Street. 

Morse was a Post Office near May, but on the other 
side of the Pahsimeroi River and ended up in Custer 
County when the county was formed. When Morse 
closed in 1902, the mail went to May to be distributed. 

In 1983, the May Post Office was to be closed, but 
the community protested, and it was kept open with 
a new Postmaster. The present Post Office is located 
behind the May Grange Hall, in its own building. 

Postmasters: Rodolph Wright-1897, Salomm J. 
Cleveland-1901, Mamie Morphy-1903, Rachel Weaver 
Monks-1910, Bert Reese- 1926, Henry Walarbis-1928, 
Ruth Williamson-1929, Emma P. Fitzgerald-1933, Grace 
Stoddard-1942, Eva McGraw-1961, Lynette O'Neal- 

cated eleven miles north of the main Salmon River, on 
Dahlonega Creek, about a quarter mile off Highway 93. 
It is the second oldest Post Office in Lemhi County that 
is still functioning. The first Gibbonsville Post Office 
opened in 1878 with George D. Anderson as Postmas- 



Tendoy Post Office-1990 

North Fork Post Office Today 

May Post Office 

The first North Fork Post Office-1910 


ter. He is reported to have had the first mining claims 
there also. The population in the 1880's was between 
1500 and 2000. The Post Office was in many different 
places and a lady tells of going for her mail when the 
Post Office was in the back of a bar, and those around 
just played pool until the mail arrived. 

The current Post Office building was built by Allen 
and Norma Stone, the Postmaster. She also was the 
Librarian and part of the building was used for that 
purpose. Norma Stone Scarborough, the Postmaster 
in 1991, wears many hats. She is very active in her 
community and is an Emergency Medical Technician 

Postmasters: George D. Anderson-1878, James M 
Nighswander-1879, James Bontecon-1879, John 
Scanlon-1880, Newton B. Wood-1881, Jeremiah Fah- 
ey-1882, George Croghan-1887, Willard Dunton-1890. 
George W. Noble-1895, George Croghan-1895, Frank 
Bien-1896, William L. Edwards-1898, Zera W. Ballinger- 
1902, Mary E. Cannon-1906, Anna Edwards-1908, Mar- 
garet Bauer Anderson-1920, Geogeien Dean, acting- 
1933, Georgeien Dean-1934, Grace Winterowd, acting- 
1942, Lena Heidt- 1943, Ida B. Mathis, acting-1958, 
Ida B. Mathis-1958, Norma B. Stone, officer in charge- 
1973, Norma B. Scarborough-1974. 

1883 and discontinued in 1964, it was to be used as 
a Rural Station or as it is called today, a Contract Postal 
Unit. The first contract went to Edith Varin and was 
operated by Merle Kearsley. Today the CPU is run by 
Garry and Peggy Pedrow slong with their store and 
cafe. The mail comes out of North Fork on Monday. 
Wednesday and Friday. The rural deliveries between 
North Fork and Shoup are on those days and deliveries 
from Shoup to the end of the Salmon River road are 
done on Tuesday and Friday. 

Postmaster when it was established in 1910. The Post 
Office was located in a business built on the hill above 
the present town of North Fork. It was in a three story 
building with general supplies, bar room, sleeping 
rooms, restaurant and a dance hall, open on Saturday 
nights. Racine L. Hardy was Postmaster in 1919, Wil- 
liam E. McCracken also in 1919, and Barton B. Casey 
in 1923. Frank T. Casey became Postmaster in 1940 
and moved the Postoffice to his business, Casey Mer- 
cantile, the present North Fork Store and Cafe. Later 
Postmasters were Bennie Banks-1951, Reginald 
McDermott-1952, Alice K. Hanson-1953 and Adele 

After Alice Hanson became Postmaster, she and Har- 
old built a frame structure across the North Fork River 
for the Post Office. Alice K. Hanson was named Na- 
tional Postmaster of the Year in 1976 by the National 
League of Postmasters, the only Idaho Postmaster to 
ever be so honored. When Alice retired, the North Fork 
Cafe bought the building and moved it over by their 
place of business. In 1990 this structure was moved 
to the middle of the parking lot while a new Post Office 
was being built in line with the rest of the building. 
Patricia Neilson became Postmaster in 1988. 

CARMEN POST OFFICE: The Carmen Post Office was 
in several different homes or stores in earlier times, all 
in the vicinity of the present Grange Hall, a quarter of 
a mile east on the Carmen Creek road. In 1902, in that 
area, there was a school, general store, filling station, 
dance hall and other buildings and homes. In 1935 
William E. McCracken received permission to move the 
Post Office down by the new highway, where it is today. 
This new road, with a good bridge across the river, 
made it much easier to travel north to the ranches on 
the Big Flat and down river. 

Gibbonsville Post Office 

Carmen Post Office 


Biggest Fish Ever Caught at Salmon 

An exciting bit of sport was that which occurred 
here Monday afternoon, when three of the young 
men of Salmon captured a great sturgeon in the 
river near the bridge. It required about an hour to 
land the monster, which measured 8 feet 8 inches in 
length, and when thrown across the scales was 
found to weigh 245 pounds. 

About noon of that day, young John Gaver was 
rowing in the river at the lower end of the Price 
Island, when near the old Turner slough which 
discharges there, he saw this monster in the 
water — the biggest fish he had ever seen. He landed 
his boat and hurried home to tell his folks about it. 
They all went down to the river with him to see the 
strange show, and John and Cady, with their father, 
J. J. Gaver, rowed out to where it lay on the bottom 
of the river. One of the boys struck the fish with an 
oar, and it swam off up stream, making a 
tremendous commotion in the water. Then they all 
returned to the house, and ate their dinners, 
meanwhile mutually devising means for the capture 
of the fish which they believed to be a sturgeon. 

They had no harpoon, so after dinner one of the 
boys hiked to a blacksmith shop with the stove 
poker and had the instrument pointed and worked 

John Decoria, Cady Gaver, John Gaver pose with their monstrous 

into a double-barbed spear. To this they tied a 
clothesline. John and Cady Gaver and John Decoria 
returned to the river and embarked on a whaling 
expedition. As they expected the fish was still in that 
vicinity and was soon located. The first thrust of the 
spear struck a scale and glanced off. The second 
one, however, held, and the fish swam off with the 
boat in tow, hauling the outfit with some celerity for 
about 60 or 75 feet, up stream, when the barbs tore 
loose and the fish got away. 

Then they'd row a little farther up the river . . . 
then drop both the oars, take another crack at the 
sturgeon, and then they'd row a little farther. Finally 
the game headed down stream. Another apparently 
secure hold with the harpoon was pulled out after a 
terrific battle. The fun lasted about an hour. When 
they got just below the bridge, John Decoria 
harpooned the fish once more — this time in the 
neck. Mr. Sturgeon struggled frantically, and once 
raised his huge head out of the water, when quick as 
lightning, Cady Gaver shot him with the 30-30 
Winchester. This either stunned or killed the fish, 
and after some effort at the . . . clothesline the trio 
had him hauled up on the shore ice. 

From an early newspaper clipping-about 1911. 


by Hubert Harder 

My grandmother was a courageous lady, truly a per- 
son of the pioneer spirit. Her name was Mary Calvin. 
Sometime in the 1890's Mary's son. Herb Bosch, rode 
a horse over the mountains to the Salmon River Coun- 
try. He sent word to his mother in Oregon of "this place 
of great promise." 

Salmon City was building. Homesteads were being 
developed into ranches with herds of cattle, sheep and 
horses. There were new orchards of fruit and gardens 
of potatoes and other vegetables. Gold mines were 
everywhere ... up the Lemhi Valley; Chinese and white 
men were working the gold fields in Leesburg and Moose 
Creek; ditches and flumes were being built around the 
mountains to bring water to the gold bearing gravel 
bars. The gold mines at Shoup, Ulysses and Gibbons- 
ville were alive with activity. The saw mill on Hughes 
Creek was sawing Ponderosa Pine lumber for the many 
operations which were going on. 

There was a wagon road from Salmon City for twenty 
four miles down the river to the junction of the North 
Fork and the Salmon, and then another twenty miles 
on down the river to Shoup. It was twelve miles up the 
North Fork to Gibbonsville. This junction of the rivers 
was first called Nobel, and later named North Fork. 
About fifteen miles from North Fork up Hughes Creek 


was the saw mill. It was twenty miles from North Fork 
to the gold mines at Ulysses on Indian Creek. 

All of the freight wagons stopped over night at North 
Fork, as it was a full day's drive from any of these 
places. It was here at North Fork that Mary Calvin built 
her first little store. After a short time, she built a large, 
three-story building which housed a mercantile store, 
hotel rooms, a dining room and, on the third floor, a 
dance hall. About the time she completed this building, 
she became sick with appendicitis and died. She was 

taken back to Oregon for burial, but I think it would 
have been better if she had been laid to rest in the 
valley of the great river she loved so much. 

My mother and father operated the store and hotel 
for a few years, and then it was sold to Will McCracken 
and later sold to Frank Casey. After Highway 93 was 
built and the road no longer passed by the store, the 
Casey family tore down the large building and built a 
new store down the hill by the highway. 

My parents, Charles and Rennie Harder, and my 

Grandmother Mary Calvin who built the 
first store at North Fork about 1900. 

Below: The North Fork Store-a mercantile store, hotel, dining room, dance hall and Post- 
office. It was on the hill at the site now occupied by the Forest Service. 

courtesy of the Casey family 


>'. » • •* : 


brother, Vernon, moved from Oregon to the Salmon 
River Country before 1910. Part of the journey was by 
stagecoach from Red Rock, Montana, over the Con- 
tinental Divide and down to Salmon. The stagecoach 
was pulled by six head of horses, as it was a long, hard 
pull over the mountains. The road down the mountain 
from the Continental Divide was a long, very steep hill. 
The stagecoach would be halted at the top of the Divide 
and the men would cut a tree and tie it on behind the 
stagecoach to act as a drag, to help brake the coach 
down the mountain. On my parent's trip, the tree broke 
loose part way down the mountain and the horses could 
not hold the stagecoach back, which caused a run- 
away. One horse fell down and was dragged. 

My mother would tell of this experience, and shrug 
her shoulders and shake as she said, "Oh, that was 
terrible! Vernon was just a baby and I thought none of 
us would survive. It was really terrible." 

Among the memories I have of the store and hotel 
at North Fork are recollections of Captain Harry Gu- 
leke, who would build his river scows, or boats, in Salm- 
on and then, with his party, would come the first day 
as far as North Fork. He would tie the boat up at the 
mouth of the North Fork and the party would stay at 
the hotel for the night. As was the custom in those 
days, all the men would gather at the store in the eve- 
ning and tell of the hair raising experiences on the Riv- 
er. As a small boy, I was sure that the greatest adven- 
ture in all the world was to float the Salmon River. 

The Willard Rood family lived on what is now called 
Panther Creek. In the spring of the year, the Rood 
family would come up the River and stay at the hotel. 
Willard Rood, Sr. would have big bales of cougar hides 
and other furs. He would pile these bales up in one end 
of the store and, in the evening, all the men around 
the country would come to hear him tell of his expe- 
riences while trailing cougars with his hounds. 

There was a lot of mining activity at Shoup and Ulys- 
ses, as well as at Gibbonsville, and all travel stopped 




at North Fork for the night. When heavy machinery, 
like steam boilers or mills, was to be moved, the men 
would use six or eight head of horses on a heavy wagon. 
A rider would go ahead and, if there was another wagon 
or buggy approaching, he would ask that the occupants 
find a wide place to get off the road. The wagon road 
at that time was only a single track with may steep 
hills and few places to pass. 

In 1918 my dad bought a Dodge pickup and used it 
to haul supplies and people wherever they wanted to 
go; like to dance at Shoup or Gibbonsville. 

The rivers were full of salmon in those days, and up 
the Lemhi River was a fish trap and fish hatchery. After 
the eggs were taken from the salmon, the fish were 
given to the Indians or whoever wanted them. The In- 
dians would put hay on bushes, then cut up the salmon 
and spread the pieces of fish out on the hay to dry. 
The fish would get covered with flies. Once when we 
were up there, my dad asked this old Indian, "What do 
you do about all the flies?" The Indian said, "Fly no 
eat fish. Big wind come, blow all away." 

Austin Trowbridge made a deal with dad; if dad would 
haul him and Mrs. Trowbridge up to the hatchery in 
the Dodge pickup, they would can a lot of the salmon 
and give dad half. There were no pressure cookers in 
those days so the salmon all spoiled. 

Peg Buster was trapping up the Silver Lead Gulch so 
mother gave him all the spoiled salmon for coyote bait. 
Pug would saturate two gunny sacks with the rotten 
fish and then wrap one sack on each foot and walk 
through the woods, to attract the coyotes. When the 
wind was right, a coyote could smell old Pug coming 
five miles away. 

Among the pioneers of the Salmon River Country, 
there are many who deserve to be remembered. I think 
one, especially, should be remembered. 

Hacksaw Tom 

Stage coach that brought Charles and Rennie Harder and baby Vernon from Red Rock, Montana 
to Salmon, some time before 1910. 


Mrs. Bartel was a full blood Flat Head Indian lady. 
She was trusted and respected as a midwife for child 
birth. I am sure there are people in Lemhi County whose 
parents were helped into the world by Mrs. Bartel; and 
no doubt there were some who owe their existence to 
the skill as a midwife of this very fine Native American 
lady who had a large family of her own. 

My sister, Jeanne, was born at North Fork and Mrs. 
Bartel delivered her. There was no doctor present, as 
it was a full day's journey for a doctor, by horse and 
buggy, from Salmon to North Fork. It is fair to say that 
Mrs. Bartel was a legend in her time. 

During the years I was in grade school we lived on 
a ranch at North Fork. The school was four and one 
half miles up the North Fork at what is now called Hull 

We had a horse called Topsy and when I was six years 
old I would ride behind my brother, Vernon, who was 
five years older. The Carnes boys, Donald and Bob, 
were about our ages and they lived on what is now 
called the Suydam place. They had a pony. Whisky, 
that they had traded from the Indians, and it may be 
that the pony's name had some connection to the trad- 
ing stock used in the barter with the Indians. Anyway, 
we had some great races on those ponies. 

Spring Creek School in the 1920's 
Four and a half miles up the North Fork. 

After my sister, Jeanne, started school, we had a 
buggy and a horse called Gypsy to drive. There weren't 
very many cars in those days and Gypsy was scared 
to death of them. The road was just a single track 
wagon road and when we would meet a car, old Gypsy 
would stop dead still with her legs kind of spread out 
and she would sort of squat down. As the car came a 
little closer, her eyes would bug out and then she would 
let out a big snort and take for the brush . . . buggy, 
kids and all. 

I remember the old Indian woman who would camp 
down by the North Fork to pick and dry choke cherries 
for winter. There was a grove of cottonwood trees along 
the North Fork and, about the time of summer when 
the choke cherries were ripe, on some early morning 
we would see an Indian tepee down there. The old In- 
dian woman would pick choke cherries and smash 
them, seeds and all, on a flat rock. Then she would 
make patties about like hamburger patties and place 
them on hay that had been spread out on bushes. After 
the patties were dried, she would store them away. 

About the time the choke cherries were gone, we 
would look down there one morning and the tepee 
would be gone. During all the years she came, we never 
did see her come and we never did see her go, but we 
always looked forward to the time when the Indian 
tepee would appear in the cottonwood trees. 

There are many stories about Hacksaw Tom Chris- 
tensen and his pet rattlesnakes that he would some- 


times bring to Salmon. One that I remember was when 
my mother was in the drug store in Salmon and Hack- 
saw came in and wanted some medicine as one of his 
rattlesnakes had bitten him. Sometime later, my 
mother met him on the street and asked him how the 
rattlesnake bite was. He said, "Oh, that sure was a sick 
old snake. I didn't think he was going to make it." He 
went on, "I stayed up with that snake and nursed him 
night and day for two weeks. He survived, but he was 
never the same snake after that ... no life to him." 

It seems to me that the time Mrs. Shaw, with the 
help of a big 45 caliber six-shooter, ran Elmer Keith 
and Colonel Townsend Wheeland across the North Fork 
on a foot log should be recorded in history. At that 
time, Elmer Keith lived on a little ranch up the North 
Fork. He always wore a six-shooter on each hip, and 
sometimes, another one under his arm. I have heard 
him say if he was ever attacked, he wanted a "44" or 
a "45" to take care of the situations. Colonel Town- 
send Wheeland was a well known writer and gun en- 
thusiast. Like Keith, the Colonel traveled well armed. 

The Shaws came from the Ozark Mountains in Okla- 
homa. Roy Shaw had the reputation for making some 
of the finest "White Lightning" whisky in all the Salmon 
River Country. Like the Martins and the McCoys, the 
Shaws were real, true, gun totin" mountain people. 

Colonel Townsend Wheeland came to visit Elmer 
Keith, and they went down to the confluence of the 
North Fork and the Salmon River. My brother, Vernon, 
and I were down by the bridge across the North Fork. 

Mrs. Shaw who lived nearby, came across the bridge 
carrying her big 45 caliber six-shooter. She said, "Those 
men down there at the mouth of the North Fork are 
shooting at me, and I'm going down there and run them 
out." Vernon and I went down the other side of the 
North Fork to see the fun. When we got there, Keith 
and the Colonel and Mrs. Shaw were coming across 
the log. It was high water season, so to cross on the 
small foot log at that time was quite a hazardous jour- 
ney. However, Keith and the Colonel were stepping 
right along, with Mrs. Shaw right behind; big, 45 six- 
shooter right in their backs. After Keith got across the 
foot log, he called back to Mrs. Shaw, "You go get your 
old man and I will settle this with him." She said, "I 
don't need my old man to settle with you. I can take 
care of you myself!" 

Elmer Keith came over to Vernon and me and jok- 
ingly said, "If you boys ever tell anybody about this, I 
will kill both of you." Then we all had a big laugh to- 

One of my memories of the dances at North Fork is 
that of Jerry Ravendahl's big bobsleigh, loaded with 
singing and laughing people and drawn by four big, 
prancing horses, with many Swiss sleigh bells ringing 
in the cold winter night. The Ravendahl's lived on a 
ranch at Hughes Creek, about six miles up the North 

Jerry was a fine looking young man and he had a 
beautiful sister named Clara. Jerry had the finest four- 
horse team and the best harnesses and equipment for 
them in all that country. The harnesses had big, brass 
balls on top of the hames and strings of red and white 
rights to hold the driving reins. The sleigh was a big, 
heavy bob with a large rack covered with hay and robes 
for many people to ride on. The sleigh bells were of 
the finest Swiss chimes, and he had many of them 
attached to the harnesses. The driver's seat was 
mounted up high, and he always had the place beside 
him reserved for the pretty school teacher down at 
the Spring Creek School. 

I am sure there was always a jug of "White Lightning" 
- maybe two jugs - cashed in the hay in case anyone 
got too cold. 

It was something to remember; that big sleigh gliding 
along through the snow with the four horses prancing 
and enjoying the trip as much as the joyful, singing 
young people, and the bells all ringing the marvelous 
accompaniment to our songs. The journey to and from 
the dance seemed too short. 


by Bob Johnson 
From an interview with Dick Shoup, 1981 

Back around the turn of the century, when the Pi- 
oneer Company was operating in the Shoup building 
on Salmon's Main Street, supplies, including whiskey, 
came in by freight wagon from Red Rock, Montana. 
Dick Shoup, whose father and grandfather operated 
the store, recalls that all the whiskey was shipped to 
the store if fifty gallon barrels. Dick said, "The freight- 
ers would open a barrel along the way and take out 
whiskey to drink, and put water back in to replace the 
amount taken. My grandfather realized what was hap- 
pening and told them he didn't mind their drinking the 
whiskey but, 'don't water down the rest of the barrel'." 

When the freight wagons reached the store, the bar- 
rels were sent to the basement on a chute and stored 
on their sides on racks. Each barrel had a bung hole 
faucet. There were two grades of whiskey. Mayfield 
was the better grade and Englewood, the cheaper 
grade. Both were bourbon whiskey. 

Grandfather kept an old style cup hung on a post by 
a barrel of whiskey and every morning there would be 
a line of men, including a lot of old prospectors and 
trappers, waiting for the store to open. They would file 
down into the basement and drink a cup of straight 
whiskey. Every morning they had an eye opener and 
Grandfather never charged for it. 

1918 - Sheriff Frazier's sale of bootleg containers and articles used for 
its conveyance came off according to schedule with very low prices 
ruling throughout. 



by Joseph E. Hoy 

Road development in Lemhi County has always had 
many inherent problems. Local topography has dic- 
tated the few byways in the county, with no second 
choices. Indians led Lewis and Clark through on their 
established paths, and they identified their trip up the 
North Fork into Montana as the worst part of their 
whole journey. The first white man's tracks led straight 
up and over to Leesburg. Some enterprising men cre- 
ated the road, and kept it open year round, usable at 
a fee. Road building was a formidable task everywhere 
it the area. Creeks, bogs, earth that melted when wet, 
or frost-heaved when frozen, and rock. Rock outcrop- 
pings, solid rock, rotten and fissured rock that would 
not (and still won't) stay put, and washboulder pene- 

Removal of the railroad was a blow to the area, but 
a boon for vehicular traffic in the Lemhi Valley. The 
railbed was promptly converted to roadway, giving a 
solid base for a highway. Many do not realize that "old" 
28 was the highway until the 1940's, and this is why 
most ranch houses are located on the old road. Anyone 
who ever traveled old 28 under adverse conditions, 
from slick to mud to ruts to dust plumes, had to love 
the country to stay. The county has hauled in stable 
material to create good road conditions, but they are 
still a constant battle to maintain. Connectors between 
the old and new highway are located at Geertson Creek, 
Barracks Lane, Baker, Haynes Creek, Tendoy to Lemhi 
(where old and new are merged), Meier's Lane, and 
Cottom Lane, Leadore and finally, at the Skelton Ranch 
road. Considering this is in a fifty-two mile stretch (on 
the old road), once you are on old 28, you'll be there 

The most extensive road building in the Lemhi Valley 
furnishes access to high ranches located on the creeks 
and benches on both sides of the Lemhi. The county 
maintains these roads for the public in general, and 
ranchers specifically. Snow removal for school buses 
has priority. Anyone using a county road needs to be 
out very early to find the road unplowed. 

Two creek roads. Agency and Railroad Canyon, con- 
nect with the Montana road system, with Railroad Can- 
yon open year round. Leadore has a paved farm to 
market road, providing the many upper ranches with 
good access to the highway. 

Pavement is a fairly recent improvement in the coun- 
ty. For example, as of the mid-thirties, 93 South was 
paved for about seven miles, and 93 North to the "Rat 
Race" bridge. To obtain the flavor of fifty years ago, 
keep the mental image of narrower dirt roads, slower 
cars, and almost no traffic, with an out of state license 
plate an item to bestared at and talked about. 

Gone now are the many truss bridges that once gave 
the road character and acted as mileposts to the local 
traveller. They were narrower and had awkward angled 

approaches, but no one cared, except the logger who 
had to stop and crawl up on his load and measure how 
many inches (never feet) clearance he had. Seeing a 
portion of bridge appear through the cottonwood and 
pine on a bright summer day compensated in beauty 
for the many miles of rough road. How fast you could 
make it to Challis did not have much importance. Being 
on the road was an excursion and balm to the senses 
that is much harder to find these days with speed, 
traffic and tourism. 

Travel to Shoup and Gibtown tested any vehicle and 
tire. Headlights shook off fenders, radiators dropped 
to the road (this actually happened to the Gibtown 
school bus), and tires had a very hard life. From Tower 
Creek north, the roadbed was rock base washboard 
that transformed any attempt to gain speed into a side- 
ways slew. 

"Traffic" is a misnomer when describing road use in 
Lemhi County fifty years ago. If the word existed, it 
certainly had no use, since another car was seldom 
seen on the road. The narrow road from Gilmore sum- 
mit leading toward Idaho Falls seemed to lead to infin- 
ity, and I don't recall a roostertail, ever. I'm sure I 
would, because the boredom of that section, at thirty 
five miles an hour, was total, and any diversion would 
have been indelible. Below Shoup and up Panther Creek 
was a private preserve, with virtually no steelhead fish- 
ermen, rafters, (or Forest Service in evidence, for that 
matter) and about the only residents being Rattlesnake 
Johnson and Gus Peebles. Downriver news was the 
occasional drowning of a tough nut trying Pine Creek 
rapids in a rowboat. Travel beyond Gibtown consisted 
mainly of highway maintenance trucks and Miller Truck 
Lines, who had the franchise for everything wet coming 
into the county, and Montana beer was very popular; 

t :'■ 


# \^ 




Jim Hibbs drives the first car over the River Road about 1919. 


Butte, Great Falls, and Highlander, remember? Again, 
Twin Creek campground never had another part pres- 
ent. An excursion to Gallogoly Hot Springs was an all 
day affair if you left early. 

As an example of how the country looked and how 
roads were maintained, the accompanying photos show 
a 1926/28 four wheel drive truck with a snowplow 
attached. Scott Brown was the operator during the 
winter of 1936-37, which was the first winter that Lost 
Trail was maintained throughout the entire winter. 

The following captions and text were taken from the 
Recorder Herald. 

January 15, 1936: HOPE TO OPEN GIBBONS PASS, 
MACHINERY. In a telephone communication with dis- 
trict Engineer Johnson of Shosone, Frank Bellamy of 
the Salmon Chamber of Commerce, stated this morn- 
ing that Mr. Johnson said that a big truck is being 
equipped with a snowplow on the front and would be 
sent here at once for the purpose of keeping the snow 
cleared from the Idaho side of the Gibbonsville Pass. It 
is understood that some arrangements will have to be 
made to secure a big cat and bulldozer to open the 
road, after which the snowplow equipped truck might 
easily be used to keep the road open for the balance 
of the winter. 

February 5, 1936: MISSOULA STAGE DID NOT AR- 
RIVE. The Missoula stage, which left Hamilton yesterday 
morning, bound for Salmon, failed to arrive. Two tele- 
phone calls were received here from Missoula last night 
between nine and ten o'clock, inquiring if the stage had 
made it's appearance. Some uneasiness was felt here 
as to the safety of the driver. There is no telephone 
communication on the Gibbons pass road for a distance 
of approximately twenty miles. Trucks have been mak- 
ing the trip almost daily since the road was opened over 
the divide last week 

April 5, 1936: STAGE MAKES FIRST TRIP. The Mis- 
soula - Salmon stage made it's first trip over the divide 
last Thursday. George Metzinger, owner of the stage, 
and Lewis Seward drove over without difficulty, but in 

places had to buck drifts three feet deep. They returned 
to Missoula Thursday night and the stage has been mak- 
ing it's regular round trip schedule since that time. The 
stage is now making daily trips, including Sunday. 

The last of the snow was removed from the Idaho side 
of the Gibbons Pass on U.S. 93 last Saturday. The state 
snowplow, in charge of Del Yant of Challis, spent several 
days clearing the highway between Gibbonsville and the 
top of the divide at the Idaho-Montana line and did a 
good job of it. Mr. Yant reported Saturday night that 
two cars can pass anywhere on the highway on the 
Idaho side. It is reported that the trip from Missoula to 
Salmon can be made without chains. 

October 28, 1936: PREPARE TO KEEP HIGHWAY 
OPEN. Western Montana and Idaho businessmen are 
assured by authorities of both states that they will en- 
deavor to keep Gibbons Pass of U.S. 93 open through 
the entire winter ... A five-ton truck with snowplow, 
which is available at Salmon, will be transferred to Gib- 
bonsville to be used for snow removal and that "we are 
going to make every effort to keep this highway open 
this winter," according to J.H. Stemmer. 

With the decline of traditional local economic struc- 
tures, current emphasis is for wider roads to promote 
more traffic and an economy based on tourism. While 
perhaps necessary, the independence, solitude, and 
raw natural beauty we knew is fast becoming memory. 

Editor's note: At publishing time, contracts are being let for im- 
provement of the Idaho side of U.S. 93 on Lost Trail Pass. 

1 90 1 - Snow on the Leesburg road prevents the stage from running, 
the mail being carried on a pack horse. 

1926 or 1928 four wheel drive truck with a snow plow attached, 
which Scott Brown used the winter of 1936-37, to maintain Lost 
Trail Pass. 

Doris Webb Brown standing on the C60 Gasoline-fueled 
caterpillar with attached rotary plow, used on Lost Trail Pass 



Ray Stein, an early freighter, 
and his freight outfit near 

.t*f « 

Charley Snook drives a Snook 
freight wagon train. 

Red RocU Salmon River SV- 



Shonp, GlbbonsTillc, rino 
Creek and Leesburg. 

8Uge trriTti e>lmon CiItiIIU m.tna 
l»ovrn| 1 p. tn. Mike elo«e con ection 
wiib all triini on U. 4 N. I!nilw«j. P... 
••ngeri »nd riprega e«ni»d «l rtfnon«blc o 
r«lM. This ia one of the beat ennipped 
alage line^ in the W„t. Firal-claaa aloek 
and coatbea, firal-elaaa eating ilntiona 
careful and aVilled dri'era «ud accomrao- 
d.»(rt ageola uid oul/ IJ boura nnnino 



i / 




The Boyle Creek (Tower Creek) Stage Stop was a busy place about 1900. 



At Lemhi Pass on divide between Idaho and Montana, 
Ferril Terry drives while Grace Kingsbury Francis is a 
passenger in 1907. Sign above front wheel says, "U S 
Mail, Salmon River Stage Line". 

Charlie Beach is the driver as the stage reaches 
the Lemhi side of Lemhi Pass. Passengers are 
Fred Rose and his wife and an unidentified man. 

Midway Station 



A stagecoach on Lemhi Pass - 1907. 


Jewelry ^^^ Gun Store, 

Dillon. Montana. 

Oarriea the LARGEST and BEST 
Selected Stock of Both 


XI:P^;E5:i;S it 

In Southern Montana. 

t3y Fine Watch Kepairing a Sptcinllj. 
lap- AH Work Guftrantteil. 

Ijp* MrU ordera prompllj atttuded lo. 

1903 - Indianola. It is reported here that Hon. H. F. Haynes of Shoup 
is constructing an airship and will sail for the north pole, as he says 
he thinks there will be less snow there and he might get his supplies 
there by stage in less than two months, and things would not have to 
lay out and spoil by freezing as they do coming from Salmon. 

1903 - October 22. The Carmen bridge will be complete in a day or 

1903 - Capt. Gulelce went down the Salmon yesterday with over 10,000 
pounds of supplies for W. D. Gross to be taken to Owl Creek. A force 
of SIX miners went with the boat, engaged to work all winter. 




^t!5:^* * 

Ralph and Frances Irvin and Clio Bellamy on the way to the Salmon Hot Springs. 

Possibly a Sunday outing? 

TO ,ATiT.i 




E. C. UooBC, AgcDt. 

_, ,J. V. PiMXt. A. O. P. Act.. 
0*i ■ ■ Salt Lake. Uttb. 

Coming or going? 

!■• I ' • 



The mechanical age may have 
arrived in Lemhi County, but in 
1915 when this auto got stuck 
in the spring mud it took a team 
of horses to pull it out. Willa, 
Charlotte, John W., John Wals 
and Emily Snook are in front of 
the family home on the old back 
road, later Hwy 28. 

Sisters, Dorothy Rackham and Beaulah Stricklan ■ 1919 

Not everyone prefers a horse or an automobile. Alvin Ellis and 
his trusty steed were a familiar sight in the Salmon Parades. 



. •♦-*. 






A winter sleigh ride. 

Captain Guiei<e's barge loaded for a trip down the river. 

The old postcard shows an idyllic scene on the Salmon River at the 
■S. * old bridge. 

Bridges were also a form of transportation. 


Crossing the river somewhere near Shoup. 

Christian's Challenger - Another trip down the River of No Return. 



by Fred Snook 

Harry Guleke was born November 8, 1862, at Hav- 
erstrong, New York. In 1890 he came to Salmon, where 
he would begin a career that would earn him national 
honors and attention. 

For years he carried freight by boat down the Salmon 
River to the miners. Several others before him had 
been hauling freight as far as Shoup, but Harry soon 
became the most magnetic and knowledgeable boat- 
man on the river. After the freighting season was over 
in the fall of 1896, a party of sportsmen from Montana 
contacted him about making a journey that had never 
been done; a float trip on the Salmon River all the way 
through to Lewiston. Guleke accepted the challenge 
and earned the reputation as "the first white man to 
conquer the dangerous Salmon River of No Return". 

He found dry timber on an island near the mouth of 
Indian Creek and built a barge of his own design. His 
idea was to keep as much of the boat above water as 
possible. It had to be wide enough not to tip sideways, 
long enough to go over the rapids without turning end 
over end. The result was the barge that has been used 
ever since, manned by two long sweeps. 

That first party had a late start, and had to be lifted 

over five ice bridges as the party made its way down- 
stream. The trip to Lewiston was successful, and the 
town there turned out to celebrate the daring achieve- 

This trip down the Salmon River, through the iso- 
lated central Idaho, became a regular vacationist's sport 
and was advertised throughout the country as "The 
Wildest Boat Ride In America." Many famous and 
wealthy people made the trip with "The Captain", and 
many stories were carried in national magazines. Only 
one life was ever lost under his command. That was 
when George Sandilands, his assistant, was knocked 
off the boat by a sweep and carried under the current. 

In 1909 he guided the Gilmore and Pittsburg Railroad 
survey crew through the river canyon to Lewiston. They 
were attempting to extend the railroad from Salmon 
through to Lewiston to connect with the west coast. 

Cap said he had never been afraid on the river. "When 
a person loses his nerve is when the river is dangerous. 
I've never been afraid", was his honest comment. He 
said his closest escape was when he went down the 

"Ulysses mining men" ■ Captain Harry Guleke in center. 



Middlefork on a homemade raft. "Sometimes I was on 
the raft and sometimes I was under it." 

Cap was described as a strapping, muscular, hand- 
some and friendly person who always greeted acquain- 
tances on the street with a booming but mellow, "Well, 
well, well" or "Well, well, I declare." He was big as a 
bear and strong, with surprising agility. He would stop 
to eat above the dangerous Pine Creek Rapids, ex- 
plaining, "We don't want to start through there feeling 
weak." After completing a run through a dangerous 
rapid he would say to the guests, "Well, well, I declare, 
they didn't get us that time." 

Once he contracted to haul salvaged machinery to 
Lewiston for a buyer from Portland. Along the way. Cap 
decided to take the load all the way down, and unan- 
nounced tied up at the Portland docks to locate the 
new buyer, only two blocks away. Other experiences 
included, having to walk a party out from Salmon Falls 
when an error by the rear sweepsman wrecked the 
boat and all supplies. 

Captain Guleke retired in 1933 because his legs were 
weakening, but he still made some trips. His last trip 
was in 1937 with Max Oyler, Bob Hagel, Elmer Keith 
and a party of Easterners. After retirement, he never 
lost interest in the river as he continued to supervise 
the building of river barges at his boatyard in Salmon. 

Another boat ride in the early 1900's with Cap Guleke at the 
sweep and Mr. Buker standing, about to pass under the Salmon 
bridge. Known passengers were Percy Anderson, Carl Clark and 
"Doc" Hart. 

courtesy Dee Keirnes 

Guleke married late in life when he married Cath- 
erine, a widow whose husband had drowned in the 
Salmon River. They had no children of their own, but 
Cap was always liked by children. He carried candy and 
oranges and would toss them to kids on the riverbank 
if he didn't have time to stop. 

He died at his Salmon home at the age of 81 on 
March 16, 1944. He was survived by his wife Catherine, 
a stepdaughter, Mrs. Hazel McFrederick, and two step- 
grandchildren, Betty and Jimmy McFrederick. He is 
buried in the Salmon City Cemetery where his head- 
stone bears the inscription, "River of No Return". 

Cap Guleke's boatyard in 1902 





Harry Guleke 



by William Wilson 

The following is a partial history of Meyers Cove and 
the people who lived there in 1919 when I moved in 
on the ranch. 

We bought the place owned by Walter Wade that 
Spring, which was in Custer County. Camas Creek was 
the county line between Lemhi and Custer counties. 
Andy Lee owned the land on the Lemhi side of the 
creek. Andy ran sheep, cattle, and horses. In June of 
1919 after he had finished shearing his sheep, he went 
down to his horse pasture to catch a horse. Two men 
were with him. He caught the horse, and somehow he 
got tangled up in his lariat rope and was dragged and 
killed. His brothers came in from Montana, and after 
the funeral, sold the place to my father. That gave us 
all the land at Meyers Cove. 

The Spring of 1919, my father bought Middle Fork 
property consisting of three places, the Mormon Ranch, 
Pole Creek and Sheep Creek ranches. At that time there 
was not any forest reserve on the Valley side of the 
Middle Fork. That was before the Forest Service took 
over that part of Valley County. 

In April of 1919, we trailed three hundred fifty head 
of cattle to the Middle Fork for summer range. It was 
quite a task to trail that many cattle down Camas Creek 
in one bunch. The trail was very rough and narrow. It 
took three days and nights to go fourteen miles, so 
you can see it was a slow drive. 

Some of the natives who got their mail at the Meyers 
Cove Post Office were: Bob Ramey, who owned the 
place at the mouth of Loon Creek, known as the Ramey 
ranch. He had the place all producing hay, irrigated 
with water out of Cash Creek. He had a very beautiful 
ranch there that supported about one hundred head 
of cattle. 

Ned Bennett was an old man at that time, and lived 
with Bob Ramey. He would come after the mail about 
once a month. The trip one way was twenty-four miles. 
He would ride his horse and bring a pack horse to take 
back the mail. Ned was ninety years old at that time. 

Lynn Falconbury lived up Loon Creek ten miles, where 
he owned a ranch. He had horses and raised hay to 
feed them. He did considerable trapping for a living. 
He knew how to trap lions, and caught around twenty 
every winter, plus coyotes, mink and martin. Bounty 
on lions was fifty dollars each. 

Buck Culver was up the Middle Fork from Loon Creek. 
He owned burros, and used them to pack in his sup- 
plies. He packed about ten head, and rode one. One 
fall when he was on his way to Meyers Cove after sup- 
plies, he got down to Loon Creek and got off his burro 
to open the gate. There he had a heart attack and died. 
His pack string was found a few days later. He was 
buried there on the Middle Fork. 

Dutch Charley had a place on Little Loon Creek. He 
raised mink. 

Frank Love was another native of the Middle Fork 
up the river toward Sea Foam. He was another victim 
of a heart attack. He was found sitting under a tree 
with his halter over his arm. He had gone out after his 
horses and was taken. He had been dead about a week 
when he was found. 

Billy Mitchell lived at Pistol Creek. He had a ranch 
and some cattle, and lived alone on his place. He was 
Scottish, and a real fine fellow. 

Willis Jones lived at the mouth of Grouse Creek. He 
had a little ranch and put up enough hay for his horses 
and raised a garden. He smoked natural leaf tobacco, 
and every year in the fall would send south for five 
pounds of the real old natural leaf. That kept him smok- 
ing for a year. 

K'nney Cameron later came into the Middle Fork and 
lived there several years. He got the Ramey Ranch at 
the mouth of Loon Creek after Bob Ramey sold the 
place. One winter Kinney got hurt, something hit him 
on the head and nearly killed him. The people carried 
him on a stretcher out to Meyers Cove, some thirty- 
five miles, and he was in the hospital three months 
before he regained consciousness. 

The summer of 1919 was a very dry summer, and 
the hay crop was short. No snow fell during the winter 
of 1918-1919. It was the winter of 1919-1920 that was 
so hard. The snow fell in November, and cold weather 
came. The winter was the most severe of any I have 
seen. The Spring of 1920, it was the "Dead Stock" 
company. They trailed in sheep in the fall and took out 
all the cattle they had bought, hoping to winter the 
sheep on the range. All the sheep died, and lots of the 
pack horses. Deer died by the hundreds. 

Albert Kurry, who had the Brush Creek ranch, now 
the Flying B, started into the winter with three hundred 
head of cattle. Spring came about the 10th of April, 
and Albert had thirty head of cattle left. About June 
20, his wife died there at the ranch. At that time there 
was no telephone service, and no airplanes that could 
get into the Middle Fork. Albert wanted to take her to 
Boise to bury her, so we packed her body twenty miles 
on a pack horse to the end of the road, and from there 
to Salmon by wagon and team to the railroad. The train 
went from Salmon to Armstead, Montana, then south 
to Pocatello and Boise. After Mrs. Kurry's funeral, Al- 
bert came back to the Middle Fork, and it was at that 
time when Henry, his brother, first came to the Middle 

Clarence Kaufman was another old timer on the Mid- 
dle Fork. He had been a miner in his younger life. He 
retired from his labors and came to the Middle Fork 
where he could live rather cheap. He lived in a cave 
below the mouth of Camas Creek for several years. He 
got sick one summer and went out to town for doctors' 
care and never came back. 


Al Beedle was living a mile below the Mormon Ranch 
on Pole Creek. He had a comfortable home and got 
along very well for several years. He had been a stage 
driver between Salmon and Armstead, Montana for 
several years. Finally time overtook him and he went 
out to Salmon and died. 

Emil Reberg was a resident of the Middle Fork in 
1917. He was a big, husky young man. He went to the 
Middle Fork to evade the army in the first World War. 
He lived on the little place at the mouth of Sheep Creek. 
He was there a few years, and was raising some hay 
to feed a few horses in the winter. Charles Ernst and 
his wife wanted his place, so they decided to kill him. 
Charles Ernst and his wife lived in Challis, Idaho at the 
time. Mrs. Ernst was sent into the Middle Fork from 
Challis by her husband to kill Reberg. She went down 
to the Middle Fork and stayed with Reberg for two 
weeks, but she did not get the job done. She sent a 
letter to her husband, and told him she could not kill 
Reberg. Then Charles Ernst rode a saddle horse from 
Challis about one hundred miles, to kill Reberg. This 
was in October 1917. Reberg had just gotten up early 
in the morning and was washing his hands and face 
outside his cabin. Ernst shot him in the back with a SO- 
SO rifle, then went into the cabin and ate the breakfast 
Mrs. Ernst had cooked for Reberg. 

After breakfast, they put a rope around Reberg's 
neck, and dragged him out in the field and buried him 
in a haystack. A few days later, they decided to bury 
him underground, so they dug a hole and dragged the 
body to the hole and buried him. This was in October, 
and it was the next March before the body was found. 
Mrs. Ernst confessed to the murder and came into the 
Middle Fork with two men and showed them where the 
body was. The Ernsts were convicted and served a 
short sentence in Boise. 

John Berntsen came into the Middle Fork the Spring 
of 1919 and lived there several years on the Mormon 
Ranch. He got a deed to the Sheep Creek ranch and 
raised hay for cattle. 

A.D. Clark had a cabin at the mouth of Bernard Creek. 
He lived there several years. He had about twenty head 
of horses, sorrel with white faces and legs; they all 
looked alike. He would pack his supplies on them, may- 
be sometimes as many as ten head loaded and tied 
tail to tail, then tied to his saddle horse, and that is 
the way he traveled the trail. He was an old man, and 
for some reason lost what he had. He was at one time 
very well fixed financially, in Boise. One Spring, in March, 
he went to Boise on some business and never returned. 

The men who lived near Meyers Cove are as follows: 
Billy Beck had a ranch on Silver Creek about four miles 
from Meyers Cove. He took up the ranch, and proved 
up on it. He had a few cattle and horses, and made a 
living on the place. In his earlier life he had followed 
mining. He was an expert skier. He carried the mail 
into the Lost Packer Mine two winters when it was 

booming. He made the trip one way each day, and 
carried as much as eighty pounds on skis, some thirty 

Charlie Metz lived up Camas Creek at the mouth of 
Goat Creek. He had a homestead there, and trapped 
fur-bearing animals in the winter for a living. He had a 
trap line about thirty miles long on the divide between 
Morgan Creek and Camas Creek. It usually took him 
ten days to run the trap line on snowshoes. He was a 
very well educated man, and did lots of correspon- 
dence schooling. He took an electrical course for awhile 
and then had to have some practical experience. So 
at sixty-three years of age, he went to Chicago for 
schooling. He found his hearing was not too good and 
his eyesight was not good enough, so he did not make 
the grade. He never got back to his home. 

Frank Allison lived on Rams Fork Creek, up Silver 
Creek from Meyers Cove. He did mostly dude wran- 
gling for his living and he also did a little mining. He 
had a few quartz claims. His ranch is now being cut up 
for home sites and sold for ridiculous prices. He was 
in Salmon one time, and had a heart attack and died. 

Ernest Splittstosser was another homesteader in the 
area. He had a ranch on Castle Creek some five miles 
from the post office. He lived on the place for many 
years, improved it a little each year, as time moved 
along. Times were pretty hard for him. He did a little 
outside work for people, and trapped a little, but never 
had much money. During the depression of the thirty's, 
he was so hard up he could not buy kerosene for his 
oil lamp. After many years of rugged life, he sold his 
homestead for three thousand dollars. He traded a 
horse for one cow and calf after he had been there 
several years, and from the one cow, he built up a 
bunch of cattle to about fifty head. He had more to 
eat after he had a few cattle to sell. After he sold his 
ranch, he went to Missoula, Montana to live, and was 
there several years. One day while crossing the street, 
a car hit and killed him. 

All of these men were bachelors when I knew them. 
The rugged life they lived was too much for a woman. 
The household luxuries were very limited, and mostly 
homemade. Chairs were blocks of wood, or a wooden 
box; beds were made of very crude construction, lots 
of times a deer skin stretched over a wooden frame. 

Charley Sherman was an old cowboy. He had a mail 
contract from Forney to Meyers Cove. The contract 
was for two days a week. In the summer he would make 
the trip to Forney and back. In the winter he would 
stay all night at Forney. He lived there several years, 
and raised a few horses. He depended on his mail con- 
tract for all his income. It was Charley Sherman who 
took Mrs. Kurry's body from Meyers Cove to Salmon 
with a team and wagon, sixty miles without a stop. 
Charley was a good neighbor and an honest man. He 
was finally overtaken by consumption, and passed away. 


Meyers Cove - cont. 

Tom Martindale was a little Englishman who came 
to the United States when he was a young boy. His 
folks wanted him to be a tailor, but that did not suit 
Tom. When he grew to be a man, he took up the black- 
smith trade. He became very efficient as a blacksmith. 
He worked for the Moline Plow factory in Illinois for 
sometime. This was before the era of the automobile. 
He told me he would weld four hundred wagon tires in 
one day. He could make anything with a forge and 
hammer, all sorts of tools, and was an expert at shoe- 
ing horses. 

He came into Meyers Cove in the summer of 1919, 
the first time I saw him. He had heard of the Lost 
Cleveland Mine, and spent many years looking for it, 
after helping me get the haying machinery ready to 
hay, he took a saddle horse and a pack horse, and 
went looking for the lost mine. Sometimes he would 
be gone for three weeks or a month, and them come 
in for more food. Several times when he did not come 
in about when I thought he ought to, I would go to look 
for him. Tom spent many summers lookingfor the mine, 
but never did find it. He was over seventy years old 
when I first met him, and was very active. He could 
shoe a horse faster than I could. He passed on, taking 
with him some of the last talents of the old blacksmith 

The above history is about the natives who were 
served by the Meyers Cove Post Office when I came 
to Meyers Cove in the Spring of 1919. I had not been 
there long until I was appointed Postmaster. I was Post- 
master for eighteen years, then the Post Office was 
discontinued and the mail route still brought the mail. 
The road into Meyers Cove at that time was just pass- 
able for a team and wagon. It followed the creek bot- 
toms a good part of the way. In the spring when the 
water was high, it was hard to get over the road with 
a load. We started to improve the road, and put it up 
on the side hill out of the creek bottom. Whenever we 
had a little time, we would take our teams and make 
a short piece of road. This went on for a few years until 
we had the road up on dry ground, and lots of bridges 
were cut out. 

For a few summers, my sister, Mrs. John Berntsen, 
stayed at Meyers Cove and cooked for me. John was 
on the Mormon Ranch most of the summer. In winter, 
the Berntsen family moved out, and I was left alone 
for the winter. For several years I trailed cattle into 
the Middle Fork for summer grazing. It was an un- 
profitable experience, as the country was too rough 
for cattle range. However, we ran cattle at Meyers Cove 
for many years. 

The summer of 1923, a bunch of mining promoters 
came into the Yellow Jacket Mine, and started a big 
excitement. They did a lot of new building, and hired 
a lot of men. They bought hay, grain, vegetables, beef 

and pork, and all sorts of things, and really went to 
town. We sold them about one hundred tons of hay for 
their work horses. They baled the hay and hauled it to 
the Yellow Jacket on sleighs. The sad part of it is, we 
never got a nickel for the hay. Many people were beat- 
en the same way. It was just a wildcat deal from start 
to finish. 

All of these people who were part of the Meyers Cove 
Community in 1919 are gone. Time marches on and 
things change. My stay at Meyers Cove was from 1919 
to 1952. I saw the roads into that country improve 
from time to time, and eventually, the automobile 
started to come, bringing all kinds of people. The hunt- 
ing was very good and soon the place was overrun with 

The summer of 1923 the Forest Service did consid- 
erable work on the Camas Creek Trail. I did the packing 
for the trail crew, moving their camp and packing sup- 
plies. They put in a telephone line from Meyers Cove 
to Two-Point Lookout at the head of Brush Creek that 
same summer. The trail was finished to the Mormon 
ranch in 1924. It was put on grade, all switchbacks 
taken out, and surfaced, which made the trip much 
faster and easier. As the years went by, a trail was put 
down the river to Big Creek, and up Big Creek. In the 
1930's a pack bridge was put across the river at the 
mouth of Big Creek. This bridge opened up another 
game country for the hunters. For many years, hunters 
were permitted two deer in the Middle Fork, but that 
did not cut down the deer herd very much. The coyotes 
were the big deer killers. They killed many times more 
than the hunters. The lions were plentiful on the river, 
and they killed many deer. After the automobile got 
into the country, the fish and game started to disap- 
pear, and it got more difficult to get deer in the fall. 
The creeks were fished out, and everything was over- 
run by people. 

It was in 1923 that Adele Kingsbury and I were mar- 
ried on December 10 in Butte, Montana. Adele lived at 
Forney, Idaho, a small community twenty miles from 
Meyers Cove. We lived for many years at Meyers Cove, 
and as the hunters and fishermen came, we served 
meals to a good many of them. I took hunters to the 
Middle Fork in hunting season, and we had a big busi- 
ness built up. I did considerable packing for the Forest 
Service. The road ended at Meyers Cove, and every- 
thing went from there on pack horses into the Middle 
Fork. A lot of packing was done from Meyers Cove to 
Thunder Mountain in 1902. They packed baled hay to 
Thunder Mountain, also heavy machinery. One winter 
they took some heavy machinery in, and had to use 
snowshoes on the pack horses to get over the Wood 
Tick summit. They baled hay at Meyers Cove with a 
homemade baler. The bales weighed two hundred 
pounds, and they put two on a horse. This was a way 
of selling their hay. It was a three day trip to Thunder 
Mountain, if everything went well. 


A good many people came into Meyers Cove and 
went on hunting and fishing trips. Zane Grey came into 
the Middle Fork and wrote the book, Thunder Moun- 
tain. Erie Stanley Gardener made several trips into the 
Middle Fork and Big Creek on hunting trips. One fall he 
came to kill an elk with a bow and arrow. He did not 
bring a rifle at all that year. He killed an elk with his 
bow and arrow. At that time it was the first elk ever 
to be killed with a bow and arrow. It was a big elk, also. 

Averill Harriman, another big shot, made several trips 
into the Middle Fork to go hunting. He was one of the 
men who built Sun Valley. There were many more peo- 
ple from many parts of the world who went into the 
Middle Fork hunting or fishing. There were lots of deer, 
sheep, goats, and some bear and lions. There were 
very few elk on the river in 1919, and it was a good 
many years later before the elk got into the Sheep and 
Brush Creek areas. The Game department and Forest 
Service tried many ways to manage the deer on the 
Middle Fork, but were not very successful. The coyotes 
killed hundreds of deer, and there was never any con- 
trol over the coyote. Some of our smart men today 
say the coyote does not kill deer, and there is no use 
controlling the coyote. How foolish can a man get. 

My time covered a time from 1919 to 1952. I saw a 
wonderful country of good fishing and hunting and wild- 

life abundant, to no fish left in the creeks, and very few 
deer. People, when they are turned loose in a country, 
soon ruin it. We had experiences with all kinds of peo- 
ple. Some were good, and respected our property, oth- 
ers would destroy anything. 

As our family came along, we had problems with 
school. There were very few children in the Meyers 
Cove area. My wife would move out to the town of 
Challis or Salmon for school in the winter. I stayed at 
the ranch and fed the cattle. 

There are little communities in the mountains near 
Meyers Cove that have some interesting history; For- 
ney and the mining town of Yellow Jacket. Forney had 
a post office and overnight accommodations for trav- 
elers. When I first came into Forney, it was the year 
of 1917. I took a job riding for the Challis cattle men. 
I had three thousand head of cattle to ride after and 
care for. 

Some of the natives who lived in the Forney com- 
munity were: Milt Merritt, who ran the stopping place 
and Post Office. He also had a sawmill. He sawed lum- 
ber for the Blackbird Mine. His mill was water powered, 
and he did very well with it. He had a few horses and 
cattle, and put up some hay. The road from Forney to 
the Yellow Jacket went up over the divide between 
Yellow Jacket Creek and the Panther Creek watershed. 


Meyers Cove - cont. 

The road was just a wagon road, and it was all day from 
Forney to Yellow Jacket, some fifteen miles. 

The Yellow Jacket mine was started up around the 
turn of the century, or before. Nearly all the mining 
machinery was taken in to the mine with pack animals. 
It took twenty-six pack mules to pack one cable into 
the mine for the tram way. I knew one of the men who 
helped with the packing. Hank Smith was his name. 
There were several mining camps in the area, and all 
operating before the turn of the century. 

Another family who lived in the Forney area was the 
Frank O'Conner family. Mr. O'Conner was a laborer, 
and worked at whatever he could. He also had a home- 
stead. The fall of 1910 he went to Salmon City with a 
team and wagon after winter supplies. While in Salmon, 
he got to drinking. He spent all his money, and when 
he started home, he had no groceries for his family of 
twelve children and wife. When he got back to Lees- 
burg, he killed himself. This left his family with no food 
for the winter. However, the neighbors helped out, and 
the widow raised all the children. 

My wife's family lived in the Forney area, and this is 
where I first met her. They owned a ranch and cattle 
there, and lived there many years. Her father, H. E. 
Kingsbury, worked for the Forest Service for a number 
of years, and had a mail contract from Forney to Mey- 
ers Cove. 

Morris Christensen lived at the mouth of Cabin Creek, 
and had a homestead there. The spring of 1920 he had 
a cow and calf, and was out of feed for them. He said 
they would die if they did not get some hay. I let him 
have a sack of cotton seed cake and a bale of hay, and 
he saved his cow. People cut down cottonwood trees 
for the cows to eat, and anything to save the starving 

The ranch at Meyers Cove that was so beautiful, and 
we loved so much, is now owned by the Forest Service. 
It has been turned back to nature and is deserted. The 
place once supported two hundred head of cattle. Time 
marches on. We live our life time and are gone sooner 
or later. 

Cougar Dave Lewis at the ranch on Pioneer Creek in 1931. 


by J. S. Brassfield 
contributed by Richard M. Young 

The following appeared in the Recorder Herald dated 

February 4, 1927 and apparently was reprinted from the Mountain 

States Monitor. 

For your future fishing information, I will tell you of 
the one beautiful spot left to the man willing to endure 
some labor for real fishing. 

It is Williams Lake, located down the Salmon River 
from Chains, Idaho, about forty-nine miles. To get there 
from Pocatello or Boise, it is best to go to Challis, then 
down the Salmon River to a point about twelve miles 
south of Salmon City to a creek, called and marked by 
the Forest Service, Twelve Mile Creek. A small service 
sign is located near the highway. You are then just 
across the river from the Stroud ranch. 

There is a cable across the river just above the Twelve 
Mile Creek sign, and if you are lucky there will be a 
boat on your side; if not, take the cable, it is only about 
one hundred and fifty feet across the river. Then up 
through Mr. Stroud's orchard. Walk on up Lake Creek, 
following a dim path. This is a gradual climb for about 
a mile, then the path leaves the right side of the creek, 
taking straight up the mountain one would think. It is, 
however, only a few hundred feet till one hits an upland 
flat which rises gradually about one half mile; then you 
will need both hands and feet to complete the last 
stretch which forms a natural dam, having slid, I be- 
lieve, from the mountains on both sides into what was 
a deep canyon, forming a lake with a depth of two 
hundred feet and roughly, about one-half to three-forths 
of a mile wide by about two and one half miles long. 
There is no outlet for the lake except what leaks through 
the rocks at the bottom of the dam, making the lake 
land locked so far as the fish are concerned. 

As one goes over the top of the dam, there is spread 
before him the view of a very beautiful, deep blue lake 
of very irregular form, surrounded by high pointed rocky 
crags. The only opening being the upper end of the 
lake where the creek runs into it. I have been on the 
lake in a boat as the sun was casting long shadows 
across it from nearby peaks; I would say about five or 
six o'clock in the evening. At this time hundreds of 
Rainbow trout will come to the surface and start churn- 
ing the water. When one considers that these fish are 
up to twenty-six inches in length and all trying to make 
the biggest splash, it is truly the sight of a life time. To 
hook one of these, as I have many times, with up to 
three hundred feet of line out in a small boat, of which 
you are no master, the only thought you have is, "Will 
the tackle hold?" This will surely give one a thrill he 
will never forget. Ten pound trout are common at the 
lake and for sheer fighting and lasting qualities, I have 
never caught the equal of Williams Lake Rainbow trout! 

There is a tragedy connected with the fish in this 
lake. There was at one time, only Dolly Varden trout. 






• ■ ■;■ f « 

^ra^:.> . 

t ■' ■ ' ' I ' V 

, . K 

Williams Creek 

There being no chance for new stock ever getting into 
the lake, it resulted in the fish becoming so inbred 
there was no chance of saving them. The government 
finally started in to stock such places; so the hatchery 
men chose the Rainbow to restock this lake which they 
do every year now. The effect of the inbreeding has 
resulted in some of the Dolly Varden fish being shaped 
like the printed letter "Z" — great bends and crooks in 
their length. The Rainbow and Dolly Varden trout have 
a different spawning time, I am advised, so there is no 
chance of crossing the two types. 

The Rainbow, being larger and stronger, has driven 
the other fish in the lake to the shallow waters at the 
upper end. This is composed of about three or four 
acres; the water is very clear and about four feet deep. 
It is surely a sight to be out in a boat and rest quietly 
on the water for a time, and watch these disfigured 
fish swim slowly about. Those that are not crippled will 
be all head and no body or off color. As one is quietly 
watching the action of these fish a charge of Rainbow 
will come out of the deep part of the lake and scatter 
the Dolly Varden in many directions; and in many cas- 
es, killing them outright. They leap high out of the wa- 
ter, to high on the lake shore. It is only a question of 
a year or two till the Dolly Varden will all be gone — 
being a case of the survival of the fittest! 

One day, when I had fished until I was satisfied, I 
decided I would see what was beyond the opening at 
the upper end of the lake, which meant a walk of about 
a half mile. The narrow channel opened out into one 
of the prettiest valleys I have ever seen. The grass was 
two feet deep all over it and literally alive with the large 
yellow legged deer. 

At the upper end of the valley, I ran across a large 
black bear and two cubs — surely a sight to behold. 

I followed the valley on for about eight miles to where 
it gradually closes up into a narrow pass through the 
higher mountains back of the lake. As it was getting 
late, I didn't go farther at that time, but I will say I have 
never been into a place where so many sights and so 
much game were together in one location! I look for- 
ward to another vacation, then if things are favorable, 
to take a look at the other side of the pass. 

Long Tom Creek was so named because a mining 
implement called a long torn, which is a combination 
of a rocker and a sluice box, was found at the mouth 
of the creek ... A bit of folklore grew out of a local 
incident. A man named Joe "Tom" Lockland drowned 
in Pine Creek Rapids and was found at the mouth of 
this creek. His body was packed up to Shoup by Wallace 
St. Clair. A coffin that had been made in Salmon for 
him was waiting in Shoup, but when they tried to put 
Tom in, he was too tall for the coffin; so Wallace St. 
Clair cut the cords under the dead man's knees, bent 
the legs up over the thighs, nailed the lid down, and 
packed him out to Salmon. Since Tom was too long 
for the coffin the place became known as Long Tom 

Idaho Place Names, A Geographical Dictionaryby Lalia Boone, 1988. 


Idaho Recorder-October 27, 1916 

The somewhat swollen if not bloated condition of 
Jesse Creek observed by early risers in Salmon on 
Monday morning, after being dry for a month or longer 
was not explained, but the fact remains, nevertheless, 
that Sheriff Stroud poured out upon the watershed of 
that stream, the day before, a quantity of confiscated 
beer and liquor which had been held as evidence in 
some cases tried in the district court. The sheriff still 
has more of the contraband for evidence to be offered 
at the next term. In this lot is one case of beer and 
fourteen boxes of whiskey, all safely stored in the 
courthouse. It was said for the liquor poured away the 
other day, that it was of a kind that is totally depraved 
and that it came near eating holes in it's container. 

1919 - No less than 17 bottles of Sunnybrook were found the other 
morning out near the cemetery where they had been cached. Walter 
Ramey and a number of boy companions made the discovery. They 
lost no time in hurrying with their load to the Sheriff's office. When 
met on the way by an inquisitive citizen whom they thought might 
be the owner of their load they were asked what they had there. 
"Chickens" promptly spoke up the leader of the band and they were 
permitted to pass on to make the delivery at the courthouse, where the 
sheriff will be called upon to pour away the liquor a little later on to 
liven up the waters of Jesse Creek. 



"CsAP'S gornbr;' 

Give Them a Call and Enjoy 



by Jack W. McKinneyl989 

Salmon Lodge #1620, of the Benevolent and Pro- 
tective Order of Elks has completed its first half cen- 
tury. Some noteworthy dates have marked the first 
fifty years of its history. 

June 5, 1939: The day Salmon lodge was instituted, 
sponsored by the Idaho Falls lodge. The day began with 
an afternoon parade, led by a brilliantly uniformed drum 
and bugle corps from Idaho Falls. Idaho Falls lodge 
conducted initiation ceremonies for the fifty-two char- 
ter members. 

Officers elected and installed the same day Included 
John W. Snook, Exalted Ruler. Brother Snook had been 
Exalted Ruler of the Skagway, Alaska lodge during his 
time as United States Marshal there. More than any 
other individual, John was instrumental in getting a 
lodge started here and guiding it through the financial 
troubles of its youth. When he died in January, 1975, 
at ninety- eight, he had been an Elk for seventy-eight 
years, longer continuously than any Elk in this state 
and probably in the nation. 

Other first officers were: Dr. A. H. McFarland, Lead- 
ing Knight; Don Carnes, Loyal Knight; Fred Snook, Lec- 
turing Knight; Ralph Dillard, Secretary; Joe Fitzpatrick, 
Treasurer; the Reverend Torben Olsen, Chaplain; Gil- 
bert Innes, Tiler; Herb McPheeters, Esquire; and Trus- 
tees Eddie Papetti, J. P. Carnes and D. S. Nichols. 

Charter members still paying dues here after fifty 
years are C. W. Lyon, John Rand and Fred Snook of 
Salmon, H. B. McPheeters, Woodridge, II., Eddie Pa- 
petti, Billings, Mt., Paul Pattee, Emmett Id., and Everett 
Stroud, Kalispell, Mt. Three weeks after 1620's birth, 
it sent a delegation to the state Elks convention at 
Coeur D'Alene. In the parade there, Salmon had jolly 
three hundred pound Fred Brough dressed in baby cap 

and frills, proclaiming Salmon Lodge the youngest in 
the nation, a twenty-one day old infant propelled in a 
baby buggy by a little wisp of a guy, Wilbur Gill, dressed 
as the mother. 

October 12, 1940: The deed was recorded showing 
the purchase by B.P.O.E. #1620 of a half block on 
South St. Charles and the two story building thereon 
from Frank and Clio Bellamy and Edwina Nichols, for 
$7,800. This is where the fire station now stands. At 
the same time the lodge borrowed $8,000 from Fred 
and Joseph Pattee and mortgaged the property to 

May 23, 1942: Old Pioneer Hall was dedicated as the 
Elk's Hall. Kenneth Swift was Exalted Ruler at this time. 

July 23, 1962: This turned out to be 1620's luckiest 
day. At 12:03 a.m. that day, a fire started that de- 
stroyed our lodge and under it, the city fire house and 
a geological survey office, as well as the rest of the 
block, clear to Main Street, including Joe Bohney's 
blacksmith shop, the Lemhi Hotel, Silver Spur bar and 
Steven's Drug Store. Everything was gone by morning. 

August 6, 1962: Salmon City Council agreed to trade 
five unimproved acres on the north side of the bar for 
the 99x70 feet of property where our lodge had been. 
Salmon Fire Department subsequently built its present 
station there. Exalted Ruler Adams attended that 
Council meeting, accompanied by Dwight Stevens, 
Hooley Larsen, Don Grayot and Jack McKinney. 

August 20, 1963: Ground breaking ceremonies were 
held. John W. Snook laid the cornerstone and Fred 
Snook was master-of-ceremonies. Dr. Zach Johnson 
was ER then, and Brother Adams headed the building 
committee. We had $50,000 from fire insurance to start 
construction, and the Grand Lodge gave us a permit 

Burning the mortgage in November 1953: Lloyd Pyeatt, Harvey 
Fortney, Maurice Cochrane, Fred Snook, Sr., John Snook, W. 0. 
Kunter (Idaho Falls Lodge), Larry McGivney, Kenneth Swift. 




to spend $62,000 on the building and $15,000 for fur- 
nishings. The lowest of seven bids was $51 ,642.85 made 
by Wade Chaffin. Personal 6% bonds totaling $11,525 
were sold to several Elks. Also started was a program 
of voluntary $100 contributions per member. Many 
made these donations. 

December 28, 1963: Opening of the current Elks 
building. The first New Year's Eve dance was held that 
year, a well attended event, as were all New Years Eve 
dances during our early years. 

Naturally, many firsts have been recorded during this 
lodge's history. The local paper, in 1941, first men- 
tioned the distribution to the needy of Elks' Christmas 
baskets. This is still done annually. 

During April, 1964, B.P.O.E. 1620 sponsored its first 
Boy Scout troop and this continues today. 

In 1941, the first musical group we had was com- 
posed of Del Egbert, Sam Smith, Fred Snook and Gold- 
en Welch. They sang for the Elks Charity Show and at 
Rotary, etc. By 1941 the Elks also had a softball team 
that achieved considerable success. 

Twice we have had mortgage burnings. The first came 
on November 20, 1953 to discharge T. 0. Beers' mort- 
gage on the old Pioneer Hall. The second torching came 
on June 20, 1978 to wipe out the personal bond and 
bank indebtedness on this building. 

The first Elks ritual team to compete had Jim Ma- 
honey as Exalted Ruler in 1950-51 and included also 
Maurice Cochran, Roy Bisson, Hooley Larsen, Lynn 
Ward, Darrell Baker and Wayne Ball. In 1972, our first 
and only team to win the district ritualistic contest fea- 
tured Dale McAfee as Exalted Ruler, also LaVerne Nel- 
son, Don Grayot, William Jakovac, John Henderson, 
Eugene Edwards and Dave McFarland. Frank DeMark 
was coach and John Hemmert the candidate. 

From Salmon, the first district deputy named by the 
Grand Exalted Ruler to oversee Idaho East was Arch 
McFarland, who served in that capacity in 1959-60. 
Three other Salmonites who have had the honor of 
becoming D.D.G.E.R.s are: Don Grayot, 1966-67; Pat 
Benoit, 1979- 80; and Dale McAfee, 1987-88. 

A dependable partner in Salmon Elkdom has been 
the Elks Auxiliary. Through their own industry, this group 
has amassed thousands of dollars with which to pur- 
chase furniture and draperies and clean and upgrade 
the general appearance of the lodge. For a long time, 
they voluntarily prepared the meals for Elks on lodge 
nights. Elks forever will appreciate the Auxiliary's good 


Palace Baibcr Shop. 

Shaving Shampooing and Hair 


by Rocky Mountain Lodge ^5 

On Saturday, January 1, 1870 a group of men were 
called to a special meeting at the Odd Fellows Hall in 
Leesburg, Idaho Territory, by Brother Past Grand Wolf- 
sahn for the purpose of instituting Rocky Mountain 
Lodge #5, lOOF, by the authority of the MWGM. These 
men were to be the charter members of the lodge thus 

The first regular meeting of this Lodge, was held 
that same evening and the following officers were 
elected for the ensuing term: Brothers Thomas B. 
Mulkey, Noble Grand; James Noble, Vice Grand; E. Peck, 
Recording and Financial Secretary. 

The lodge moved along busily for many months, 
mostly conferring degrees; sometimes as many as three 
degrees in one evening. Each candidate was voted on 
separately and each received his degree separately. At 
this time there were five degrees in the lodge. There 
were several nominees for each office and the elec- 
tions were very formal. 

On February 10, 1872 the purchase of six chairs, 
two pedestals and an Altar was authorized. The furni- 
ture cost $102 and was paid for in gold dust. It came 
by rail to Corrine, Utah, the end of the railroad, and 
from there to Salmon by freight wagon and on to Lees- 
burg by pack mule. When the Lodge moved to Salmon 
in 1875 it was packed out again, and is still being used 
in the Lodge Hall. 

On August 22, 1874, Brother Randolph Mohr moved 
that the MW Grand Master be requested to grant dis- 
pensation to move this Lodge to Salmon within four 
months. The motion carried and the last meeting held 
in the Leesburg Hall was on October 2, 1875. 

The first meeting in Salmon was on October 16, 1875 
and it is thought that temporary quarters were prob- 
ably in the Masonic Hall. Before long the building now 
occupied by the present Hallmark store was built by 
the Lodge, with a meeting place on the second floor, 
and rentals on the ground floor. In the minutes of No- 
vember 18, 1876 it is noted that rent from the lower 
hall was $14.50. 

On November 13, 1883 a charter was issued under 
the jurisdiction of Idaho, and the Encampment branch 
of the Order received its Charter on October 15, 1894. 

Between 1888 and 1889 the property where the 
present hall now stands was purchased and construc- 
tion was begun about 1907. The first meeting in the 
new Hall was on October 10, 1909. 

Rocky Mountain Lodge can be justly proud of its con- 
tributions to the governing bodies of the Order. It has 
furnished two Grand Masters: Brother Chester G. Ma- 
thewson, 1908-1909 and Brother R. M. (Dick) Young, 
1959-1960. Encampment has furnished three Grand 
Patriarches: William J. Brown, 1898-1899, Herbert 


Bradley, 1939- 1940, and Virgil Harris, 1954-1955. 

Rocky Mountain Lodge has always participated in 
civic affairs and has sent several students on the Unit- 
ed Nations' Pilgrimage. It has always participated in 
Boy's State. The lodge rooms have been opened to 
those who needed a facility for meetings or social af- 

As a great fraternity. Odd Fellowship creates a broth- 
erhood and sisterhood; not a division of men and wom- 
en. Though the Order is not a religion, its doctrine pro- 
claims faith in God, in religion of choice in his or her 

The three links are a chain of gold, shaped in God's 
mold. Always — Now — Forever. 

The beginning of the construction of the "new" lOOF building in 
1908. Men are unidentified. 

Furniture purchased in 1872 in Leesburg and still in use. 


by Rose Coram • Historian, 1990 

Anna Rebekah Lodge #14 was instituted on May 5, 
1890, and received the Charter on October 15 of that 
year. There were eight men and five women who signed 
the Charter. They are listed as Brothers F.B. Sharkey, 
Thomas Pope, F. M. Pollard, A. J. McNab, A. W. Pat- 
tison, W. L. Mulkey, C. G. Mathewson , and E. hi. Jaan- 
jaquet. The women were A. B. Sharkey, Emma Pope, 
Sophrona Pollard, Anna B. Davis and A. Mulkey. 

Mrs. A. Mulkey was elected the first Noble Grand with 
the wife of Thomas Pope, Vice Grand and Brother Chet 
Mathewson Secretary and Sister Pollard Treasurer. 

The name of the lodge was named Anna Lodge #14 
Daughters of Rebekah. The name Anna from two char- 
ter members Anna B. Sharkey and Anna B. Davis. 

The meetings were held in the Rocky Mountain Lodge 
Hall on the upper floor of the building now occupied 
by the Hallmark store. This is one of Salmon's oldest 
buildings built in 1876. The upper floor was used for 

meetings and entertainment while renting business of- 
fices below. 

The meetings were held the first and third Wednes- 
day of each month as they are now, one hundred years 

The initiation fees and dues were two dollars for Odd 
Fellows and one dollar for Ladies with one dollar yearly 

Brother A. W. Pattison was the first janitor hired in 
1891 for six dollars and twenty five cents a year! He 
received this salary till 1894 when he received a raise 
for his job "well done" to six dollars and fifty cents. 

After some discussion the members decided they 
needed music to add to the meetings, so an organ was 
purchased February 1891 from Wilcox and White Com- 
pany. The Rebekahs paid their half, sixty one dollars. 

March, 1891 lodge regalia, seal and jewels were or- 
dered for seventy four dollars and twenty five cents 


plus twenty five cents for stage express, plus forty five 
cents postage. 

Out of town members came by horse back or team 
and buggy. The Sisters thought they needed a mirror, 
comb and brush to be used by everyone! The same 
mirror hangs in the rest room. 

June of 1898, Brother Pattison made six chairs for 
the lodge for a total of seven dollars and forty cents. 

There were fifty members on July 6, 1898. Robes 
were bought for the initiation team for two hundred 
nineteen dollars and eighty seven cents, including the 
well jar and tambourine, still used today. 

On June 5, 1907, a Grand Ball was given by the Re- 
bekahs. A ticket to the dance which included supper 
was two dollars and twenty five cents. After expenses, 
one hundred twenty three dollars and fifty five cents 
was made. 

Dan Chase was paid one dollar for moving all the 
lodge furnishings to the new hall. The Rebekahs moved 
into their present building on August 18, 1909. 

In 1928, Anna was honored at Rebekah Assembly of 
Idaho when Jessie Goodell was elected Grand Warden, 

Rebekah sisters Betty Kohl, Sandra Faraday, and Rose Corum wear- 
ing the original robes at the 100th Anniversary celebration. 

1929 as Vice Grand, and in fall of 1930 as Assembly 
President of Idaho. 

A number of our Rebekahs have served on the Grand 
Lodge staffs. Thelma Ramey, 1956 and 1957; Madora 
Meeks Hamlin, 1951; Lucille Benson Benjamin, 1971; 
and Sandra Faraday, 1982-1990. 

The Lodge today has a membership of seventy. Sis- 
ters belonging fifty nine years or longer are Margaret 
Snyder Pyeatt (1924), Gladys McFrederick (1931) and 
Marie Waller (1931). 

The Lodge has been active in Civic affairs. We have 
sent several students to United Nations Pilgrimage, 
participated in Boy's and Girls's state funding, and con- 
tributed in the World Eye Bank. 

We have endeavored to live and teach the principles 
of Odd Fellowship, and to keep our three links: Friend- 
ship-Love-and Truth, bright and shining. 

Anna Rebekah Lodge celebrated it's one hundredth 
birthday Sunday, June 3, 1990, with a program and 
refreshments in its spacious hall. Leesburg Rocky 
Mountain Lodge #5 celebrated their one hundredth 
birthday in 1970. The two lodges have very close ties, 
working and enjoying many social affairs. 

Institued in Leesburg in 1870, lOOF celebrates its 100th year in 
January 1970. Jack Morrow ■ Boise, Jessie Goodell - Salmon, Glen 
Chaney - Nampa, Dick Young ■ Salmon. 


by Lloyd Edward 

Lemhi County, Idaho is Masonic Country. The first 
white man known to have entered what is now Lemhi 
County, Idaho was a Master Mason, Captain Meri- 
wether Lewis. Captain Clark was not a Mason at the 
time, but was initiated soon after returning from the 

With the gold rush to Napias Creek and the Leesburg 
Basin in 1866, came many future members of the Ma- 
sonic Lodge. Lemhi Lodge was created on December 
16, 1874 at Salmon, Idaho. It was part of the Grand 
Lodge of Idaho and was the eleventh Masonic Lodge 
Charter in Idaho. 

The first officers elected were: Colston W. Manasco, 
Jesse McCaleb, William Boyd, George L. Shoup, Ed- 

ward O'Neil, George G. Wentz, William Orcott and Jo- 
seph Boggs. Membership the first year was about thirty 
and the first meeting were held in the basement of 
Shoup's Store. 

Col. George E. Shoup was a charter member of Lem- 
hi Lodge. The lodge was a prominent fixture in the 
development of the region. Shoup served as Past Mas- 
ter of Lemhi Lodge and served as Most Worshipful Grand 
Master of Idaho in the year immediately preceding his 
being named Idaho Territorial Governor. Shoup pro- 
vided Lemhi Lodge was a most unique lodge facility in 
the 1880's when Shoup built a new three-story "sky- 
scraper" in the 400 block of Salmon to house his mer- 
cantile business. The top floor was set aside for Lemhi 


The first Masonic Lodge in Salmon was in this log building. 
The Lodge later moved to the third floor of the Shoup Building. 

The present Lemhi Lodge has graced Salmon's Main Steet since 
1932. This photo was prior to 1974. 

Dr. William C. Whitwell demitted 
into Lemhi Lodge in 1889. 
Served as Worshipful Master for 
years of 1892-1893-18961903- 
1904 and as Most Worshipful 
Grand Master of Masons in Ida- 
ho in 1908. 

Colston Manasco, the first Worshipful Master 
of Lemhi Lodge No 11. He was from Alabama, 
went to California in the gold rush, came to 
Leesburg in 1867, and served four terms as 
County Assessor before returning to Califor- 
nia in 1880. 

Lodge No. 11. When the Lodge was duly and truly tiled, 
there was no question about it — a ladder between the 
second and third floors was pulled up through the trap 
door which gave access to the hall. On the outside of 
the building is the Masonic symbol which has proudly 
looked down on Salmon's Main Street for more than 
one hundred years. 

The original lodge building was a two story log build- 
ing. After the Shoup Building, the Lodge moved into 
its own temple in the 400 block of Salmon. Disaster 
struck when a fire destroyed the second floor lodge 
hall in 1931. The fire destroyed all of the old minutes 
of the Lemhi Lodge. The new Masonic Temple was ded- 
icated on April 27, 1932 and artist, John C. Snook was 
paid $150 for an oil painting which is still on display. 

Lemhi Lodge No 1 1 , is now 118 years old and is the 
second oldest Lodge still active in the entire State of 
Idaho. The Lodge is proud of the part it has paid in the 
development of Lemhi County and proud of the Ma- 
sonic history connected to our great area. 

From material prepared for the Centennial Celebration in 1974. 

We MUST make room for our Stock of 

— ^"^aTET i© HDZB"^- 

ty W« igUDd 10 ls«ke » ip^ciiltj is thii line dorins Ihe comiui hb^od 


o-ieoss :s2BOS. 




by Rose Bolton & Elizabeth Harrison 

Idaho was still a Territory when the first Eastern Star 
Chapters in Idaho were organized. With the coming of 
families, came also the need for a social life. Where 
there were enough Masons to form a Lodge, there was 
also the desire for Eastern Star Chapters. The Order 
is based upon the enduring principles of Charity, Truth, 
and Loving Kindness. 

In the year 1873 or 1874, Reverend Hugh Duncan 
of Sheridan, Montana, a Methodist minister, visited 
Salmon. He found that Salmon had neither a church 
nor a pastor, therefore he came on horseback once a 
month to preach. In Virginia City, Montana he had or- 
ganized the Masonic Grand Lodge in 1866. 

Now in Salmon, he urged the wives of Masons to 
associate together as members of the Order of Eastern 
Star. In February, 1866 a petition naming twenty-seven 
Masons and their wives was sent to the General Grand 
Chapter asking that a Chapter of the Order of Eastern 
Star be organized. The Charter granted, Reverend 
Duncan was authorized to institute the Chapter, and 
in his honor it was named "Hugh Duncan Chapter". 
They first met in an upstairs room of the log building 
used by Col. Shoup as a warehouse. Everything was 
primitive, but neat, and lighted by kerosene lamps. 

The first officers were: Mary Kirtley, Worthy Matron; 
Robert McNicoll, Worthy Patron; Anna B. McCaleb, As- 
sociate Matron; and Peter Van Norden, Secretary. In 
addition to the officers, charter members were: Emma 
Wentz, Emma White, Barbara McNicoll, Ada Merritt, 
Margaret Hornbeck, Ellen Beattie, Clara Mintzer, Anna 
Sharkey, Anna Stevens, James Kirtley, George Wentz, 
Monteville White, Anthony Hornbeck, James Beattie, 
Olin Mintzer, Frank Sharkey, Isaac Stevens, Josiah 
Chase, and W. H. Potter. 

Anna B, McCaleb was the second Worthy Matron, 
serving from 1887 through 1889. Her husband, Jesse 
McCaleb, was one of the first Masons in Idaho. Mrs. 
McCaleb served as Grand Adah in the first Grand Chap- 
ter of Idaho when it was organized at Weiser in 1902. 
Since the Grand Chapter of Idaho was organized, there 
has only been one session when Hugh Duncan Chapter 
was not represented. In 1908 Grand Chapter met in 
Coeur d'Alene, and heavy rains caused such high wa- 
ters that roads and bridges were washed out and the 
stagecoach could not get through. 

Growth in membership necessitated the move to 
larger quarters, and the Lodge and Chapter moved to 
the third floor of the Pioneer Mercantile Building. Mr. 
Shoup had built this extra space expressly for the Ma- 
sonic Lodge and Eastern Star meetings. He richly fur- 
nished the room and gave it to the Masons. Meetings 
were held there until the Masons purchased property 
just across the street, remodeling the building to suit 

their needs. In 1931 that whole block was destroyed 
by fire, resulting in the loss of equipment and records 
for both organizations. The brick walls were left intact, 
and were later cut down to be used for the walls of a 
new one story building with full basement. This hall at 
414 Main Street is still being used by the Masons, East- 
ern Star and Job's Daughters. 

In 1911, Hugh Duncan Chapter entertained Grand 
Chapter and it was a memorable trip for those at- 
tending. It was the first summer that the G and P Rail- 
road was in operation. The unusually high waters 
washed out some of the bridges which gave the del- 
egates an extra day in Salmon. At this Grand Session, 
Mrs. Mertia J. Frost Melvyn Kane was elected Associate 
Grand Conductress. Dr. W. C. Whitwell was elected As- 
sociate Grand Patron. 

Mertia Frost-Kane served as Worthy Grand Matron 
in 1914-15, and was instrumental in the creation of a 
Home Fund to benefit Eastern Star affiliates. She was 
then elected Grand Secretary, and served the Grand 
Chapter in this capacity for fourteen years. 

Orion Kirkpatrick of Leesburg was Worthy Patron in 
1915 and it was noted that he walked a total of 307 
miles, many of those miles on snowshoes, to attend 
the Chapter meetings that year. The beautiful electric 
signet, was purchased as a memorial to Mr. Kirkpa- 
trick, with money raised by the membership and a do- 
nation left by Orion himself. The lovely star-point rug 
purchased as a memorial to deceased members, was 
a gift to the Chapter, through bequest by Bertha Doe- 

Loula T. Carpenter was elected Worthy Matron in 
1920, serving two terms. During 1921 she traveled 
twenty-two miles from the ranch at Tendoy, by horse 
and buggy, never missing a meeting. 

The 75th Anniversary was observed in March 1961, 
with members dressed in 1886 vintage clothing. A pa- 
rade of early costumes and vehicles on Main Street 
preceded the formal dinner at the Hall. Eighty-three 
members and guests were present. 

The Order of Eastern Star is a non-profit and char- 
itable organization. By means of special fund raising 
events and bequests to the Chapter, Hugh Duncan 
Chapter has donated handsomely to many charities 
over the years. 

In March, 1981, the Chapter held an open house to 
celebrate the 100th birthday of Augusta Hines, and 
honored her again two years later. She passed away 
in June 1985 at the age of one hundred four. 

In June 1985 Rose Bolton, Past Matron, was installed 
as Worthy Grand Matron of Idaho. The Chapter cele- 
brated its 100th Anniversary and the homecoming of 
the Worthy Grand Matron in March, 1986. Hugh Dun- 
can Chapter was the first in Idaho to observe 100 years 
of continuous activity. Held together in a fraternal fel- 
lowship, the Chapter is blessed with a busy and en- 
thusiastic membership, working together to promote 
the principles of the Order of Eastern Star. 



by Allen C Merritt ■ 1934 

In choosing this subject we fear that we are like the 
Swede who, on taking a few drinks challenged anyone 
in the house to fight. Hearing no takers he further im- 
bibed and challenged the town. Further additions to 
his courage prompted him until he challenged the world, 
when a bystander removed his coat and said, "You're 
covering entirely too much territory." We admit this, 
but feel that you will bear with me as we are somewhat 
secure in that we may possibly escape challenge. 

To define Central Idaho let us consider the area be- 
tween the one hundred eleventh and the one hundred 
seventeenth meridians and the forty-second and forty- 
ninth parallels. We have here enclosed the greatest 
potential mineral area in the United States, if not in 
the world. 

The Idaho Batholith is, in all probability, responsible 
for the mineralization which gives this area the dis- 
tinction we have assigned to it. This giant uplift with 
its intrusions, its folded, sheared and faulted covering 
of great thicknesses of sedimentaries with the subse- 
quent erosion had exposed around its margins the ex- 
tensive mineralization which is and will be the source 
of production for centuries to come. 

The State Divided By the Salmon River 
In this restricted area the State of Idaho is divided 
in two sections by the Salmon River. The Idaho Bath- 
olith is broken through its center by the Salmon River 
Canyon and numerous lateral gashes extend north and 
south. This deep gorge may be likened to a section of 
dried earth held in the hands and pressed upward with 
the fingers. The fractures would be irregular and if the 
material were composed of some crystalline sub- 
stance, the fractures would follow the structure. 

Now let us consider that there has been erosion tak- 
ing place in these fractures for millions of years since 
the upheaval which caused them, and that the great 
prisms of the canyons so created have been washed 
down, and that there is exposed a slice of the earth's 
crust from four to six thousand feet in thickness. In 
this exposure the overlying sedimentaries show their 
conformability to the original surface before the up- 
heaval and in many places dip deep into the granite 
base. There are numerous evidences of great mag- 
matic activity which have transformed the granite into 
coarse- grained gneiss and in places there are found 
inclusions of schist and other sedimentaries . . . How- 
ever, before we can expect any exploitation of the area 
there should be given a reason why intelligent inves- 
tigation and development may be justified. 

Transportation Principal Obstacle 
The Salmon River has been named "The River of No 
Return" for the reason that it is yet unconquered. Pro- 
gress on the Forest truck trail from Riggins up and from 

Salmon down is painfully slow. The CCC camps have 
advanced not more than four miles altogether in the 
last twelve months and there still remains about sev- 
enty-five miles of road to connect. 

uses Bulletin 528, published in 1913 by J. B. Um- 
pleby, reports on the Buffalo Hump and Ten-Mile Dis- 
tricts, and on the Thunder Mountain District, by P. J. 
Shenon and J. C. Reed, are recent additions to the 
technical literature touching on the area. We quote 
from Umpleby: 

Of the many conditions affecting mining, only the lack 
of suitable transportation has served as a serious hand- 
icap to development. Prior to the Spring of 1910 Red 
Rock, Montana and Dubois, Idaho, were the nearest 
railroad points, and these represented a haul of more 
than seventy miles from the properties situated advan- 
tageously and of more than double that distance from 
other mines. 

This situation is very little improved today so far as 
hauling costs are concerned, but the Gilmore and Pitts- 
burgh Railroad on the east, the Pacific and Idaho 
Northern on the west, the Northern Pacific on the north 
and the Union Pacific on the south have been able to 
handle a gradually increasing tonnage of ores and con- 
centrates which are produced mostly in development, 
and the outlook for the future appears encouraging. 

An Area of Varied Resources 
In this vast area of, we might say unexplored mineral 
resources, there is known to exist large bodies of low 
grade refractory ores of the money metals as well as 
such necessary industrial metals as lead, copper, zinc, 
antimony, bismuth, mercury, tin, manganese, tung- 
sten, molybdenum, cobalt and nickel in commercial 
quantities, and byproduct metals such as cadmium, 
vanadium, selenium and barium as well as many non- 
metallic minerals, not to mention the vast Phosphate 
deposits, which while not exactly in the area, are close- 
ly related to its development. 

In an estimate which was made some years ago the 
State of Idaho was considered to be three and one half 
percent developed. The Northwest was estimated five 
per cent developed. It is quite apparent that the im- 
provements in metallurgical processes in recent years 
have had the effect of lowering this percentage con- 
siderably and many of the deposits which were pre- 
viously considered unworkable may now be considered 
attractive when the transportation and the power 
problems have been worked out. 

As proof of the foregoing statement, mining men of 
experience are now investigating several properties in 
Central Idaho and actual operations are in progress in 
many districts where reduction of the hitherto worth- 
less ores are returning handsome profits. 


Future Holds Many Possibilities 
We cite several projects in which careful metallur- 
gical research has produced results to the extent that 
plants are being built with assurance of long term op- 
eration and profitable results, even at the present in- 
complete transportation and power facilities. 

The Patterson District, an old-timer having been first 
operated in 1873 as a silver mine, has now developed 
an ore body which places it in the very front rank of 
tungsten producers. The ultimate success of the op- 
erations hinges on transportation, power and metal- 

We take this opportunity to observe that there is real 
production either in progress or near accomplishment 
in the form of bullion and concentrates and that in 
most cases there is a conspicuous absence of stock 
certificates on the market which we note as the most 
encouraging indication that real mining men have come 
into this area with the determination to get results. For 
this section has the reputation of being one of the 
greatest producers of stock certificates in the mining 
world due to its remoteness and inaccessibility; and its 
idle mills, built to treat the shallow oxidized ores, are 
evidence of undertakings where too low grade ores and 
too little metallurgical information was available. We 
sincerely hope that this era has passed forever. 

How Shall We Approach the Problem? 

We began this discussion by calling attention to some 
of the obstacles in the way of the development of the 
Central Idaho area. In substance the problems are little 
changed compared to the early days of mining when 
we had placers, and the free-milling ores as we were 
then confronted with only the problem of moving in 
our plants. Today we are dependent on transportation 
to a greater degree to move ores and concentrates to 
the smelters which are several hundred miles from the 
point of production, therefore we will take the liberty 
to visualize what is within the possibility of the future. 

Roads, hard surfaced highways, will connect with 
convenient railroad terminals and main lines. Cheap 
electric power will be available. Metallurgical processes 
involving greater use of electricity will be developed. 
Electric smelting and, if you please, electric distillation 
will be made greater use of in reduction. To the refin- 
eries we will ship a highly-concentrated product or 

Sentiment and Theory Still an Obstacle 
There is abroad in the land a sentiment built up large- 
ly upon the theory that this area has a greater value 
for recreation for a favored few for a "living wilder- 
ness" a "wildlife refuge" and a "primitive area", than 
for the wealth it holds. 

There is no reason to padlock this area against the 
miner and with roads and trails it can be much more 

efficiently administered for the benefit of the common 
people as well as the favored few and we feel that the 
Forest Service is competent to do this. 

The present great need is for an accurate and com- 
prehensive map of the area which can be most eco- 
nomically produced by aerial photography, followed up 
by geological mapping and then open it up to the min- 
ing engineer for systematic investigation and devel- 
opment. Governmental agencies should be supplied to 
accomplish this and if co-operated in by the experi- 
enced mining men who have studied the problems 
through contact with them, mining in Central Idaho 
and the Northwest will be placed where it belongs, in 
the first rank of productive investment. 


by Bob Smith 

1934 was the first year the "Air-Flow" Chrysler and 
the DeSoto came out. Bob's brother Eli told Bob that 
they were going to go on a June Bug ride. (That's what 
they called the air-flow Chryslers). 

The two brothers harnessed up a work horse to a 
one-horse buggy and started up Dutch John Creek 
where two patches of timber lay. On the way up the 
hill the two boys had to stop and get out because the 
snake trail was getting too steep. Bob and Eli would go 
a little, then stop and crib the wheels with rocks to 
give the horse a rest. They finally reached the top of 
the mountain where the snake trail turns to the left. 
They unharnessed the horse and removed the shafts 
from the buggy. They had three pieces of rope. One 
they tied to each side of the front axle of the buggy 
to act as a steering device. Another piece (which was 
rotten) they tied to one rear wheel of the buggy to act 
as a rough-lock. The third piece they tied to the other 
rear wheel to act as another rough-lock enabling them 
to control their speed down the mountain. 

Eli got in the seat, grabbed hold of his steering ropes 
and told Bob to remove all the rocks holding the buggy. 
When the buggy started down the mountain, Bob ran 
and jumped in. The buggy was going at a pretty good 
speed when Eli told Bob if he would cut one of the 
ropes acting as rough-lock on the wheel, they could 
pick up a little more speed. Bob cut one of the ropes, 
which was the new rope. That's all it took; the rotten 
rope broke on the other wheel and down the mountain 
they went. 

The buggy went so fast it would hit the ground and 
then be air- borne for about thirty to thirty five feet 
and hit again. Each time it hit the ground the wooden 
spokes would break off the wheels. Finally on about 
the third hit the front wheels collapsed, causing the 
buggy to start rolling. Eli was thrown out into the sage- 
brush from his June Bug ride. Bob managed to grab 
hold of the springs under the seat and held on for the 
duration of the ride. Bob said that's as close as he ever 
came to flying. 



by Fred Snook 

The Salmon Hot Springs served as the County Poor 
Farm for a number of years. One must remember that 
Salmon did not have the convenience of a modern hos- 
pital until 1951; there was not a modern Care Center 
until Casabello, now Salmon Valley Care Center, was 
built. There were no modern medical clinics, emer- 
gency room service, or EMT's in the good old days. 
Numerous small private hospitals and nursing homes 
existed prior to 1950, but the one that created the 
most memories is the County Poor Farm at the Salmon 
Hot Springs, during the late 1920's and the Great De- 
pression Years of the early 1930's. 

The following list of people, taken from Julia Ran- 
dolph's book. This Quiet Ground illustrates the variety 
of residents at the Poor Farm. Some were not truly 
poor, but simply had no other place to reside in their 
last years. 

WILLIAMS, Levi. He was over 60 years old when he 
died at the Salmon Hot Springs. (IR Feb. 15, 1928) 

BARNES, Al. He was 65 years old when he died at 
the Salmon Hot Springs. (IR Aug. 8, 1928) 

CUBITT, Charles. He was an old timer from Ulysses. 
He was about 70 years old when he died at the Salmon 
Hot Springs. (IR Nov. 28, 1928) 

KUNTZ, John. He had lived at Nicholia and was 79 
years old when he died at the Salmon Hot Springs. (IR 
Dec. 5, 1928) 

STEIN, Otto. He was born in Sweden and had an 
extensive college education. In Sweden he was a farm- 
er and then a foreign correspondent for a mercantile 
firm in France and England. He mastered five lan- 
guages. Coming to America, he and a brother invested 
everything in a ranch in Nevada and went broke. He 
and his wife lived in Gibbonsville for many years. Otto 
died a pauper at the Salmon Hot Springs. (IR Dec. 5, 

PINKLE, Charles. A native of Germany, he was 64 
years old when he died at the Salmon Hot Springs. (IR 
Dec. 12, 1928) DEVAL, Frank. He was 65 years old 
when he died at the Salmon Hot Springs. (IR Apr. 3, 

HERBERT, E. W. Died at the Salmon Hot Springs at 
age 75. (IR May 22, 1929) 

JORDAN, John. Seventy nine years old at death at 
Salmon Hot Springs. (IR Dec. 4, 1929) 

MEANS, Frank. Frank was 70 years when he died at 
Salmon Hot Springs. (IR Dec. 25, 1929) 

MONAHAN, Barney. Born in Ireland, he had lived at 
Leadore. He was 58 years old when he died at the 
Salmon Hot Springs. (IR Feb. 19, 1930) 

MOODIE, William. Also from Leadore, but died at 
Salmon Hot Springs. (IR Mar. 26, 1930) 

TWIST, Richard M. Richard was 62 years old when 
he died at the Salmon Hot Springs. (IR Dec. 31, 1930) 


The Salmon Hot Springs, looking to the north. 

STARK, John, John was 53 years old when he died 
at the Salmon Hot Springs. (IR Jan. 21, 1931) 

STESAK, William. Age 54 at death at Salmon Hot 
Springs. (IR Jan. 28, 1931) 

MURRAY, James. He was a former resident of Gil- 
more who died at the Hot Springs at age 79. (IR Jan. 
28, 1931) 

COLLINS, Billy. Billy was a carpenter and a resident 
of Lemhi Co. for 35 years. He died at the S. Hot Springs 
at age 79. (RH Dec. 9, 1931) 

COLLINS, William. Mr. Collins lived in Lemhi Co. for 
24 years, first in the Pahsimeroi Valley and then at 
Tendoy. He died at the Salmon Hot Springs. (RH June 
15, 1932) 

BURGREEN, Martin. He was age 83 when he died at 
the S. Hot Springs. (RH July 6, 1932) 

EBY, Lucien. Age 84 when he died at the S. Hot 
Springs. (RH Nov. 8, 1933) 

MOAN, Andrew. A prospector and miner in the Gil- 
more area, he was born in Norway in 1879. He died 
at the Salmon Hot Springs. (RH Nov. 22, 1933) 

NASH, Joseph. A miner at Gilmore, he was 76 years 
old when he died at the Salmon Hot Springs. (RH Dec. 
27, 1933) 

SEAT, Charles. Mr. Seat was about 75 years old when 
he died at the Salmon Hot Springs. (RH Feb. 7, 1934) 

HEGLUND, Alford. Al was born in Minnesota. He was 
only 47 when he died at the Salmon Hot Springs. (RH 
May, 2, 1934) 

DE WOLF, Edward. Edward born in Belgium but had 
lived in Lemhi County for fifty years. He was 97 when 
he died at the Salmon Hot Springs. (RH Nov. 7, 1934) 

ROACH, Richard. He was 86 years old when he died 
at the Salmon Hot Springs. (RH Nov. 6, 1935) 

TOBIN, Thomas. Thomas was one of the last patients 
of the Poor Farm. He was 87 years old when he died 


at the Salmon Hot Springs. (RH Nov. 6, 1935) 
RH referrs to The Recorder Herald 

As the Poor Farm closed more patients were treated 
at the Rose Hospital, at Salmon General Hospital, and 
at the Silbaugh Nursing Home on Highway 28 to men- 
tion just a few health care facilities back then. 

Often when the wheels of fate spin, the wheel takes 
a full spin. That is what happened to the Hot Springs 
in the 1930's. It went from being the Poor Farm to a 
very nice resort complete with wooden dance floors, 
gambling and entertainment. 

Elizabeth Snook recalls the Salmon Rotary Club hold- 
ing one of their first dinners at the Hot Springs in the 
late 1930's; and that there was much debate as to 
whether or not to use that location, as the Hot Springs 
then served liquor; but that an excellent meal was 
served. Casino gambling was abolished statewide in the 
1950's , and the Hot Springs continued on as a fun 
family place during the 1950's and 1960's. Many clubs, 
families and youth groups held swimming party picnics 
at the Hot Springs. This new generation of young chil- 
dren had no idea of the past sorrows, pains, agonies, 
and sufferings that another older generation had en- 
dured here only twenty-five years before. How foreign 
their laughs and cheerful screams must have seemed 
to the ghosts of the County Poor Farm. 

Editor's note: The Hot Springs closed down for the 1970's and 
1980's and the building crumbled in general dilapidation. Today, new 
owners are considering possibly reopening. 


by Philip Rand ■ late 1940's. 

Salmon, in early days called Salmon City, the County 
seat of Lemhi County, is situated at the junction of the 
Lemhi and Salmon Rivers at an altitude of four thou- 
sand feet. The town is surrounded by high mountains 
through which are three passes - the three means of 
travel to the outside world, for Salmon is an isolated 
community. These passes at times open out into fairly 
wide valleys where many ranches engage in profitable 

Because of the gold rush, 1866, to Leesburg, situ- 
ated high in the mountains west of Salmon, a nucleus 
of a town (Salmon) was started on the west bank of 
the Salmon River, the gold seekers being conveyed 
across the river in boats. The first settlement was cre- 
ated in 1866. In 1867 Mr. Vandreff, the first permanent 
settler in Salmon, induced the people on the west bank 
to tear down their buildings and move across to the 
east side of the Salmon River and he donated a town- 
site for their accomodation. In the fall of 1867 the first 
bridge across the Salmon was erected affording better 
facilities for the gold miners to take their supplies to 
the Leesburg gold camp. 

From the earliest diaries of the old trappers the name 

of Salmon was ascribed to the main river, that flows 
through Custer and Lemhi Counties, because of the 
great quantities of Salmon fish abounding in its stream. 
Naturally the town took its name from this river. 

The early history of the Leesburg mining camp, con- 
sisting of a population of ten thousand people, and the 
history of Salmon are closely interwoven. Salmon ex- 
isted because of Leesburg and all the supplies for its 
camp emanated from Salmon, which in turn had its 
supplies hauled in by freight wagons through the Birch 
Creek Pass from Corrine, Utah. 

A group of prospectors in June, 1866, left Montana, 
for Idaho, and discovered gold on the Leesburg moun- 
tain. It was fine placer gold and there were quantities 
of it. Word of the discovery drifted out to other camps 
in the west and soon a rush was on, largely by dis- 
charged soldiers from the Civil War. The discoverers 
of Leesburg gold were F. B. Sharkey, Elijah Mulkey, 
Joseph Rapp, William Smith, and Ward Gertson. Their 
discovery led to some twelve million dollars worth of 
gold being extracted in the first ten years of the camp's 

In 1866 other familiar names appear in Salmon and 
Leesburg including A. J. MacNab, N. I. Andrews, M. M. 
McPherson, George L. Shoup, Dan Beck, James Beat- 
ty, Dave McNutt, Fred Turner, L. P. Withington, Mack 
Kennedy, Eli Minert, George D. Anderson, George Hill, 
I. C. Johnson, and John Wals Snook. In 1867 came 
many settlers who remained in Salmon permanently, 
among whom were John Barrack, Robert McNicholl, 
Thomas Rider, James Hockensmith, E. S. Edwards, 
George Wentz, Thomas Pope, I. C. Gertson, Eli Minert, 
Peter Amonson, and Mike Miers. 

In August of that year, 1866, the first house was built 
in Salmon. It was owned by Mr. Vandreff and a half 
dozen other houses were soon erected. These were all 
built of logs. Col. George L. Shoup arrived in November, 
1867, with a stock of general merchandise and opened 
his business in a tent, then erected a log store building 
and founded the George L. Shoup Company which be- 
came an important factor in supplying merchandise to 
Leesburg and other camps springing up in Lemhi and 
Custer Counties. Salmon has always been a center for 
mining activity from the earliest days and at the pres- 
ent time is the center for mining activity as well as 
large sheep and cattle activities. The discovery of tung- 
sten, cobalt, and other metals for hardening steel is 
bringing back mining as an important factor in the ec- 
onomical life of Salmon. 

Salmon and Lemhi County are very rich in historic 
lore, more so than the average man realizes. Here Lew- 
is and Clark first discovered the waters flowing into the 
Pacific and were the first white men to penetrate this 
region; then came many trappers of fame including 
John Work, Donald MacKensie, Alexander Ross, Peter 
Ogden, Kit Carson, W. A. Ferris, and Captain Bonneville. 
Captain Bonneville wintered four miles below Salmon 
and there built a fort. Rev. Samuel Parker aided by 


friendly Nez Perce Indians treked through the country 
on the way to Walla Walla. There are countless au- 
thenticated stories of Indian warfare between the local 
Shoshone Indians and the greatly feared Blackfeet. The 
Blackfeet invaded Lemhi to steal horses from the local 
Indians, who traded for them from the Nez Perce In- 
dians of North Idaho, who came into Lemhi every year 
to catch and dry Salmon for their winter's use and also 
passed through here to hunt buffalo in Montana. Buf- 
falo roamed in great numbers in the Pahsimeroi Valley 
until completely exterminated by the trappers and In- 

The Salmon River was the scene of the Sheepeater 
War where United States soldiers were employed in 
the suppression of the Sheepeater Indians. 

From Salmon one man stands out in history. George 
L. Shoup was Territorial Governor from 1889 to 1890 
and U. S. Senator 1891-1895 and 1895-1901. 

Another inhabitant who achieved fame was Captain 
Guleke who built flat barges and carried freight and 
passengers to mining camps down the turbulent Salm- 
on River as far as Lewiston. 

A railroad, the Gilmore and Pittsburg, was built from 
Armstead, Montana to Salmon in 1910, and this did 
away with the picturesque and useful stage coach from 
Red Rock, Montana to Salmon. It also did away with 
importing supplies by strings of freight wagons. The 
railroad went out of existance in 1939 and the town 
and county now are entirely supplied by trucks. 

The population of Lemhi County for many years was 
5500 and Salmon 2000, but the last two years has seen 
a marked increase. Salmon is now around 3000 and 
there has been considerable building activity. 

There is increased production in sheep, cattle, dairy 
products, and potatoes. There is a recent activity in 
mining, and there is the recognition of the fact that in 
this vicinity is the finest big game hunting and fishing 
to be had in the northwest, which alone brought in over 
2000 sportsmen in the fall of 1946. It is the door to 
the primitive area and here one hires guides and outfits 
for the hunt and boat trips down the River of No Re- 

Salmon presents in the main, a modern little city with 
brick and cinder block stores. It has many churches, 
an active fraternal field such as Elks, Oddfellows, 
Grange, Eagles, Masonic, and Rotary. It has a new mod- 
ern high school with a football field and a separate ball 
field, and a fine brick grade school. It has a new library, 
city hall, and an American Legion building. It supports 
numerous garages in modern buildings, many stores, 
cheese factory, cream distributors, newspaper, tele- 
phone company, picture shows, hotel, auto courts, res- 
taurants, forest office buildings, and a good sewer and 
water system. The town is spread out on both sides of 
the river extending over a wide area. It has two airports 
and a good fair ground. The roads leading into Salmon 
from Blackfoot, Missoula, and Idaho Falls, are paved 
to over three-fourths of the way and construction is 

still going on. Buses cover these points daily and in 
addition there is a bus line to Boise via Sun Valley dur- 
ing the summer months. 

Salmon, center of a large trading area, and Lemhi 
County, which by the way is larger than the State of 
Connecticut, are assured of a steady normal growth 
and of a prosperous future. 


by Dee Keirnes 

One day after Ralph Thrasher had retired, I was cut- 
ting his hair and he told me about a couple who came 
into his furniture business to see what was available in 
the area in case they decided to buy property here. 

He said the lady wanted to talk furniture, but all the 
husband was interested in was fishing. Ralph said he 
kept telling the man the fishing was real good, while 
trying to show her furniture. 

About that time there was a big commotion out on 
the street and everyone went out to see what was 

There was Lou Ramey with a ten foot sturgeon he 
had just caught in the Salmon River by the bridge. 
Ralph said he was as surprised as anyone, but without 
batting an eye, he turned to the man and said, "See 
now? That's some of the fish we catch here!" 


Lou Ramey and a ten foot White Sturgeon caught in 1930 at Salmon 



by Andree Quarles 
daughter of G. B. Quarles 

The Pines was the name of the Quarles family's "Old 
Kentucky Home", according to G.B. Quarles. The Ken- 
tucky home was an elegant structure built by skilled 

After Quarles moved to Salmon, he began prepara- 
tions to build a suitable estate home. About five acres 
of land was purchased. It was located on the bar, over- 
looking the Salmon River, with a beautiful view of the 
town, the valley and the scenic mountains. 

In Kentucky, every bedroom had a fireplace. G. B. 
wanted no fireplaces in his Salmon home. He had had 
enough of bringing in wood, stoking the fires, and clean- 
ing out ashes. Although the Kentucky plantation had 
four hundred acres, he found there was plenty to do, 
for a fulltime business man, in working on his five acres, 
with planting and keeping up the garden, lawns, and 

Southerners liked to have their estates on river banks. 
Father adjusted to the best thing by making a path 
from the home down to the branch of the Salmon River 
called "the slough". It was ideal for wading, with schools 
of minnows and an occasional garter snake. 

Hot houses were luxuries. G.B. avoided this expense 
by having sand brought in and dumped in an open spot. 
Here he planted seeds, transplantion them to other 
areas after they sprouted. There were always garden 
vegetables for the table; a Jersey cow named Nelly 
provided milk, rich cream, and butter. One could find 
fresh eggs in the barn and nice fat hens to be baked 
for Sunday dinner. 

Outdoors there was a swing and indoors one of the 
early models of the Edison phonograph as well as a 
Kranich and Bach cabinet grand piano. The piano was 
a splendid instrument, made of French walnut. It is now 
in the Quarles family home in North Hollywood. 

G.B. left a record of the expenses involved in building 
the residence he wanted for his bride: 

Land, about 5 acres $900 

Water rights, 2.5" taken 

through city pipes. $150 

House as originally built $6,350 

Glassing in front porch $350 

Water Mains to house, about 800 ft $350 

Sewer-about 200' 4 inch iron pipe $400 

Soil for the sand garden $150 

Washroom, woodroom and garage $150 

Ice house (cement foundation) $175 

Fencing of premises $200 

Apple cellar (walls and floor 

made of cement) $175 

Barn-sufficient for two automobiles, 

2 cows, 4 tons of hay and grainery $700 

Cement walks leading to property $350 

Filling dry gulch at gate 

entrance (800 yards of rock and earth) 

Addition to house (approximately 
19 years after house built consisting 
of back bedroom, back porch, coal 
cellar for 20 tons of coal and a 
steam heating furnace) $4,100 

No cost was given for the apple orchard 
of about 200 trees which should produce 
about 500 to 800 boxes of apples a year. 

Editor's note: Today, the old Quarles estate is owned by Jordan and 
Mary Smith. 


by Marjorie B. Sims 


A. C. Guallupe went out to the adjoining property on 
which his partners were working. He came to a point 
where, by crossing a ravine on the west side of Rainbow 
Mountain, he could save himself a long trip around, 
and though he saw it was dangerous he determined to 
take the risk. 

He plunged down the sharp hill through the snow but 
soon realized his rnistake. The snow started and he 
was soon being carried along in a slide. His experience 
in the mountains had taught him to face such danger 
and seek to keep on top of the slide. This he succeeded 
in doing until a one hundred fifty foot precipice was 


The slide shot over the cliff, and the unfortunate man 
was buried in the snow at the bottom. But the hill was 
steep below the precipice, and the slide rushed on. 

Presently, he felt the slide checked. Then he strug- 
gled toward the surface. By the time the slide came 
to a stop he had his head and shoulders out. He found 
himself on Last Chance Creek, on the west side of the 
Mountain, a thousand feet from the point where the 
slide had caught him. 

newspaper item of March 22, 1902 


by Marilyn Alford 

While Thunder Mountain is not a part of Lemhi Coun- 
ty, its history is enmeshed with ours. The trails to Thun- 
der Mountain and the old town of Roosevelt were heav- 
ily traveled and many Lemhi County people were in- 
volved with the short but hectic story of that area. 
Thunder Mountain is located on the Payette National 
Forest near the head of Monumental and Marble 
Creeks, both western tributaries of the Middle Fork of 
the Salmon River. 

In 1991, as a part of the National celebration of the 
Centennial of the first Forest Reserves in the United 
States, the Salmon National Forest began maintaining 
and reconstructing a segment of one of the historic 
trails to Thunder Mountain for use by recreationists. 
While the location of parts of the old trail are unknown, 
or have been obliterated by roads or other activity, the 
segment from Williams Lake to China Springs is still 
largely intact and recognizable. 

The gold rush was intense, involving thousands of 
people from all walks of life. To supply their needs, 
horse and mule strings found their way through the 
rugged terrain of the Salmon River Mountains from 
several directions, including Salmon City. One of the 
routes used involved travel from Salmon, up Lake 
Creek, past Williams Lake, to China Springs, then 
southwest to Yellowjacket on the way to the Middle 

Fork and Thunder Mountain. It was a long and arduous 
trip of over one hundred miles through some of the 
most rugged terrain in the state of Idaho. The trail from 
Salmon City to China Springs was steep and largely 
dry. At China Springs, teamsters and their animals could 
stop and refresh. 

The gold rush began in the Thunder Mountain District 
in 1901, spawning the boom towns of Roosevelt, Thun- 
der City, and Belleco. On December 11, 1901 an item 
appeared in the local newspaper that indicates the ex- 
citement that existed over the Thunder Mountain area: 

The Red Rock and Salmon River Stage Line is pre- 
paring for the rush to Thunder Mountain, and has ten 
4-horse Concord coaches and four 6-horse Concords 
in readiness. This will handle twenty-five to fifty pas- 
sengers daily, conveying them within fifty miles of Thun- 
der Mountain at Yellow Jacket, from which point the 
journey must be made by pack outfits. It will require 
three days to make the trip in, one day being used to 
travel from Red Rock to Salmon, and two days from 
Salmon to Thunder. 

Another item from theLemhi Herald of November 20, 
1901 reads: 

The town of Roosevelt at Thunder Mountain about 1901. 

photo courtesy of Rose Bolton 


Salmon to Leesburg, 14 miles -Leesburg to Leacock 
Station on Big Creek, 9 miles - Up Big Creek to Forney, 
12 miles - Forney to Three Forks (which form Camas 
Creek), 14 miles - Down Camas Creek to the Middle 
Fork, 14 miles - Up the Middlefork to the mouth of 
Marble Creek, 8 miles - Up Marble Creek to Mouth of 
Mule Creek. 20 miles -You are now in Thunder Mountain 
Country, but not the heart of it. Up Mule Creek, 9 miles 
and we are in the land of wealth. 

The combined population of Roosevelt and Thunder 
City grew to over five thousand, but some sources in- 
dicate that in 1902 there were as many as 22,000 men 
at work there on 1 1 ,000 claims. About fifty mining stock 
companies had formed, but only two had any money 
to work with. 

The boom was short-lived, as the town of Roosevelt 
was drowned by a landslide-formed lake in 1909. Water 
seeping through the workings, true to the predictions 
of many experienced miners, caused the slide. The 
mountain slid 2.5 miles down Mule Creek to the mouth 
of Monumental Creek Canyon in twenty six hours, dam- 
ming Monumental Creek. 

Today, the waters of this remote lake ripple over the 

remains of a ghost town that was perhaps the most 
isolated mining town in Idaho. 

References: /I'ecorder Herald August 1991, and Research notes of 
Marjorie B. Sims. 

The Roosevelt area after the landslide that dammed Monumental 

photo courtesy of Idaho Historical Society 


The following information has been taken from several sources, and includes some old names that may be of historical interest. It is largly taken from one 
old list of place names that, while not always notable for its statistical accuracy, is a good source of names no longer in use, and their origins. 

ADAMS CREEK: Flows NE from Gunsight Peak, disap- 
pears in sinks W of Leadore. After George Adams, early 

AGENCY CREEK: Forms near Lemhi Pass on the W 
slope of the Continental Divide. The old Lemhi Indian 
Agency was located near where the creek joins the 
Lemhi River. 

AGGIPAH MOUNTAIN: 9920 feet high, in Bighorn Crags, 
.5 miles SW of Ship Island Lake. Indian name of Salmon 
River, meaning "salmon". 

AJAX PEAK: 10,028 ft. On Idaho-Montana border in 
the Beaverhead Mountains. After nearby Ajax Mine in 

ALBERTSON SPRING: On west fork of Wimpey Creek 
about midway between Salmon River and state line. 
After Horace Albertson, who ranched in this vicinity. 
ALLAN MOUNTAIN: NW of Gibbonsville. After John F. 
Allan, early mining operator. 

ALLEN CREEK: Flows east to Moose Creek near mouth 
of Beartrap Creek. Frank Allen operated a ranch on 
this creek. 

ALLHANDS SPRING: About 2 miles east of Gilmore. 
After Bernard Allhands, who patented his land there in 

ALLISON CREEK: Heads west of Lem Peak then west- 
ward to Salmon River. After John F. Allison, pioneer 
packer and horseman. 

ALPINE CREEK: From Alpine Lake SW 3.5 miles to Wil- 
son Creek in the Middle Fork Salmon River drainage. 

ANDERSON CREEK: Trib. of Dahlonega Creek at Gib- 
bonsville. After George D. Anderson, pioneer mining 
man, and first Mayor of Gibbonsville. Also Anderson 

ANVIL CREEK: Heads about 2 miles SE of Forge Creek 
Hot Spring, flows SW 2.5 miles to Camas Creek. 
APAREJO CREEK: Trib. of Salmon River from the east. 
After the name of a Spanish pack saddle made of cow- 
hide, willows, and straw, found at mouth of stream. 
ARNETT CREEK: Trib. of Napias Creek near Leesburg. 
After surname of early day placer miner. 
AX PARK: Park east of headwaters of Hughes Creek 
Creek, 2 miles SW of Allan Mountain. 
BABY JOE GULCH: Heads .5 mile S. of Grizzly Mountain 
and runs S. to Canyon Creek drainage 1 mile W. of 
Leadville. Joe and Nellie Fannin came from Kentuky in 
1880. They had one child named Baby Joe, and named 
their claim after him. 

BADGER SPRINGS: In Sec. 14, T.23 N.R. 22 E. 
BAKER CREEK: From West, trib. of Withington Creek, 
one mile from Lemhi River. After William R. Baker, pi- 
oneer settler. 

BAKER: Post Office and station on Gilmore & Pitts- 
burgh railroad, ten miles SE of Salmon. After William 
R. Baker. 

BALDY CREEK: From east slope of Lemhi Range, east 
to Lemhi River, one mile N. of Tendoy. After George 
A. Martin, early day settler, nicknamed "Baldy" by his 


BALDY MOUNTAIN: 10,773 feet high, about 3 miles 
SE of Mountain Peak, on Continental Divide. 
BARNEY CREEK: From Salmon River mountains west 
to confluence with Nappias Creek at Leesburg. After 
Barney Sharkey. Formerly, Sharkey Creek, but changed 
to avoid duplication. 

BASIN CREEK: From east slope of Lemhi Range, flow- 
ing east to confluence with Hayden Creek. 
BASIN LAKE: At source of south branch of Basin Creek 
in Lemhi Range of mountains. 

BASIN LAKE CREEK: From south, trib. of Basin Creek, 
three miles from Hayden Creek. 
BATES GULCH: From east slope of Lemhi Range, to 
join Alder Creek, thus forming Dutch Creek. After Wil- 
liam Bates, a pioneer. 

BEAGLE CREEK: Along highway from Forney to Yel- 
lowjacket, trib. of Yellowjacket creek. After Beagle 
brothers, Al and Bill, early settlers. 
BEAR BASIN CREEK: From the north, trib. of Salmon 
River five miles below Middlefork. 
BEAR CREEK: From west slope of Lemhi Range, trib. 
of Little Lost River. 

BEAR VALLEY CREEK: From east slope of Lemhi Range, 
flowing east to confluence with Hayden Creek. 
BEAVER CREEK: from east, trib. of Big Creek, 5 miles 
from Salmon River. 

BEEHIVE PEAK: 9610 feet high, in Bighorn Crags at 
head of Goat Creek, 3 miles E. of Goat Mountain and 
5 miles S. of Salmon River. Named thus because of 

BELL MOUNTAIN: 11,612 feet, in Lemhi (Little Lost 
River) Range, on S. boundary of Lemhi County. After 
Robert N. Bell, mining engineer of Boise, Idaho. 
BIG BEAR CREEK: From west slope of Continental Di- 
vide, trib. of Hawley Creek. 

BIG BIRCH CREEK: Rising on E slopes of Spring and 
Big Windy Mountains, flowing E and SE to sinks in the 
desert, crossing the S. boundary of Lemhi County near 
longitude 1 13. 

BIG CREEK: Formed by confluence of Panther and 
Musgrove Creeks, flowing NW to Salmon River, 9 miles 
below Shoup. 

BIG DEER CREEK: From E slope of Cathedral Rock, 
flowing E to confluence with Big Creek. 
BIG HAT CREEK: From E slope of Salmon River Moun- 
tains, E to Salmon River, near 44 deg. 47 min. 
BIG HOLE PASS: A pass of the Continental Divide at 
7236 feet, traversed by a highway from Salmon River 
Valley to the Big Hole Basin in Montana. 
BIGHORN CRAGS: A group of lofty mountains between 
the Middlefork and Big Creek, trending from lower part 
of Wilson Creek NE to Salmon River. 
BIG JUREANO CREEK: (also Big Reneau Creek) From 
the N, trib. of Big Creek, 3 miles below Leacock's Ranch. 
After Jules Reneau (Renaud), French prospector, in 
this gulch as early as 1866. 

BIG SHEEPEATER CREEK: Trib. of Salmon River from 
the N, discharging about 6 miles W of Shoup. After 

Sheepeater Indian tribe. 

BIG SILVER LEAD CREEK: Trib. of Salmon River from 
the E, about I mile E of Northfork. 
BIG SQUAW CREEK: From south slope of Bitterroot 
Mountains, trib. of Salmon River, 1 mile W of Indianola. 
BIG WINDY PEAK: Lemhi Range, 3 miles south of Spring 

BIRCH CREEK; From W, trib. of Salmon River 2 miles 
south of Lake Creek. 

BIRCH GULCH: From W, trib. of Big Creek, 6 miles 
below Big Deer Creek. 

BIRD CREEK: From Salmon River mountains, flowing 
E to Salmon River, 1 mile S of Comet Creek. 
BIRDSEYE CREEK: From NW, trib. of Silver Creek, about 
9 miles from Camas Creek. After James W. Birdseye, 
early day county surveyor. 

BLACK MOUNTAIN: 9521 feet high, near lat. 44 deg. 
51 min. long., 114 deg. 21 min. 
BLACKBIRD CREEK: From Blackbird Mountain, SW to 
confluence with Big Creek, 5.5 miles south of Lea- 
cock's ranch. 

BLACKBIRD MOUNTAIN: 9113 feet high, near lat. 45 
deg. 07 min., long 114 deg. 25 min. 
BLUENOSE MOUNTAIN: 8660 feet high, in Bitterroot 
Range on boundary between Idaho and Montana, at 
source of Bitterroot River of Montana and of Owl and 
Sam James Creeks in Idaho. 

BOB MOORE CREEK: From east slope of Salmon River 
mountains to Salmon River near Carmen. After Robert 
Moore, pioneer settler. 

BOBTAIL CREEK: From Bighorn Crags, west to Mid- 
dlefork one half mile south of Fox Creek. 
BOHANNON CREEK: From west slope of Continental 
Divide, trib. of Lemhi River. After Isaiah Bohannon, pi- 
oneer settler. 

BOOMER CANYON: From the west, trib. of Kirtley 
Creek. After A. H. Boomer, contractor, whose camp 
was here during construction of a canal. 
BOULDER CREEK: From Bluenose Mountain, south to 
Salmon River at Shoup. 

BOYLE CREEK: Forms south of Goldstar Gulch, flows 
W 3 miles then SW 1.5 miles to Salmon River, 10 miles 
north of Salmon. (Formerly Cherry Creek and now 
Tower Creek.) After Michael Boyle, Leesburg pioneer, 
who first settled on land at the mouth of this creek. 
BRIDGE CREEK: From NE, trib. of Warm Spring Creek 
about 3 miles from Loon Creek. 
BRINEY CREEK: From east, trib. of Salmon River at W. 
A. Briney's ranch, 15 miles south of Salmon. After W. 
A. Briney, early settler. 

BRONCHO CREEK: From north, trib. of Horse Creek, 
3 miles from the Salmon River. 
BROOMTAIL CREEK: Trib. of Little Horse Creek 1.5 
miles from Horse Creek. 

BRAY CREEK: From Hi Peak NE, to Hayden Creek near 
its source. After Mark Bray, pioneer settler. 
BRUCE CANYON: Out of Spring Mountain, eastward, 
to Little Birch Creek, south of Lemhi Union Gulch. After 


A. T. Bruce, pioneer mining prospector. 
BUCK CREEK: From SW, trib. of Bear Vally Creek 3 
miles from the letter's source. 

BULL CREEK: From west slope of Continental divide, 
trib. of Hawley Creek. 

BURNS GULCH: From the east, trib. of Salmon River, 
1 mile below Wagonhammer Creek. Here old man Burns 
fell from the cliff into the Salmon River and was 

CAB CREEK: From SW, trib. of Timber Creek 5 miles 
from summit of Lemhi Range. 

CABIN CREEK: From east slope of Lemhi Range, be- 
tween Yellow Peak and Flat Iron Mountain, NE to Lemhi 
River I mile north of Leadore. Also called Timber Creek. 
CABIN CREEK: From Sleeping Deer Mountain, SW, to 
Loon Creek about 10 miles from Middlefork. 
CABIN CREEK: From west, trib. of Panther Creek 3 
miles south of Forney. Also called Ramey Creek after 
John S. Ramey, first sheriff of Lemhi County. Also called 
Moodie Creek after Joseph Moodie, ranch owner. 
CABIN CREEK: Trib. of Indian Creek due west from 
Ulysses Mountain. Also called Marsing Creek after Nels 
0. Marsing, pioneer of the district. 
CACHE CREEK: From Sleeping Deer Mountain, west to 
Loon Creek, very near Middlefork. 
CAMAS CREEK: Chief trib. of Middlefork River from 
Lemhi County; rising in Salmon River Mountains, flow- 
ing NW to Middlefork River. 

CAMP CREEK: From Haystack Mountain south to join 
Nappias Creek at Leesburg. After Chris Camp. 
CAMP CREEK: See also Massie Creek and Nate Creek. 
CANYON CREEK: From west slope of Continental Di- 
vide, trib. of Lemhi River at Leadore. 
CARMEN CREEK: From west slope of Continental Di- 
vide, trib. of Salmon River, about 5 miles north of Salm- 
on. Misspelled and named after Benjamin and Martha 
J. Carman. He had a sawmill on this creek about 1868. 
CARROLL CREEK: Out of Mogg Mountain north to con- 
fluence with Hayden Creek, next west of Mogg Creek. 
CARY CREEK: East branch of Geertson Creek. After 
Cary Wright, early day mining promoter. 
CASTLE CREEK: From the east. trib. of Camas Creek, 
3 miles above Meyers Cove. 

CATHEDRAL ROCK PEAK: 9411 feet high, in Bighorn 
Crags, about 10 miles east of Middlefork, at the head 
of Wilson and Clear Creeks. Named for supposed re- 
semblance to a cathedral. 

CAVE CREEK: Trib. of Camas Creek from the north, 1 
mile below the mouth of Yellowjacket Creek. 
CAYUSE CREEK: From the north to confluence with 
Horse Creek, about 10 miles from Salmon River. 
CEDAR GULCH: From west slope of Continental divide, 
trib. of Lemhi River. 

CHAMBERLAIN CREEK: From west slope of Continen- 
tal Divide, trib. of Eighteenmile Creek, Lemhi drainage. 
After George Chamberlain, one of the original locators 
of the Copper Queen Mine. 
CHINA GULCH: From SE entering Salmon River op- 

posite Shoup. Was once placer mined by Chinese. 
CHINA SPRINGS: On side of Lake Mountain, draining 
into Deep Creek. Three Chinese men were killed here 
for their gold dust in early days. 
CHIPS CREEK: From Baldy Mountain, trib. of Pollard 
Canyon west of Salmon. After Chips Evans, old timer 
of the district. 

CLEAR CREEK: From Bighorn Crags, heading in vicinity 
of Mt. Maguire, flowing NE to confluenc with Big Creek, 
about 3 miles from Salmon River. 
CLEAR CREEK: See Stephenson Creek. 
CLEAR LAKE: On west slope of Continental Divide, 
drained by Stephenson Creek. 

CLIFF CREEK: From north, trib. of Big Creek 1 mile 
below Leacock's ranch. 

CLIMB CREEK: From west, trib. of Timber Creek 2 miles 
from its source. 

COBALT CREEK: South branch of Blackbird Creek. 
Named for adjacent deposits of Cobalt ore. 
COLSON CREEK: From north, trib. of Salmon River. 
After Colson brothers; early packers and miners. 
COLT CREEK: From NW, tributary of Horse Creek which 
it joins about 3 miles from Salmon River. 
COMET CREEK: From Salmon River mountains, flowing 
east to Salmon River, 8 miles above Northfork. 
COOPER CREEK: From south, trib. of Hayden Creek 
next above Tobias Creek. After J. Newt. Cooper, pio- 
neer stockman. 

COPPER CREEK: From Swan Peak NW to confluence 
with Big Creek 6 miles north of Forney. 
COPPER QUEEN MINE: On Agency Creek in Sec 14 & 
15, T. 19 N. R. 25 E. 

CORN CREEK: Trib. of Salmon River from the north. 
CORRAL CREEK: Trib. of Indian Creek from the east. 
COW CREEK: From west slope of Continental Divide, 
trib. of Agency Creek from the south. 
COVE CREEK: From north, trib. of Salmon River about 
10 miles west of Shoup. 

CRAMER CREEK: Trib. of Salmon River from the north, 
about 4 miles W of Middle Fork. After Jack Cramer, 
pioneer mining prospector. 

CRONK'S CANYON: A box canyon of Salmon River 
about 3 miles long, extending north from a point about 
1 mile north of the mouth of Pahsimeroi River. After 
James Cronk, early day cattleman. 
CRUIKSHANK CREEK: Trib. of Canyon Creek from west 
slope of Continental Divide, east of Leadore. After Al- 
exander Cruikshank, a scout for General Howard dur- 
ing the Nez Perce flight. He settled here in 1878. 
DALY CREEK: Trib. of Moose Creek. After surname of 
an early placer miner. 

DAHLONEGA CREEK: From west slope of Continental 
Divide, trib. of North Fork at Gibbonsville. After Dah- 
lonega, Georgia, whence came early settlers on this 


DAN DAVIS CREEK: From the east, trib. of Big Creek 
5 miles below Big Deer Creek. After the man who 
worked the gold placers along its course. Formerly Trail 

DAVIS CANYON: From NE, trib. of Freeman Creek. Af- 
ter J. W. Davis, early settler. 

D. C. CREEK: From SW, trib. of Lemhi river. After initials 
of David and Criderman, pioneer stockmen. Also D. C. 
Gulch and D. C. Bar, SE of Lemhi. 
DEEP CREEK: From Lake Mountain NW to Big Creek a 
short distance south of Leacock's ranch. 
DEER CREEK: From Portland Mountain NW to Texas 

DEER CREEK: See Doe Creek, Hawley Creek, Bear Val- 
ley Creek, Degen Creek. 

DEGEN CREEK: From east slope of Degen Mountain, 
east to Salmon River. After Joseph Degen, early settler. 
DEGEN MOUNTAIN: 8783 feet high, overlooking drain- 
age of Degen and Iron Creeks. After Joseph Degen. 
DEVIL'S CANYON: From SE, trib. of eighteenmile Creek 
7 miles from Lemhi River. 

DERIAR CREEK: Trib. of Salmon River from the west, 
opposite Carman Creek. After John Deriar, who in early 
days had land holdings here. 

DIAMOND CREEK: From east slope of Salmon River 
mountains, flowing east to Salmon River. 
DITCH CREEK: From Allan Mountain, trib. of Hughes 
Creek. Caused by a placer miner's ditch diverting the 

DIVIDE CREEK: Trib. of Eighteenmile Creek. 
DOE CREEK: From SW, trib. of Bear Valley Creek about 
4 miles from Hayden Creek. Formerly Deer Creek. 
DONNELLY GULCH: From the north, trib. of Salmon 
River 1 mile west of Northfork. After James Donnelly, 
pioneer settler there. 

DRY CANYON: West slope of Continental Divide, to sinks 
in Sec. 30T.15 N.R.28 E. 

DRY CREEK: Trib. of McKim Creek from SE, 2 miles 
from Salmon River. 

DRY GULCH: From the east, trib. of Lemhi River at Sec 
5, T. 18 N.R.24 E. 
DRY GULCH: See Dry Creek 

DUCK CREEK: From north, trib. of Camas Creek 3 miles 
below Meyers Cove. 

DUMMY CREEK: From the east, trib. of Salmon River. 
After two mutes, men who were partners on a ranch 

DUMP CREEK: Outlet of Moose Creek, rising near lat. 
45 deg 20 min, flowing north to Salmon River about 4 
miles west of Northfork. 

DUTCH CREEK: Formed by confluence of Alder Creek 
and Bates Gulch, flowing NE to Lemhi River. 
EAGLE PEAK: 8245 feet high, 8 miles NE of Northfork. 
EAST FORK HAYDEN CREEK: From north slope of Mill 
Mountain, north to confluence with Hayden Creek 9 
miles from Lemhi River. 

EBENEZER CREEK: Trib. of Salmon River from the 
north, below Owl Creek. After Ebenezer Snell, early 

resident there. 

EIGHTEENMILE CREEK: From Viola (Eighteenmile) 
Mountain, north to confluence with Lemhi River at Lea- 
dore. Old timers supposed it to be 18 miles in length. 
EIGHTMILE CREEK: From east slope of Lemhi Range, 
flowing NE to confluence with Lemhi River 8 miles be- 
low Leadore. 

ELDORADO CANYON: North branch of Geertson Creek, 
after the name of an old gold mine there. 
ELDORADO PEAK: 1 1 ,000 feet high, on state boundary, 
about 1 mile SE of McGarvey Peak, near lat 45 deg 15 
min. After name of a mine on its SW slope. 
ELI CREEK: From west slope of Lemhi Range, north 
and west to Salmon River 5 miles south of Salmon. 
After Eli Minert, pioneer settler. 
ENNIS GULCH: From NE, trib. of Pahsimeroi River 3 
miles from Salmon River. After Jack Ennis, pioneer set- 
tler of the district. 

EVERSON CREEK: From Lemhi Range, tributary of Lee 
Creek. After John Everson, pioneer ranchman. 
EZRA CREEK: From the west, trib. of Salmon River. 
Between Ringle and Shep Creek. After Ezra Orn, pio- 
neer packer and freighter. 

FALLS CREEK: From south slope of Mill Mountain, SW 
to confluence with Pattison Creek. After Lorenzo Falls, 
pioneer stockman. 

FAWN CREEK: From SE, trib. of Big Creek .5 mile below 

FINSTUR CREEK: From east slope of Salmon River 
mountains, east to confluence with Salmon River op- 
posite Carman Creek. Next south of Deriar Creek. After 
Jacob Finstur (Feinsteur), old time settler here. 
FLAT IRON MOUNTAIN: Lemhi Range, at headwaters 
of Timber and Big Creeks. Also called Pahsimeroi 

FLUME CREEK: From west slope of Continental Divide, 
north branch of Agency Creek. 

FORD CREEK: From SW, trib. of Bear Valley Creek 1 
mile above its mouth. After Albert H. Ford, early mining 

FORGE CREEK: From north, trib. of Camas Creek about 
8 miles from Middlefork. An old forge was left here by 
early day miners. 

FORNEY: Early post office and stage station on Panther 
Creek at Fourth of July Creek. After Henry Forney, 
early settler. 

FORNEY CREEK: Trib. of Panther Creek at Forney, 
flowing in from the west. Formerly Fourth of July Creek. 
FOX CREEK: From Bighorn Crags west to Middlefork 
River .5 mile south of Waterfall Creek. 
FRANK HALL CREEK: SE trib. of Cruikshank Creek. Af- 
ter a pioneer ranchman of that creek. 
FREEMAN CREEK: Trib. of Carmen Creek, rising in the 
peak of the same name. (Also called Oro Cache Creek) 
FREEMAN PEAK: 11.002 feet high, near Continental 
Divide, just off state line. After James Freeman, pio- 
FURNACE CREEK: From the east, trib. of Camas Creek, 


6 miles SE of Meyers Cove. 

GAME CREEK: North from Lemhi Range to Timber 
Creek. Formerly called Trail Creek. 
GANT CREEK: Trib. of Big Creek from west, 3 miles 
below Big Deer Creek. After John Cant who mined in 
this creek and also was discoverer of Henry Ford's 
Redbird Mine. 

GARDEN CREEK: From Bighorn Crags, flowing NE to 
Big Creek near Salmon River. 

GEERTSON CREEK: From west slope of Continental 
Divide, trib. of Lemhi River. After Lars C. Geertson, 
pioneer settler. 

GERMAN GULCH: From the west, trib. of Pine Creek, 
2.5 miles from Salmon River. 

GIBBONSVILLE: Mining town, at confluence of Dahlo- 
nega and Northfork Creeks. After Col. John Gibbon, 
commander of U. S. troops at battle of the Big Hole 
in 1877. 

GIBBS CREEK: From south, trib. of Owl Creek, nearly 
opposite St. Clair Creek (Wallace Creek). After John 
Gibbs, who mined on this stream. 
GILMORE: Mining town at headwaters of Lemhi River 
(Texas Creek). Station on Gilmore & Pittsburg Railroad, 
17 miles south of Leadore. Name misspelled, after John 
T. (Jack) Gilmer, one time manager of Gilmer & Sals- 
bury Stage Line. 

GOAT CREEK: In Bighorn Crags, flowing NW from Goat 
Lake, to confluence with Middlefork river near Salmon 
River. After the wild goat. 

GOAT LAKE: 1 mile north of Beehive Peak, drained by 
Goat Creek to Middlefork. 

GOAT MOUNTAIN: Sec 1 1 & 12 T 17 N R 25 E. Ten 
miles north of Leadore. 

GOLDSTAR GULCH: Runs 2 miles SW to Tower Creek. 
Originally called Silverstar Gulch because of Silverstar 
mine located here by Wash Stapleton of Butte. Said to 
be the first patented mine in Idaho. Name changed 
when USES put up the wrong sign. 
GOLDSTONE MINE: On west slope of Continental di- 
vide near source of Pratt Creek. 
GORLEY CREEK: From Baldy Mountain, west of Salm- 
on, flowing east to Salmon River. After James Gorley, 
early day freighter and packer. 

GRANITE MOUNTAIN: 6351 feet high, 4 miles west of 

GRASSY CREEK: From SE, trib. of Yellowjacket Creek, 
2.5 miles above Yellowjacket mining camp. 
GROUSE CREEK: From the east, trib. of Middlefork Riv- 

GROVE CREEK: From east slope of Rocky Peak, east 
to confluence with Timber Creek. 
GUNBARREL CREEK: Trib. of Salmon River from the 
north at Sec 35 T. 24 N.R. 14 E. Creek is enclosed by 
vertical cliffs -straight as a gunbarrel. 
GUNSIGHT PEAK: lOmiles SE of Leadore. 
GUTZMAN CREEK: From west slope of Lemhi Range, 
west to Salmon River 10 miles south of Salmon. After 
John Gutzman, ranch settler on this creek. Formerly 

Ten Mile Creek. 

HAGGIN CREEK: From SE, trib. of Yellowjacket Creek 
at Yellowjacket mining camp. After J. B. Haggin, fa- 
mous mining man who once operated at this camp. 
Formerly Trail Creek. 

HAMMER CREEK: From north, trib. of Camas Creek, 
4 miles below Meyers Cove. 

HAMMEREAN CREEK: From west, trib. of Northfork. 
After a placer miner named Hammerean who worked 
this creek in the 1870's. 

HAMP CREEK: From SE, trib. of Big Creek 2 miles below 
Blackbird Creek. After Oren Hamp, pioneer of district, 
(formerly Spring Creek) 

HAWLEY CREEK: From western slope of Continental 
Divide, trib. of Eighteenmile Creek, above Leadore. Af- 
ter E. R. Hawley, pioneer rancher on this stream. 
HAYDEN CREEK: From Long Mountain and Hi Peak of 
Lemhi Range, flowing east and NE to Lemhi River at 
Lemhi. After James Hayden, early day freighter, who 
with others was murdered by hostile Indians on Big 
Birch Creek in 1877. 

HAYNES CREEK: From east slope of Lemhi Range, east 
to Lemhi River opposite Kenney Creek. After Norman 
I. Andrews, early settler on this creek whose nickname 
was Haynes Andrews. 

HELLMAN CREEK: Formerly Warm Spring Creek, from 
west slope of Lemhi Range, west to Salmon River at 
Adam Hellman's ranch. 

HENRY CREEK: Originates 2 miles NE of Lake Mountain 
and flows E to Salmon River. After "Bronco" Henry V. 
Williams, early settler. 

HI PEAK: 10,971feet, nearlat.44deg. 41 min., Iong.113 
deg 50 min. Companion name to Lem Peak. 
HOCKENSMITH CREEK: Formerly Bridge Creek. From 
the east, trib. of Dan Davis Creek 2 miles from Big 
Creek. After James H. Hockensmith, early miner here 
as early as 1866. 

HOGLE CREEK: Formerly S. Fork Moyer Creek. From 
Taylor Mountain NW to Moyer Creek 5 miles from Pan- 
ther Creek. After old man Hogle, miner, killed here in 
early days by old man Moyer. 

HOODOO CREEK: From Yellowjacket mountains, S. to 
Yellowjacket Creek 3 miles SW of Yellowjacket camp. 
So named because the miners, finding no placer gold 
in its bars, decided it was jinxed or hoodooed.. 
HORNET CREEK: From Haystack Mountain east to 
Moose Creek. Named after the many hornet nests 
found along the creek banks. 

HORSE CREEK: SW from Bitterroot Range, trib. of 
Salmon River. 

HORSEFLY CREEK: From NE, trib. of Loon Creek about 
7 miles form Middlefork. 

HOT CREEK: From Sheldon Peak SW to Warm Spring 
Creek about 4 miles from Loon Creek. 
HOT SPRING CREEK: rising in thermal springs 7 miles 
SE of Salmon, flowing NW to Salmon River 1 mile south 
of town. 


HUGHES CREEK: From south slope of Bitterroot Moun- 
tains, trib. of Northfork Creek. After Barney Hughes, 
pioneer placer miner on this creek, one of the original 
discoverers of Alder Gulch, Montana. 
HULL CREEK: Formerly Spring Creek, from west, trib. 
of Northfork Creek. After Joseph Hull, early day settler. 
INDIAN CREEK: From south slope of Bitterroot Moun- 
tains, trib. of Salmon River 10 miles west of Northfork. 
INDIAN PEAK: 3.5 miles NE of Ulysses, near lat. 45 
deg. 30 min., long 114 deg. 13 min. 
INYO CREEK: From east, trib. of Pattison Creek. 
IRON CREEK: From Salmon River Mountains, flows SE 
to confluence with Salmon River at Sec 15, T 18, N R 
21 E. 

ITALIAN GULCH: Heads SE of Grizzly Mountain, runs 
2 miles south to Canyon Creek drainage just east of 
Leadore. After the Italian workers whose labor at the 
charcoal kilns supplied coke for Nicholia. They lived in 
Italian Gulch. 

JACK CREEK: From Yellowjacket mountains west to 

JACKASS CREEK: From NW, trib. of Yellowjacket Creek 
2 miles from Camas. 

JACK CRAMER CANYON: North branch of Kirtley 
Creek. After a pioneer miner here. 
JACK SMITH GULCH: Trib. of Mill Creek, from the west. 
5 miles from Lemhi River. After a pioneer cattleman. 
JAKE'S CANYON: 4 miles north of Leadore. After Jacob 
Yearian, pioneer ranchman. 

JENNY CREEK: From west, trib. of Yellowjacket Creek 
4.5 miles above Camas Creek. 

J. FELL CREEK: From the south, trib. of Camas Creek 
near its source. 

JOHN KADLETZ CREEK: From SW, trib. of Lemhi River. 
After early rancher at mouth of creek, who was also a 
government blacksmith at the Lemhi Indian Agency. 
JOE'S CREEK: From east, between Haggin and Beagle 
Creeks, trib. of Yellojacket Creek. After Joe Anderson 
who mined there. 

JUNCTION: Old town that once flourished as station 
on stage road between Salmon, Idaho and Bannock, 
Montana. Named thus because it was at the junction 
of the Bannock Road from the east and the Mormon 
Road from the south. Lost its prestige in 1910, when 
the railroad came and built Leadore, only 1.5 miles 
away. Founded by A. M. Stevenson. 
KENNEY CREEK: From west slope of Continental Di- 
vide flows 9 miles to Lemhi River. After Dr. George A. 
Kenney, pioneer physician who ranched at the mouth 
of the creek. 

KERR CREEK: From Parker Mountain south to Warm 
Springs Creek. After old Jim Kerr, a pioneer. 
KIRTLEY CREEK: From west slope of Continental Di- 
vide, trib. of Lemhi River. After James L. Kirtley, pio- 
neer rancher. 

LAKE CREEK: From east slope of Salmon River Moun- 
tains, trib. of Salmon River. Drains Williams Lake. 
LAKE CREEK: See Basin Creek, Colson Creek, Putt 

Creek, Timber Creek, Spud Creek. 
LAKE MOUNTAIN: 9274 feet, in Salmon River Range. 
Source of Iron, Lake and Williams Creeks to the east 
and of Deep Creek to the west. 
LEACOCK'S RANCH: Homestead of Abner C. Leacock, 
at confluence of Nappias and Big Creeks. 
LEADORE: Town and station on Gilmore & Pittsburg 
Railroad. After lead mines of the area. 
LEE CREEK: From east slope of Mill Mountain, Lemhi 
Range, trib. of Lemhi River 9 miles NW of Leadore. 
After Charles Lee, pioneer settler. 
LEESBURG: Old mining town, scene of the historic gold 
mining stampede of 1866 and first permanent white 
settlement of what is now Lemhi County. After General 
Robert E. Lee, named by friends of the confederacy, 
who led the great stampede. 

LEMHI PASS: Where Captain Merriweather Lewis of the 
Lewis and Clark exploration party crossed the Conti- 
nental Divide on August 12, 1805, to the Columbia Riv- 
er basin, at the source of Agency Creek, Idaho. 
LEMHI RIVER: About 60 miles long, flowing NW to Salm- 
on River at Salmon town. Named by the Mormon col- 
ony which settled at old Fort Lemhi. Name misspelled 
from the name of King Limhi in the Book of Mormon. 
LEMHI UNION GULCH: East from Spring Mountain to 
Little Birch Creek north of Bruce Canyon. After name 
of a mining company operating here. 
LEWIS CREEK: Formerly Moose Creek, trib. of North- 
fork Creek, 9 miles north of Gibbonsville. After Captain 
Merriweather Lewis. 

LICK CREEK: Trib. of Northfork Creek 2 miles south of 

LIME CREEK: From the east, trib. of Salmon River op- 
posite Degen Creek. Name because of adjacent lime 

LITTLE BIRCH CREEK: Flowing SE to Big Birch Creek. 
LITTLE DEER CREEK: From the south, trib. of Big Creek 
about 5 miles below Leacock's ranch. 
LITTLE EIGHTMILE CREEK: From west slope of Con- 
tinental Divide, trib. of Lemhi River. 
LITTLE FOURTH OF JULY CREEK: rising on south slope 
of Stein Mountain, flowing SW to Fourth of July Creek, 
2 miles from Salmon River. 

LITTLE HAT CREEK: From Table Mountain east to Big 
Hat Creek, 2 miles from Salmon River. 
LITTLE HORSE CREEK: Flowing west to Horse Creek, 
about 9 miles from Salmon River. 
LITTLE RENEAU CREEK: From north, trib. of Big Creek 
5 miles below Leacock's ranch. After Jules Reneau, 
early trench placer miner. 

LITTLE LOST RIVER: Rising in Lemhi Range at bound- 
ary between Lemhi and Custer counties, flowing SE to 
sinks in desert east of Howe post office, Butte County. 
From source it forms 20 miles of county boundary. 
LITTLE MILL CREEK: From south, trib. of Hayden Creek, 
1 mile from Lemhi. 

LITTLE SHEEP CREEK: Trib. of Sheep Creek. 
LITTLE SHEEPEATER CREEK: From NW, trib. of Salmon 


River 3 miles west of Shoup. 

LITTLE SILVER LEAD CREEK: From west slope of Stein 
Mountain, SW to Big Silver Lead Creek about 1 mile 
from Salmon River. 

LITTLE TICK CREEK: (Formerly Little Woodtick Creek) 
From Swan Peak west to Tick Creek 2 miles from Big 

lowjacket Creek 2.5 miles below the mining camp. 
LONG MOUNTAIN: Lemhi Range, near lat. 44 deg. 44 
min., long. 113 deg 50 min. 

LONG TOM CREEK: From Long Tom mountain, south 
to Salmon River 1 mile east of Middlefork. 
LONG TOM MOUNTAIN: 8154 feet, 4 miles north of 
Salmon River at mouth of Middlefork River. 
LOON CREEK: From SE, trib. of Middlefork River. 
Southern boundary of county for 12 miles. 
MAGUIRE MOUNTAIN: 10,070 feet. Big Horn Crags 
about 6 miles east of Middlefork River. After Don Ma- 
guire, Ogden, Utah mining engineer & geologist. 
MCGARVEY PEAK:(Monument Peak) 11,000 feet on 
border of Idaho and Montana. After old man McGarvey, 
who had fish traps at present site of Salmon as early 
as 1865. 

MCKIM CREEK: From Lemhi Range west to Salmon 
River. After David McKim, pioneer rancher here. 
MCDEVITT CREEK: From east slope of Lemhi Range, 
to Lemhi River. After Neal McDevitt, early settler. 
MCNIRNEY CREEK: From NE, trib. of Loon Creek .5 
mile east of Horsefly Creek. After Dan McNirney, pio- 
neer rancher and trapper of upper Middlefork. 
MAHONEY CREEK: From NE, trib. of Warm Spring Creek 
about 8 miles above Loon Creek. After Ezra Mahoney 
whose pack train followed this stream during the sea- 
son of the Thunder Mountain boom of 1902. 
MARSING CREEK: see Cabin Creek. 
MASSIE CREEK: (formerly Camp Creek) From west, 
trib. of Salmon River 3 miles south of Lake Creek. After 
Henry Massie, old soldier & pioneer settler of district. 
MEADOW CREEK: NE from Meadow Lake to Texas Creek 
near Gilmore. 

MEADOW LAKE: 3 miles SW of Gilmore. 
MEYERS COVE: Post Office on Camas Creek, formerly 
situated at Singiser Mine on Arrastra Creek. After Hon. 
B. F. Meyers, ex-congressman of Pennsylvania, who 
took up the land in 1896 and also mined on Arrastra 

MIDDLEFORK PEAK: 9125 feet, in Yellowjacket Moun- 
tains 4 miles east of Mormon ranch. 
MIDDLEFORK RIVER: North from Sawtooth Mountains, 
trib. of Salmon River. For 36 miles it is western bound- 
ary of Lemhi County. 

MILK CREEK: From Gunsight Peak NW, trib. of Adams 

MILL CREEK: From east slope of Mill Mountain NW to 
Lemhi River. 

MILL MOUNTAIN: Lemhi Range 2 miles east of Mogg 

MINK CREEK: From Black Mountain, NW to Panther 

MOCCASIN CREEK: From Salmon River Mountains, NW 
to Nappias Creek 2 miles above Leacock's ranch. 
MOGG MOUNTAIN: Lemhi Range, overlooking Hayden 
Creek to the N. and Morse Creek to the SW. After Fred 
Mogg, pioneer. 

MOLLIE GULCH: 6 miles NW of Leadore. After Miss 
Mollie Yearian, later Mrs J. H. Clarke of Salmon. 
MOOSE CREEK: Rising in Haystack Mountain, flowing 
E the N to Salmon River 6 miles W of Northfork. Di- 
verted by work of placer miners, it discharges via Dump 
Creek. After many moose antlers found there. 
MORGAN CREEK: SW from west slope of Lemhi Range 
to Pattison Creek 1 mile west of May Post Office. After 
John Morgan, pioneer horsegrower. 
MORMON RANCH: On east bank of Middlefork River 
about 4 miles N of Camas Creek. Located in early days 
by men supposed to be Mormons. 
MORSE CREEK: From Mogg Mountain, SW to Pattison 
Creek 2 miles S of May. After old man Morse, early 
day stockman. 

MOUNTAIN CREEK: From the south, trib. of Hayden 
Creek 5 miles from Lemhi River. Formerly Meadow 

MOYER CREEK: From Taylor Mountain NW to Big Creek 
2.5 miles N of Forney. After Charles Moyer, early pros- 

MUDDY CREEK: From E slope of Lemhi Range to Lemhi 
River just above mouth of McDevitt Creek. 
MULKEY CREEK: From Lemhi Range N to Lemhi River 
6 miles SE of Salmon. After Elijah Mulkey, early rancher 
and Leesburg Pioneer. 

MUSGROVE CREEK: From Bighorn Crags, SE to Pan- 
ther Creek 2 miles N of Forney. After Major H. P. Mus- 
grove, Civil War veteran and early miner. 
MUSTANG CREEK: From the S, trib to Horse Creek 8 
miles from Salmon River. 

NAPOLEON GULCH: From E slope of Napoleon Peak, 
E to Salmon River 6 miles above Northfork. 
NAPOLEON PEAK: 7433 feet, 4 miles S of Northfork 
Post Office. 

NAPIAS CREEK: From W slope of Salmon River Moun- 
tains, SW to Big Creek at Leacock's ranch. After the 
Shoshone Indian name for money, because gold was 
found there. 

NATE CREEK: Trib. of Yellowjacket Creek, E from Mid- 
dlefork Peak. After Nate Smith, discoverer of gold on 
Yellowjacket and Loon Creeks. Formerly Camp Creek. 
NEZ PERCE CREEK: From E slope of Lemhi Range N 
to Texas Creek. 

NEZ PERCE CREEK: Eastern branch of Dahlonega 

NICHOLIA: Old mining camp on Nicholia Creek, S of 
Viola Peak. After Ralph Nichols, manager of Viola Mine. 
NORTHFORK CREEK: From N to Salmon River at the 


great bend of this stream to the west. 
NORTH MOUNTAIN: 3 miles E of Stein Mountain, over- 
looking drainage of Fourth of July and Sheep Creeks. 
Named because of an immense natural "N" formed in 
the sliderock of its S slope, visible from Salmon. 
OPAL CREEK: From Taylor Mountain W to Panther 
Creek 5 miles W of that mountain. After opal deposits 
found there. 

OPAL LAKE: On Opal Creek 2.5 miles from Panther 

OWL CREEK: From S slope of Bitterroot Mountains, 
trib. of Salmon River 12 miles W of Shoup. 
OTTER CREEK: From Taylor Mountain SW to Panther 

PAHSIMEROI RIVER: S boundary of Lemhi County from 
about long 113 deg 49 min, W to Salmon River. Sho- 
shone Indian name for clear water. 
PANTHER CREEK: From W slope of Salmon River 
Mountains between Black and Taylor Mountains, S 
branch of Big Creek which it forms by confluence with 
Musgrove Creek about 2 miles N of Forney. 
PARADISE CREEK: From Hi Peak, trib. of Hayden Creek, 
next above Wade Creek. 

PARKS CREEK: Trib. of Salmon River opposite Indian 
Creek. After old man Parks, prospector there. 
PARKER CREEK: From Parker Mountain W to Warm 
Springs Creek 1 mile above Warm Springs Ranger Sta- 

PARKER MOUNTAIN: At head of Bronco Creek about 
.5 mile from boundary of Lemhi and Idaho Counties. 
After old man Parker, assayer and prospector of Chai- 
ns, who mined here. 

PATTEE CREEK: From W slope of Continental Divide, 
trib. of Lemhi River. After Joseph L Pattee, early ranch- 
er there. 

PATTERSON POST OFFICE: On Pattison Creek. Name 
misspelled from Ross Pattison who ranched here in 
early days and discovered the tungsten mines on the 

PATTISON CREEK: SW and W from the Lemhi Range 
to Pahsimeroi River. After Ross Pattison. 
PAYNE CREEK: From SW, trib. of Iron Creek 3 miles 
from Salmon River. After Ed Payne. 
PEEL TREE CREEK: From SW, trib. of Iron Creek 3 miles 
from Salmon River. Porcupines peeled the bark from 
most of the trees. 

PEPPER CREEK: From Salmon River Mountains N to 
Deep Creek, 7 miles from Big Creek. After the abun- 
dance of the weed locally known as pepper plant. 
PETERSON CREEK: From W slope of Continental Di- 
vide, trib. of Lemhi River. After William Peterson, early 

PERROW (PERREAU) CREEK: From Baldy Mountain E 
to Salmon River 6 miles S of Salmon. After John Per- 
reau, a frenchman who mined here in the 1870's. 
PHELAN CREEK: NW from Phelan Peak to Nappias 
Creek 4 miles below Leesburg. After Lawrence W. Phe- 
lan who came from N.Y. via Virginia City, Mt. in 1866. 

PHELAN PEAK: 8887 feet, in Salmon River Mountains, 
3 miles W of Baldy Mountain. 

PIERCE CREEK: from W slope of Continental Divide, 
trib. of Northfork Creek 7 miles N of Gibbonsville. After 
John Pierce, early placer miner. 
PINE CREEK: From Haystack Mountain NW to Salmon 
River 1.5 miles below Shoup. 

POINT OF ROCK PEAK: 8352 feet high, 5 miles SE of 

POISON CREEK: E branch of Eighteenmile Creek. 
Named by Steve Mahaffey Sr., who lost stock there 
due to ingestion of larkspur and death camas. 
POISON CREEK: From W slope of Lemhi Range to 
Salmon River at Sec. 23, T 18 N R 21 E. 
POLE CREEK: W from Yellowjacket Mountins to Mid- 
dlefork River 2 miles N of Mormon ranch. After stand 
of lodgepole pines. 

POLLARD CANYON: Trib. of Jesse Creek 2 miles W of 
Salmon. After Frank M. Pollard, pioneer rancher. 
PONY CREEK: From SE, trib. of Nappias Creek 2.5 miles 
below Leesburg. 

POPE SHENON MINE: On W slope of Lemhi Range, 7 
miles S of Salmon. 

PORPHYRY CREEK: From Quartzite Mountain, SE to 
Panther Creek at Forney. 

POWDER CREEK: From E, trib. of Loon Creek 1.5 miles 
from Middlefork River. 

POWDERHORN GULCH: Originates .5 mile W of Baldy 
Mountain; runs 2 miles S then 4.5 miles SW. 
PRATT CREEK: From W slope of Continental Divide SW 
to Lemhi River. After Jerome Pratt, first settler on this 

PROSPECT CREEK: From W, trib. of Timber Creek 2.5 
miles from its head. 

PRUVAN CREEK: Trib. of Sheep Creek E of Eagle Peak. 
After John Pruvan, Civil War veteran and early pros- 
pector who lived here. 

PUDDIN MOUNTAIN: 9684 feet, in Bighorn Crags 5 
miles E of Middlefork and 3 miles S of Aggipah Moun- 
tain. After "Puddin River" Wilson, who ran a saloon at 
Yellowjacket in the early days. 

PUTT CREEK: From N slope of Bighorn Crags N to 
Salmon River 5 miles E of Middlefork. After Charles 
Putt, early settler. 

QUAKING ASPEN CREEK: North branch of Hawley 

QUARTZ CREEK: From W, trib. of Northfork Creek. 
QUARTZ GULCH: From SW, trib. of Big Creek 2 miles 
below Leacock's ranch. 

QUARTZITE MOUNTAIN: 8721 feet, 4 miles north of 
Redrock Peak. 

QUEEN OF THE HILLS MINE: 8 miles NW of Salmon. 
RABBITFOOT MINE: On Silver Creek about 4 miles N 
of Black Mountain. 
RAMEY CREEK: See Cabin Creek. 
RAMSFORK CREEK: From NW, trib. of Silver Creek, 3 
miles above Camas Creek. 
RAPPS CREEK: From N, trib. of Nappias Creek. 2 miles 


below Leesburg. After Joseph Rapp, Leesburg pioneer. 
RATTLELSNAKE CREEK: From E slope of Salmon River 
Mountains E to Salmon River opposite Waddington 

RED POINT PEAK: W of summit of Lemhi Range, be- 
tween heads of Cow and Morgan Creeks. 
RED ROCK PEAK: 8209 feet, 3 miles E of Yellowjacket. 
REES CREEK: From W slope of Continental Divide, trib. 
of Lemhi River. After Robert G. Rees, pioneer settler. 
RESERVOIR CREEK: From W slope of Continental Di- 
vide, trib. of Hawley Creek E of Leadore. 
REYNOLDS CREEK: W branch of Horse Creek near Bit- 
terroot Mountains. 

RINGLE CREEK: From W, trib. of Salmon River. After 
William Ringle who patented land on creek in 1936. 
ROARING CREEK: From Bighorn Crags, NW to Middle- 
fork 4 miles from Salmon River. 
ROCK CREEK: From NE to Loon Creek. 
ROCKY CANYON: W slope of Continental Divide, T 16 
N R 27 E. 

ROCKY PEAK: 10,551 feet, 2 miles N of Junction Peak 
and at head of Rocky Creek. T 14 N R 25 E Sec 16. 
ROCKY CREEK: From E Slope of Yellow Peak E to Tim- 
ber Creek. 

SAGE CREEK: From the N, trib. of Salmon River 7 miles 
W of Northfork. 

SAGEBRUSH MOUNTAIN: 7132 feet, 4 miles S of Salm 
on River between Clear and Garden Creeks. 
SALMON HOT SPRINGS: In foothills 7 miles SE of Salm- 
on, drained by Hot Springs Creek to Salmon River. 
SALMON RIVER: Chief stream of Lemhi County, rising 
in Sawtooth Mountains it traverses the county a dis- 
tance of about 100 miles. Named "Aggipah" (meaning 
Salmon) by Indians prior to white settlement. 
SALT CREEK: Trib. of Canyon Creek, T 16 N R 27 E. 
SALZER CREEK: Trib. of Hughes Creek from the north. 
After old man Salzer, who placermined this creek. 
SAM JAMES CREEK: From S slope of Bitterroot Moun- 
tains to Salmon River 2 miles E of Shoup. After Sam 
James Pioneer, discoverer of mines at Shoup and 

SANDY CREEK: From W slope of Continental Divide to 
Lemhi River. After Alexander "Sandy" Barrack who had 
a grist mill in this vicinity in 1872. 
SAWMILL CREEK: From N to Little Lost River. 
SAWMILL GULCH: From E, trib. of Pine Creek 2.5 miles 
from Salmon River. 

SAWLMILL GULCH: From SE to Panther Creek at For- 

SAWPIT GULCH: From Salmon River Mountains W to 
Napias Creek 1 mile above Leesburg. 
SCHWARTZ CREEK: From E slope of Lemhi range N to 
Lemhi River 4 miles SE of Lemhi. After H. Schwartz, 
early rancher. 

SECOND CREEK: From E, trib. of Salmon River 1 mile 
S of Briney Creek. 

SHARKEY CREEK: From W slope of Continental Divide, 
trib. of Agency creek. After F. B. Sharkey, Leesburg 

pioneer, who also mined here and discovered Copper 
Queen Mine. 

SHEEP CREEK: From W slope of Continental Divide, 
trib. of Northfork Creek 7 miles from Northfork Post 

SHEEPEATER MOUNTAIN: 7853 feet, 4 miles W of 
Shoup. After a mongrel band of Indians. 
SHEEPHORN PEAK: Lemhi Range, near Sec 30 T 15 N 
R 26 E. 

SHELDON CREEK: From Sheldon Peak NE to South 
Fork Camas Creek. After R. K. Sheldon of New York, 
early day miner. 

SHELDON PEAK: near lat. 44 deg 42 min, long 1 14 deg 
34 min. After Sheldon Creek. 

SHEP CREEK: From King Mountain 1.5 miles SE to 
Salmon River. After Warren Shepherd who floated ce- 
dar logs from here down the Salmon River. 
SHEWAG LAKE: At head of Little Fourth of July Creek 
between Sheep and Wagonhammer Creeks, hence the 

SHIP ISLAND LAKE: Between Maguire and Aggipah 
Mountains in Bighorn Crags. An island in the lake has 
appearance of a ship from a distance. 
SHOUP: Mining town on N bank of Salmon River. After 
Col. George L. Shoup. 

SILVER CREEK: A tortuous stream, rising in 
SalmonRiver Mountains, flowing NW then SW, joining 
Camas Creek at Meyers Cove. 

SLEEPING DEER MOUNTAIN: 9885 feet high, near lat. 
44 deg 46 min, long 114 deg 42 min. 
SMALL DEEP CREEK: From Allan Mountain to North- 
fork Creek. 

SMITH CREEK: Trib to Dahlonega Creek 1 mile E of 
Gibbonsville. After Dennis Smith, early prospector. 
SMOUT CREEK: From NE, trib. of Freeman creek. After 
W. T. Smout who settled there. 

SNAKE CREEK: From Bighorn Crags, W to Middlefork 
River. Formerly Rattlesnake Creek. 
SNELL (SHELL) CREEK: From S, trib. of Salmon River 
3 miles E of Middlefork River. After Ebenezer Snell, old 
time settler. 

SNOWSHOE CREEK: From NE, trib. of Warm Spring 
Creek about 6 miles from Loon Creek. After "Snow- 
shoe" Johnson, early miner in Wilson Creek area. 
SODA CREEK: From N, trib. of Camas Creek 3 miles E 
of Middlefork. 

SPIDER CREEK: From S, trib to Camas Creek 2 miles 
S of South Fork Camas. 

SPRING CREEK: See Blackbird, Hamp, Hull, Sam James 

SPRING MOUNTAIN Lemhi Range, 5 miles S of Gil- 
more. Formerly Sheep Mountain. 
SPUD CREEK: From Middlefork Peak E to Yellowjacket 
Creek, 3 miles below the camp. Formerly Lake Creek. 
SQUAW CAMP CREEK: From W, trib. of Big Creek 5 
miles below Big Deer Creek. 

SQUAW CREEK: From W slope of Spring Mountain SW 
to Little Lost River. 


SQUARE TOP PEAK: 8409 feet, on boundary between 
Lemhi and Idaho Counties. 

SQUIRREL CREEK: From S, trib. of Timber Creek 4 
miles from its head. 

ST CLAIR CREEK: From N, trib. of Owl Creek. After 
Wallace St Clair, who mined on this stream. Formerly 
Wallace Creek. 

STEIN MOUNTAIN: 8535 feet, 7 miles NE of Northfork. 
After Henry Stein, early prospector. 
STEPHENSON CREEK: From Clear Lake, trib to Ten- 
mile Creek. After A. M. Stephenson, early settler at old 
Junction. Formerly Clear Creek. 
STRIPE PEAK: 8923 feet, at extreme NW corner of 
Lemhi County. 

STROUD CREEK: From Lemhi Range, middle branch of 
Lee Creek, joins Lee Creek 6 miles from Lemhi River. 
After Elijah Stroud, early settler. 
STRUGGLE GULCH: From W, branch joining Schwartz 
Creek 1 mile from Lemhi River. 
SWAN CREEK: From N slope of Rocky Peak, NE to 
Timber Creek 5 miles S of Leader. 
SYRUP CREEK: From E, trib. of Loon Creek 1 mile from 
Middlefork River. 

TABERNACLE MOUNTAIN: 9272 feet. 1 mile SW of 
Wilson Mountain. Named for its shape. 
TABLE MOUNTAIN: In spur of Salmon river Mountains 
S of Little Hat Creek on County boundary. 
TATER CREEK: From E, trib. of Morgan Creek 3 miles 
from Pattison Creek. John Morgan raised first potatoes 
in the valley with water from this creek. Originally called 
Spud Creek. 

TAYLOR MOUNTAIN: 9968 feet, in Salmon River 
Mountains, overlooking Big Hat Creek to E and Panther 
Creek to W. After Bob Taylor, early day horsegrower 
on Big Hat Creek. 

TENMILE CREEK: From W slope of Continental Divide, 
trib. of Eighteenmile Creek. 

TEXAS CREEK: N from Meadow Lake to Lemhi River 
near Leadore. 

THOMPSON GULCH: 3 miles NE of Leadore. After El- 
mer E. Thompson, early settler. 
THREEMILE CREEK: Trib. of Dahlonega Creek 3 miles 
E of Gibbonsville. 

TICK CREEK: From Salmon River Mountains NW to Big 
Creek 5 miles below Forney. 

TIMBER CREEK: From E slope of Lemhi Range, be- 
tween Yellow Peak and Flat Iron Mountain, NE to Lemhi 
River 1 mile N of Leadore. 

TIMBER LAKE CREEK: From Lemhi Range N to Games 

TOBIAS CREEK: From S, trib. of Hayden Creek 1 mile 
above E Fork Hayden Creek. After Solon S. Tobias, 
pioneer rancher. 
TORMEY MINE: On ridge N of Perrow (Perreau) Creek 

4 miles from Salmon River. After John Tormey, original 
discoverer of mine. 

TRAIL CREEK: From SW, trib. of Camas Creek 2 miles 

5 of S Fork Camas Creek. 

TRAIL CREEK: See also Dan Davis, Game, and Haggin 

TRAIL PEAK: 10,589 feet, in Lemhi Range 5 miles SE 
of Spring Mountain. 

TURNER GULCH: On E slope of Salmon River Moun- 
tains, trib. of Jesse Creek 4 miles W of Salmon. After 
Capt. Nathaniel L. Turner, Civil War veteran who mined 
in this gulch. 

TWELVEMILE CREEK: From W slope of Lemhi Range, 
W to Salmon River 12 miles S of Salmon. 
TWIN CREEK: From S slope of Bitterroot Mountains, 
trib. of Northfork Creek. 

ULYSSES: Old town on Indian Creek. Post Office from 
1902 to 1929, 5 miles from Indianola. After mine of 
same name. 

ULYSSES MOUNTAIN: 7680 feet at Sec 9 T 24 N R 20 

VALLIET SPRING: At base of Bluenose Mountain, source 
of Sam James Creek. 

VIER CREEK: From E, trib. of Big Creek 3 miles from 
Salmon River. After James Vier, early prospector, dis- 
coverer of Italian, Rabbitfoot and Singiser Mines. He 
now lies buried beside the stream. Formerly Hot Springs 

VIOLA MOUNTAIN: 13 miles E of Gilmore, on Conti- 
nental Divide. After name of principal mine at Nicholia. 
VIRGINIA GULCH: From Point of Rock W to Pine Creek, 
4 miles from Salmon River. 

VOTLER GULCH: From Granite Mountain, trib. of 
Northfork Creek 1 mile S of Gibbonsville. After Gus 
Votler who mined here until 1920 when he disap- 

WADDINGTON CREEK: From E, trib. of Salmon River 
at Sec 34 T 19 N R 21 E. After Nels Watts Waddington, 
who had a ranch here. 

WADE CREEK: Trib. of Hayden Creek just W of Carroll 
Creek. After Daniel and Henry Wade, pioneer ranchers. 
WAGONHAMMER CREEK: From W slope of Continental 
Divide to Salmon River. After discovery here of certain 
wagon irons, relics of a fateful band who, in 1862, vainly 
tried to drive teams and wagons via this route to the 
Florence stampede. 

WALLACE CREEK: From E slope of Salmon River Moun- 
tains, NE to Salmon River. After William Wallace, early 

WARM CREEK: From Continental Divide, trib. of Lemhi 
River at Sec 6 T 19 N R 24 E. Formerly Warm Spring 

WARM SPRING CREEK: From W slope of Salmon River 
Mountains, near Twin Peaks, W to Loon Creek. For 15 
miles constitutes boundary between Custer and Lemhi 

WARM SPRING CREEK: See Hellman & Warm Creeks. 
WATERFALL CREEK: From Bighorn Crags, flows W 4 
miles to Middlefork, where it forms large waterfall. 
WAUGH MOUNTAIN: 8885 feet, on boundary between 
Lemhi and Idaho Counties, 1.5 miles N of Lost Packer 
Peak. After Alec Waugh, early day stage driver. 


WEASEL CREEK: Trib. of Panther Creek, from E 1.5 
miles above Opal Creek. 

WELLS CREEK: From W slope of Lemhi Range W to 
Salmon River. After Jude Wells, old timer. Formerly 
Cow Creek. 

WEST FORK CAMAS CREEK: Trib. of Camas Creek at 
Meyers Cove. 

WEST HORSE CREEK: From NW, trib. of Horse Creek 
1.5 miles from Salmon River. 

WHEAT CREEK: From N, trib. of Salmon River 8 miles 
below Middlefork. 

WHEETIP CREEK: Trib. of Big Bear Creek. Name prob- 
ably of Indian origin. 

WHISKY SPRINGS CREEK: Trib. of Cruikshank Creek. 
WHITE CREEK: From W slope of Continental Divide, 
trib. of Agency Creek. After Harry White, early settler 
or possibly white soil in area. 

WHITE GOAT CREEK: From the E, trib. of Camas Creek 
about 8 miles above Meyers Cove. Drains White Goat 

WILD GOAT MOUNTAIN: 9620 feet, in Bighorn Crags 
3 miles E of Middlefork, 2.5 miles N of Mt Maguire. 
Habitat of wild goat. 

WILDCAT CREEK: Trib. of Cruikshank Creek. 
WILLIAMS CREEK: From E slope of Salmon River Moun- 
tains, E to Salmon River 8 miles S of Salmon. After 
Henry Williams, pioneer ranchman. 
WILLIAMS LAKE: On Lake Creek, 2.5 miles W of Salmon 
River. After Henry Williams. 

WILSON CREEK: From Yellowjacket Mountains W to 
Middlefork River opposite Soldier Creek. 
WILSON MOUNTAIN: 9556 feet, in Bighorn Crags, 5 
miles E of Middlefork River. After "Puddin River" Wil- 
son, early day saloon keeper and picturesque char- 
acter of Yellowjacket mining camp. 
WIMPEY CREEK: From W slope of Continental Divide, 
trib. of Lemhi River. After Major William Wimpey who 
settled here in 1867. 

WITHINGTON CREEK: From SE, trib. of Llemhi River 1 
mile above Baker. After Lester P. Withington. 
WOOLARD CREEK: From Bighorn Crags W to Middle- 
fork River. 

WRIGHT CREEK: From SW, trib. of Bear Valley Creek, 
next above Bill Kadletz Creek. After Dr. Frank S. Wright, 
early physician. 

YEARIAN CREEK: From W, trib. of Lemhi River. After 
George Yearian, pioneer settler. 

YELLOW CAT CREEK: From E, trib. of Loon Creek 5 
miles from Middlefork. A big yellow house cat lived at 
mouth of creek for several years. 




Patronise - Home - Industry 

Til-H^E SPAHN: Proprietor. 

YELLOW PEAK: 10,968 feet, Lemhi Range, 4 miles N 
of Flat Iron Mountain. After yellow rock formations. 
YELLOWJACKET: Old mining camp on Yellowjacket 
Creek, Post Office 1893 to 1912. 
YELLOWJACKET CREEK: Form Bighorn Crags, SW to 
Camas Creek 4 miles E of Middlefork. Name based on 
a story that while the first explorers were finding gold 
here, their horses were stung by yellowjackets, bring- 
ing them grief. 

YELLOWJACKET MOUNTAINS: Mountain range about 
10 miles long, trending NE between Yellowjacket Creek 
and Middlefork River. 

information taken from; 

1) List of names of locations by Bess E. Stroud, then Lemhi County 

2) Place Names of Lemhi County, Idaho by Selway Lysle Mulkey. 
Master's Thesis, U. of Idaho, 1970. 

3) Idaho Place Names - A Geographical Dictionary by Lalia Boone, 
U. of Idaho Press, 1988. 

Grand Ball 

McPherson Post No. 3, 

G. A. R.. 







July 4, 1906 






Messrs Wm. Andrews, Steve Manfull, 
Jas. Light. Mesdames Logan Igou, 
Truman Andrews, Theodore Ketchum, 
j^ Frank Tingley. 


I. B. Giles, B. F. Russell, G. A. Martin. 


Geo. A. Martin, Wm. J. Bryan. 

TICKES, Without Supper, $1.50 

On Sale at 
Edv^'ards' and Pyea^tt's Dr\jg Stores 




by Barbara W. Young 

When one thinks of religion in Lemhi County, one 
thinks of traditional Christian denominations, but to be 
realistic, one must go back to the time of the aboriginal 
Idahoans. Those people who lived in this land did have 
religion, and they practiced it for centuries. They be- 
lieved in a supernatural power. Their dependence on 
that belief was reinforced through their child- rearing 
practices, rituals, and public exhortation by leaders. 

Today we are aware of the Indian Sun Dance, the 
Native American Church, and other beliefs, and many 
Christian denominations are now found among Idaho 
Indians; but these developments came with European 
influences as early as 1700 A.D. — a century before 
Lewis and Clark came into this valley. 

Christianity, in an organized form, came into Lemhi 
County about fifty years after Lewis and Clark met Ca- 
meahwait on Lemhi Pass. 

In 1855, twenty-seven missionaries of the Church of 
Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints arrived in the Salmon 
River country, after a thirty-four day trek from Mormon 
headquarters in Salt Lake City. President Brigham 
Young had instructed them to "Establish a mission 
among the Indians and to teach them the arts of hus- 
bandry and peace." In two years a fort and twenty-five 
cabins had been constructed, several hundred acres 
of land had been cleared, and the first irrigation system 
in Idaho was begun. 

In 1858, Indians from other tribes raided the mission, 
killing two missionaries and wounding five other. They 
also drove off 250 head of cattle and 29 horses. The 
remaining missionaries were called back to Salt Lake. 

In 1866, gold fever hit near Leesburg. Salmon was 
settled two years later, and there were about twenty 
known Catholics in the vicinity. The first priest known 
to have visited was Father Francis Kuppers from Mon- 
tana. A year later, in 1879, Archbishop Charles Seghers 
from Oregon City made a visitation. 

It was October 13, 1870, when the first Episcopal 
service was held in Salmon, under the direction of Bish- 
op Tuttle. With offices in Boise, Idaho, Salmon was one 
of the most isolated churches in the Diocese. 

The first quarterly conference of the Beaverhead Cir- 
cuit of the Methodist Church was held in 1872 in Mon- 
tana, and a pastor and prominent Mason, Hugh Dun- 
can, reported that he had visited Salmon City. Appar- 
ently this is the first record of Methodist services in 
this valley. Hugh Duncan served as pastor from 1872 
until June, 1873. Then William Van Orsdel was appoint- 

ThJs photo shows the old Methodist Church and parsonage at Main 
and Center Streets. It was made of red brick from the Pollard Quarry 
west of town, and while it lacked many conveniences that modern 
churches find indispensible, yet to some, no other church will ever 
seem so sacred. The old church building and parsonage were sold 
in the early 1940's. 



ed Junior Preacher, and he worked in the Montana 
Territory with Rev. Francis A. Riggan. They served Vir- 
ginia City, Bannock, and Salmon City. 

The Methodist Church was organized with five char- 
ter members. We will recognize the names Glenden- 
ning, Noteware, Wentz, and McCaleb. They met first in 
the Odd Fellows Hall, which is above today's Hallmark 

Originally, the Methodist headquarters were at Junc- 
tion, near today's Leadore, and later were moved to 
Salmon in 1884. In 1880 the Ladies Church Society 
organized and became the nucleus of the force re- 
sulting in the building of the Methodist Church, which 
was made of local red brick and stood on the (NE) 
corner of Main and Church Street. (Present location 
of the Chevron station.) 

In 1884, when their church was ready for occupancy, 
Mrs. Anna B. McCaleb wrote, "Time fails to tell of those 
strenuous years. The women of the church and those 
out of it, as well as nearly all the young people of the 
place, lent their aid in giving socials, fairs, suppers, and 
literary entertainments to raise money to complete the 
church until finally in 1884 it was finished and dedi- 

Distance makes for self-reliance, and along with the 
other churches of the day. Episcopalians had to be self- 
reliant, yet dependent on one another. Seven years 
after Bishop Tuttle's visit . . . Biship Talbot visited 
Salmon and conducted services in 1887. 

It was a year earlier, 1886, when Catholic Bishop 
Glarieus was vicar apostolic who visited Salmon, and 

he set the stage for annual visits from Rev. Van der 
Donct, of Pocatello. 

Six years later, a young Seventh-day Adventist min- 
ister was visiting his sister, Nellie Albertson, in Salmon 
and he was invited to preach in the Methodist Church. 

In 1898 two Mormon elders returned to the Fort 
Lemhi area, but there did not seem to be any interest, 
so they did not stay. 

At the turn of the century, with the opening of many 
mines, and the creation of the Gilmore and Pittsburg 
Railroad in the Lemhi area, there were many Irish Cath- 
olics anxious to find religious freedom in the west. They 
had received much ridicule from people in the East, 
and they found peace in the west. 

When St. Charles Catholic Church was organized in 
Salmon in 1901, it became apparent there was also a 
need for a Catholic church in Leadore. Father Peter 
GresI, basded in Idaho Falls, worked with the Ross 
brothers and they built the St. Joseph's Church in Lea- 
dore and the St. Catherine's Church in Gilmore. 

That same year brought about the organization of 
the First Presbyterian Church. Reverend S. E. Wishard, 
from the Synod of Utah, assisted with the organization, 
with twelve charter members. Organizers included Lu- 
cy Clough and Emily Brown. For several months, church 
meeting were held in the Brown home, and in Septem- 
ber, 1902, F. B. Bonner was ordained and became the 
first pastor of the Salmon Church. 

The Presbyterian Church, at Lena and McPherson Streets, 
has changed very little since its completion in 1904. It is 
frame construction with gabled roof in an L-shaped plan with 
random shingle siding. The bell tower has a pure hip roof. 
New windows with sandblasted design have recently been in- 

The Episcopal Church of the Redeemer was completed in 1904. 
Built of native rough cut stone donated by Colonel Shoup, the brick 
interior chancel arch was donated and constructed by Francis Pol- 
lard. The complicated work of building the gothic arches was done 
by stonemasons William O'Connell and Frank Pollard. Beautiful 
stained glass windows were donated as memorials and were shipped 
from the East; some by mule train over Agency Pass. 

1887 - On Tuesday last, A. D. King brought in the new bell for the 
Methodist Church. While going down Main he rang the bell. It is of 
eood size and tone. 


In 1902, two brother, John and Will Holbrook, who 
were Seventh- day Adventist ministers, held a series 
of meeting in the Salmon area, and this led to regular 
meetings for several years. 

It was also in 1902 that the Episcopal Mission was 
established at the Lemhi Indian Agency, and this re- 
mained active until the Agency was closed. Activity 
among Episcopalians was strong in the early 1900's 
and in 1903, the present church building (in Salmon) 
was erected. Francis (Frank) M. Pollard, a local stone 
mason, was the builder. Mr Pollard's work is still visible 
in many buildings in Salmon. 

Presbyterian effort was also strong, and the church 
building was erected in 1903-1904, and dedicated. 

In 1905, the Reverand Ruffan Jones was appointed 
to be the first priest for the Episcopal Church of the 
Redeemer. Under his leadership, the Alter Guild was 
formed in 1908, and it still functions today. 

1908 was a big year religiously speaking. Twenty in- 
dividuals were baptized as Seventh-day Adventists, and 
this company became the center of the current Ad- 
ventist Church. During that same year, the St. Charles 
Catholic Church purchased three lots for a future par- 
ish church. That year they laid the cornerstone and 
present foundation of the church, which was also con- 
structed by Frank Pollard. 

Many lay leaders functioned in the Seventh-day Ad- 
ventist Church. After a time, the local leadership was 
transferred to Mrs. Nellie Albertson, who did just about 
everything to keep the church alive. She served in many 
offices, gave Bible studies, was an active missionary, 

The corner stone for St. Charles Catholic Church, at Hope and South 
St. Charles Streets, was layed in 1908 and the church was dedicated 
in 1911. Frank Pollard did the stone worl( using large ashlar stone 
blocks from the Shoup quarry, which were cut, then shaped with 
a chisel. The church has a gabled roof, and Gothic style windows. 
The square bell tower is topped by a wood shingled belfrey with 
three Gothic shaped louver openings on each side, and corner sup- 
ports topped with metal cone and pineapple finials. 

and she often walked eleven miles for meetings. 

In 1911 the first mass was conducted in the com- 
pleted St. Charles Catholic Church, and the building 
was dedicated on July 20. Father J. F. GresI served as 

In 1915 two Mormon brother. Arch and Thomas 
McFarland, along with Arch's wife, Druciolla, arrived in 
the Leadore area. They were followed three months 
later by the James E. Peterson family. They were strong 
in the faith, and met regularly in their homes. Two 
missionaries attended services in 1917, and organized 
the first Sunday School in the area. There were twenty 
eight people attending and Arthur Peterson . . . was 
selected as superintendent of the Sunday School. 

Also in 1917 the first Seventh-day Adventist Church 
was built on the corner of Hope and McPherson. Some 
sixty names were enrolled on church records. Activity 
was strong for about eight years, but when the Al- 
bertsons had to leave the area for a time, interest and 
membership declined and the church stood vacant for 
ten years. 

1924 brought the Mormon Sunday School to Salm- 
on, with Lemuel Jeppson as superintendent and a 
membership of thirty-five. They also met in the upstairs 
rooms of the old Odd Fellows Building and the McNutt 
Building. Construction on their first building began in 
1927, and the facility was ready for use in 1929. 

The LDS Church at the corner of Shoup and Lillian was in use until 
the early 1960's. 

Faith Bible Chapel was founded in Salmon by Ethel 
M. Heidner. She went to California for treatment, and 
while there, attended the Angeles Temple in Los An- 
geles and experienced a miraculous healing after the 
pastor of the International Church of the Foursquare 
Gospel prayed for her. Returning to Salmon, Mrs. Heid- 
ner opened her home for cottage prayer meeting. In 
1929 she successfully petitioned the International 
Church of the Foursquare Gospel for membership. She 
became the first pastor, with fifty- five charter mem- 
bers. For some time, they rented the McNutt Hall, and 
they also used the Odd Fellows Hall. Church members 
built a small parsonage at the site of the present Cab- 
bage Patch Square in 1934, where they held services. 
In 1937 they sold the parsonage and bought ground 


at Fulton and Fourth Streets from the Dempsey family, 
where they erected a modest frame building. 

Depression times were tough, yet church growth 
flourished. In 1930 the large stained glass, "Christ in 
Gethsemane" window was installed in the Episcopal 
Church of the Redeemer as a memorial. This art piece 
still serves the community and is lighted regularly. The 
Episcopal Church sponsored three community church- 
es and Sunday Schools in Gibbonsville, Shoup, and Ten- 

In Leadore, Mormons continued to meet in various 
homes until 1920, when Hattie Groom, a member of 
the Methodist Church, offered them the use of their 
recently vacated Methodist Building. They met in this 
building for the next eight years. 

In 1931 the Salmon membership of the Mormons 
had grown to be organized into a "ward" and was made 
part of the Lost River Stake, which is similar in struc- 
ture to a diocese. The stake headquarters were at Moo- 
re, Idaho, and David J. Clark was the first Salmon bish- 

After a ten year period of semi-activity, the Seventh- 
day Adventist Church was reorganized in 1935, with 
twenty-nine members enrolled. Among them were Bill 
Goodman, Mildred Hamilton and Albert Schultz, who 
are active today. In 1936 the first church school was 
started in the Seventh-day Adventist Church. Since that 
time, the shurch has operated and successfully sup- 
ported a church school. 

A. A. Smith and his heirs sold part of the property, 
locally known as "Cabbage Patch Square", to the Pen- 
tacost Church in June of 1939. It was at this time a 
building, now occupied by the Salmon River Playhouse, 
was constructed. R. B. Cavaness, George Bear, and 
Sarah Sandiland were recorded as trustees. At that 
time, the Assembly of God Church of Salmon was in- 
corporated, with the first pastor and founder being Mil- 
am Fitzgerald. 

At the onset of World War II, the Methodist and Pres- 
byterian Churches in Salmon formed a Federated 
Church. The old Methodist Church building and par- 
sonage were sold and proceeds were put into the Fed- 
erated Church. This organization lasted eight years. 
The Methodist Church was reorganized in 1949, with 
Rev. Don I. Smith returning as pastor. The services 
took place in the American Legion Hall. 

Rev. Smith had organized the Lemhi Women's So- 
ciety in 1945 and sevices were held in homes, in Lea- 
dore's Silver Dollar Saloon, and the Grange Hall until 
funds could be raised to erect a Methodist Church in 
the upper Lemhi Valley. 

The depression and war years took their toll. It wasn't 
until 1948, when Wilfred and Eunice Keele became pas- 
tors, that the Foursquare Church took on new growth. 
They served for six years at this location. In 1966, they 
returned to the church and re- named it the Faith Bible 

During the 1950's mining interests developed at Co- 

balt and the Church of the Redeemer joined with oth- 
ers in taking regular worship services to Cobalt. 

Following World War II the economy brightened and 
so did church growth. In 1950 the Salmon Ward of the 
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints had grown 
to over a thousand members and was divided into two 
wards. Robert Stokes and Harold Havens were sus- 
tained as bishops. 

In October, 1950 the Methodists began to meet in 
a parsonage on a lot on the bar which was donated by 
Howard and Marjorie Sims. Enthusiasm was high and 
in two weeks $23,000 was raised to begin construction 
of a new church. A lot was purchased from Joe Hern- 
don, and the building began under the direction of Fred 
Youngstrom and Dale Combs. 

Beloved Elizabeth Reed, a self-appointed Lemhi 
County historian, located the old Methodist Church 
bell and donated it to the new church. It was installed 
in the bell tower, and is still used today. The sanctuary 
was first used for worship on Palm Sunday, April 6, 
1952. The mortgage was burned in 1959 and the build- 
ing dedicated that same year. 

This is the new Methodist Church at Courthouse Dr. and Lombard. 
It was formally opened for public worship on April 6, 1952. The bell 
from the original old Methodist church hangs in the bell tower. 

In 1953 . . . Mormon membership had expanded so 
that the Salmon River Stake was orgnaized with five 
wards, and two independent branches. H. Earl Stokes 
was the first Stake president. Wards were the two in 
Salmon, one in Lemhi, one in Leadore, and one in Chai- 
ns. Branches were at Patterson and Cobalt. 

In 1954, The Church of the Redeemer constructed 
the adjacent Parish Hall, and it was about that time 
when the Presbyterians built their center for fellowship 
and recreation. 

1955 was the year the Seventh-day Adventist Church 
was constructed, with the dedication taking place three 
years later. 

19 19 - Marion Mahoney, with lost battalion, safe home again. 


The Seventh-day Adventist Church, at 1600 Main Street, was con- 
structed in 1955. 

A three year construction began in 1959 to erect the 
present Salmon Idaho Stake Center, which is a meeting 
place for the stake offices, as well as three wards in 
the Salmon area. 

1960 saw a new organ installed in the Episcopal 
Church of the Redeemer. 

During the 1950's the growth of the Assembly of God 
Church expanded and the church leadership could see 
a need for a larger worship center. Pastors Dick Van- 
deventor and Mark Beneze assisted with the transition 
of the property in May, 1979, when the facility was 
remodeled for the Salmon River Playhouse. That year 
the Assembly of God church moved into new quarters 
at 510 Bulwer. Today's pastor is Rev. Daniel Davis. 

In 1969, the Salmon Valley Baptist Church began as 
a mission of the Southern Baptist Convention. Rev. Roy 
Myers was pastor, and the membership met in the 
Eagles' Hall on Main Street until 1981. Interest was 
high and just three years after the organization locally, 
ground was purchased on Cemetery Lane for a build- 
ing. In 1980, ground was broken and services took place 
in 1981, with the dedication in September. In 1982 the 
Salmon Valley Baptist Mission was constituted into a 
church and had the privilege of hosting the annual 
meeting of the Eastern Idaho Southern Baptist Asso- 
ciation in 1983 and in 1987. Rev. Bruce Miller has been 
pastor since February of 1988. 

The Lutheran Church has record of a parish at the 
beginning of the 20th century, though information is 

scarce. The present activity of Lutherans began in 1972 
when a number of Lutheran families residing in Salmor 
invited Rev. Richard Kiessling of Hamilton, Montana, 
to meet with them about holding services and organ- 
izing a church. A month later, the facilities of the Church 
of the Redeemer were graciously offered to the Lu- 
therans for their first service. For several years, the 
Lutheran Church in Hamilton sent a pastor to Salmon 
to conduct services on a monthly basis. 

In 1977 the Lutheran Churches in Hamilton and 
Stevensville joined in a "Shared Ministry Program" 
which brought a second monthly service to Salmon. 
Soon afterwards, the Montana District Missions Com- 
mittee began to take a serious interest in establishing 
a congregation. Terry Rosennau was Lay Minister in 
1978 and the group arranged to meet monthly in the 
Presbyterian Church. 

The membership selected the name, "Shepherd of 
the Valley Lutheran Church", and a constitution was 
adopted. In 1978 the Salmon congregation applied for 
membershiip and was officially received into the Mon- 
tana District of the Lutheran Church - Missouri Synod, 
at the District Convention in Lewiston, Montana. Two 
months later the congregation celebrated "Charter 
Membership Sunday'. The first president was Harold 
Klein. Just five months later, the group purchased sev- 
en acres of land for a future church site, two miles 
from Salmon on Highway 28. Interest grew and serv- 
ices were expanded to May, Idaho and to Challis. In 
1983 Rev. David Poovey was installed as pastor and 
with his encouragement, the building was erected and 
dedicated in 1986. In 1987, Richard H Neugebauer was 
ordained and installed as pastor of the Shepherd of the 
Valley Lutheran Church. 

The Westland Bible Mission was founded in March, 
1973, to set up Bible studies, Sunday Schools, Vacation 
Bioble Schools and churches in Southwestern Montana 
and East-central Idaho. A Bible Study, directed by Pas- 
tor Sam Gupton, developed into a Sunday School and 
church program in 1976. The following year, the Brian 
Smith family moved to Salmon, and he served as mis- 

The newly remodeled LDS Church at 400 So. Daisy - Spring 1992 


sionary-pastor for six years. The group met in the 
American Legion Hall for some time, and following Ida- 
ho incorporation in 1980, they purchased property 
overlooking Salmon for a building site. In 1982 con- 
struction of a two-story building began and in 1984 the 
church moved into the lower level. For some time the 
Salmon Church Academy functioned with Accelerated 
Christian Education Curriculum, and though the pro- 
gram was discontinued in 1984, plans are to resume 
the program upon completion of the building. Mac 
Johnson served as pastor during the major period of 
building construction, and in 1988 LeRoy Bandurraga 
became pastor. 

The Church of Christ began in 1973 when two fam- 
ilies moved into the area and found no congregation 
of their faith. They held their first services in the Amer- 
ican Legion Hall. Glen Hatcher, sponsored by The 
Church of Christ in Helena, Montana, conducted a se- 
ries of gospel meetings during the first half of 1974, 
and many new people were baptized. Later that year, 
the congregation obtained a full-time minister and be- 
gan to secure the property on the corner of Fourth 
and Mary Street. Over the next three years, the house 
was torn down and used in the construction of the 
present auditorium and four classrooms. This was fin- 
ished in 1978. In 1979 Phillip G. Langston moved to 
Salmon and accepted the work with the Church of 

Change continues to take place in the churches in 
Lemhi County. In 1981 the Faith Bible Chapel under- 
went a large expansion of the sanctuary, added a spa- 
cious fellowship hall, modern kitchen, pastor's office 
and other needed facilities. 

In 1983, the Seventh-day Adventist School moved 
into new facilities at the corner of Bulwer and Fairmont. 

The Presbyterian Church made a major renovation 
with new windows in 198-87. Robert E. Wiederrick de- 
signed and sandblasted the windows, two of which bear 
the design of the Presbyterian Church U.S.A. 

In 1989, the third structure for the Leadore Ward 
was dedicated in that area. It was designed for ex- 
panded growth, with state of the art construction to 
comply with environmental and safety standards. 

In reviewing material submitted for this history, the 
writer observed that all churches are engaged in some 
unique programs involving youth, the elderly, and the 
troubled. Shelter homes, programs for drug rehabili- 
tation, support for Alcoholics Anonymous, for Hospice, 
and social programs prevales as the churches are striv- 
ing to serve the needs of all people. 

What good is religion? This is a question which has 
been debated for centuries, and it has many answers. 
Scripture sustains many of those answers. People rely 
on faith, and find good things in doingfor others through 
kindly deeds. When tragedy strikes, when illness occurs 
or when natural disasters take place, life becomes real 
very quickly. Instantly we witness the need for service 
and love, one for another. 

Editors note: This material was written by Barbara W. Young, Lemhi 
County Centennial Chairman, in December 1989. Mrs. Young com- 
piled the data from submitted documentation, and if some reference 
seems brief, it is because the source material was brief. Mrs. Young 
took full responsibility for the narrative, based on research given her 
by the ministers or their representatives. We are indebted to her for 
such a monumental undertaking. 


by Julia Randolph 

At the time of the arrival of Lewis and Clark in Lemhi 
County in 1805, the only known inhabitants were the 
native Indians. The group which lived in the valley and 
became known as the Lemhi Indians, were of the Sho- 
shone people. In the mountainous area of the lower 
Salmon River were the Sheepeaters who were of the 
Nez Perce tribe. 

Due to the vastness of the area, the Indians had very 
little trouble finding burial places. Some used flat pla- 
teaus overlooking a river, or high up, away from a river; 
others used raised platforms on poles, or cremation, 
to execute their tribal customs. The Sheepeater some- 
times utilized a slide rock area to cover his dead. One 
of the places that the Lemhi chose to secret their dead, 
was a cavern in volcanic rock some thirty miles south- 
east of Salmon. With the influx of the white settlers in 
the county, the cavern's location became known and 
it was vandalized for the treasures therein. Finally the 
skeletal remains were transported to a nearby rounded 

ridge top, and there interred, in the hope that no one 
would again desecrate their last resting place. 

There were also Chinese merchants and miners who 
died in Lemhi County in the early days, but all indi- 
cations lead to the belief that they were exhumed and 
transported back to their beloved China. 

By the turn of the century more settlers were added 
to the influx of miners, freighters and prospectors which 
necessitated the choosing of decent burial grounds near 
the small communities that were springing up. There 
was sometimes confusion regarding cemetery names. 
For example, the Hahn Cemetery is the same as the 
Spring Mountain Burial Ground. This came about be- 
cause mining was booming on Spring Mountain and at 
the base of the mountain a town was formed that was 
called Hahn; hence the two names. 

At Leesburg, there were two cemeteries at one time, 
the division being attributed to two factions which set- 
tled there. They were the followers of General Lee and 


General Grant, of Civil War fame. The Grantsville people 
were gradually overshadowed by the Leesburg-ites. To- 
day, only one cemetery can be found. 

Nearly fifty miles southeast of Salmon is the small 
town of Leadore, which boasts two cemeteries: the 
Yearian and the McRae. Politics was the culprit that 
separated these two! A Mr. Stephenson hated the fact 
that his wife was resting with "those Republicans'! 
Therefore, when the McRae Cemetery was newly es- 
tablished, he had Mrs. Stephenson's remains exhumed 
and re-interred in the new cemetery. 

Besides numerous solitary graves sprinkled through- 
out Lemhi County there are several small and historic 
cemeteries to be sought out by the avid historian or 
the true genealogist. Following is a list of many of them: 

From Salmon, easterly, to Birch Creek: Fort Lemhi 
Cemetery, McRae Cemetery, Yearian Cemetery, Gil- 
more Cemetery, Hahn Cemetery and Barzee Ceme- 

From Salmon, south then east, to the Pahsimeroi 
Valley: Hussey (or Lambeth, or Iron Creek) Private 
Cemetery and the May Cemetery. 

From Salmon, north, then west, down the Salmon 
River: Ballengee Private Cemetery on Tower Creek, 
Indianola Burial Ground, Spring Creek Grave Site, Shoup 
Cemetery, Pine Creek Grave Sites and Owl Creek Grrave 

From the Salmon River up Panther Creek: Leesburg 
Cemetery, Yellow Jacket Cemetery and Musgrove 
Grave Sites. 

Up the North Fork of the Salmon River from North 
Fork is the Gibbonsville Cemetery. 

The few notations found of early burials of the white 

settlers can be attributed to several causes. The re- 
moteness of the area and the lack of communications 
are certainly among them. However, due to the 
thoughtfulness of one gentlemen in Lemhi County, sev- 
eral names and dates have been recorded. A. A. May- 
field is noted for carving names and dates on native 
stone and erecting those stones on graves of those he 
had known and cared for. He rests in the Leesburg 

In memory of A. A. Mayfield, 1833 to 1895, who marked the graves 
of friends so they would be remembered. 

courtesy Julia Randolph 

1904 - May '3. Fred Myers, a rancher on Boyle Creek, aged 63, was 
found dead in his cabin last Friday morning. Death is supposed to 
have been from heart failure. He was buried Saturday afternoon. 

Chief Tendoy's grave. The only one marked on this 
sagebrush covered ridge, where forty acres have 
been designated an Indian Burial Ground. About 
twenty miles due east of Salmon. 

courtesy Julia Randolph 

Salmon Cemetery - established in 1871. 

Dale Ford photo 



by Julia Randolph 

Life was hard and death was often sudden and un- 
expected in the old times in Lemhi County. These 
glimpses of people past are included to show the wide 
diversity between life then and now. Some were young, 
some were old, and they all died. 

From South Lemhi County: 

CHARLEY F. GILBERT; The body of "Trapper Char- 
ley" was found in a snowslide that demolished his cabin 
at the head of Mill Creek in June 1938. Death date was 
set as Feb. 10 according to the last mark on the cal- 
endar, and the remains were buried near the homesite. 
Recorder Herald, June 15, 1 938 

From Gilmore: 

PAT RUTLEDGE; The dead body of Pat Rutledge was 
found in a sitting position propped against a mountain 
mahogany bush on the outskirts of the Gilmore cem- 
etery by E. A. Widdowson and S. B. Shoemaker Feb. 
2, 1928. Rutledge had been employed in the mine in 
Gilmore and boarding with Joe Denton. His throat was 
cut and a razor was found by his side. A coroner's jury 
ruled the death suicide. /?ecorcyer/-/era/dFeb. 11, 1988, 
60 Years Ago. 

SHORTY McLANE; ... the boys decided one night 
to have a party at Shorty McLane's house. They played 
poker and drank until they ran out of liquor, then de- 
cided to go to town for more to drink. Shorty stayed 
behind to wait for the party to return. While they were 
away. Shorty lay down in a back shed, put a stick of 
dynamite on his chest, and lit it. No one ever knew 
why. Fun While it Lasted by Georgia Shiner, 1971. 

BERT RAINEY; Killed by an explosion while packing 
dynamite caps in sawdust. Between These Mountains 
by Pearl Oberg, pg. 111. 

HELEN ROBBINS; Age 17, Helen died in an epidemic 
at Gilmore. Recorder Herald, Jan. 27, 1922. 

EDWARD G. PIERCE; Young Pierce died in a skiing 
accident. The son of Mr. & Mrs. W. F. Pierce, the Gil- 
more grocers. The young man was loved by all in the 
small mining town. Recorder Herald, Dec. 31, 1987, 
"60 Years Ago". 
From Nicholia: 

— ROSS; Mr. Ross, under the influence of alcohol, 
inadvertently set his clothing on fire and burned him- 
self to death in his cabin. Idaho Recorder, Apr. 11, 

WILLIE RENO: Eldest son of J. Frank Reno was thrown 
and dragged to death by a vicious horse. He was eight- 
een or nineteen years old. Idaho Recorder, Apr. 3, 1901 . 

SEAVER RENO; Another son of J. Frank Reno. In 1905 
he died from drinking contaminated water. Between 
These Mountains by Pearl Oberg, page 94. 

PETE SHEAR; Died at Nicholia, age about 50. He was 
one of three brothers who owned the Viola Mine. Idaho 

Recorder, Feb. 6, 1901. 

JACOB SHEAR; A resident of Nicholia, he passed away 
at Blue Creek in March, 1912. He was an early pioneer 
of southern Lemhi County and co-owner of the once 
famous Viola Mine. Ownership of the mine passed to 
the remaining brother, Alfred. Idaho Recorder, March 
28, 1912. 
From Hahn: 

ELIZA & DAVID VEZINA: Mother and Son were victims 
of a snowslide that covered their cabin on December 
23, 1884. Post Register. August 17, 1979. 
From Leadore:, 

JOHN STROM: Charley Bloom was suspected of mur- 
dering John near Junction on July 11. Lemhi Herald, 
July 20, 1905. 

FRANK WILKIE: Committed suicide in "Junction 
country'. Age 50. He was born in Troy, New York and 
died June 12 at Benedict's Ranch. He was a resident 
of the county for about 30 years and had been a 
freighter. Idaho Recorder, June 20, 1912. 

CHARLIE LEE: Mr. Lee and his horse were both struck 
by lightning and killed instantly while riding on Grizzly 
Hill near Cruikshank' s place. He left his wife and five 
or six children. Idaho Recorder, June 12, 1913. 

1972 at age 89 years. The longtime, respected Mayor 
of "The Windy City" of Leadore. 

WILLIE GILBERT STROUD: The child of John D. and 
Urania D. was born November 30, 1868 and died Jan- 
uary 20, 1878. The first of four children of John D. to 
die at an early age. 

JOHN ELBERT STROUD: The child of John D. and 
Urania D. was born May 27, 1879 and died Oct. 16, 

ALTA MAUD STROUD: The child of John D. and Jen- 
nie B. was born and died Oct. 1, 1885. "An angel visited 
the earth and took the flower away". 

LAURA BELLE STROUD: The child of John D. and 
Jennie B. was born Dec. 10, 1891 and died April 22, 
1902. "Weep not father and mother 
for me, for I am waiting in the glory for thee". 

MARIA KEIM: She lived 31 years in Lemhi Valley and 
died at Leadore at age 81. She came from South Amer- 
ica. Her husband was the late Samuel T. Keim. No chil- 
dren of her own, she raised in her home, no less than 
sixteen orphans. Idaho Recorder, August 27, 1917. 

From Pahsimeroi: 

LILLIAN CASEY: Miss Casey lived near Dry Creek. 
While attempting to cross the creek both she and her 
horse were drowned. Miss Casey's body was recovered 
three miles below the ford where the accident oc- 
curred. Lemhi Herald, July 8, 1904. 

J. M. RIDING: Mr. Riding of Pahsimeroi, drowned in 
the Salmon River. His body was recovered about seven 


miles downstream. He had lived in the Pahsimeroi Val- 
ley for about eleven years. He left his wife and three 
children. Idaho Recorder. May 13, 1913. 

GEORGIE GRUBB: Born Nov. 10, 1892, the young 
man died February 2, 1910 at age 18. His headstone 
reads, "A precious one from us has gone, A voice we 
loved is stilled, A place is vacant in our home. Which 
never can be filled". 

WILSON P. ELLIS; Born 1832, died 1907, Mr. Ellis 
was an old settler of the Pahsimeroi, the post office 
at Ellis was named for him. Idaho Recorder, October 
17, 1907. 

BOISE B. ELLIS: Born 1863, died 1903. He was the 
first white child born in Boise Basin. Idaho Recorder, 
October 23, 1903. 

— McCARNEY: Met his demise at the hand of Mr. 
Hard. Hard had just returned from going to Camas to 
pick up his family coming from the east. When he re- 
turned, he found his home that he had prepared for 
the family burned to the ground. A confrontation took 
place between McCarney and Hard and McCarney drew 
his weapon and shot Hard in the arm and in the leg. 
Hard wrenched the weapon away and "beat his as- 
sailant's brains out". Recorder Herald, September 18, 
1986, C.R. Miller. 
From Ten Mile: 

DAVE MILLER: Aged 80, Dave died at his home near 
the Gootsman Ranch ten miles up the river. It is said 
that he was in the Alder Gulch gold strike and that "his 
children used nuggets for playthings". Idaho Recorder, 
March 28, 1912. 
From Fourth of July Creek: 

HARRY LEWIS: Former owner of the Lars Geertson 
property east of Salmon. Harry was killed by a horse 
at his new ranch on Fourth of July Creek. Place Names 
of Lemhi County, Selway Lysle Mulkey, 1970. pg.96,98. 

FRANK FOSTERSON: Founder of the legendary Sad- 
dle Mountain Mine, Fosterson lost his life around 1900 
in a cave-in that crushed his legs and caused gangrene. 
He was trapped in the cave-in for three days before 
being rescued but died enroute to the doctor. Frontier 
Times, November 1973, Maurice Kildare. 
From Gibbonsville: 

R. G. HEWLETT: Died May, 1897, age 42, in a mining 
accident at Gibbonsville. Insurance from the mining 
company of $350 was paid to his parents. Idaho Re- 
corder, March 29, 1899. 

WESLEY WENDOVER: Died May, 1897, age 37, in a 
mining accident at Gibbonsville. Insurance from the 
mining company of $350 was paid to his wife and chil- 
dren. Idaho Recorder, March 1899. 

GEORGE DAVID ANDERSON: Died in 1899. The first 
mayor of Gibbonsville, he was born Gregoria de Kelb 
on Nov. 17, 1833 in Riga, Latvia. Source-Rose Works 

JOHN W. MC DONALD: Was fatally stabbed by Newt 
Morgan at Gibbonsville during a Saturday night romp 
outside of Dunton Bartl's Saloon on June 30, 1894. 

Morgan was found guilty and sentenced to six years in 
prison. Idaho Recorder. July 4, 1894. 

TAYLOR HUGHES: A rock cave-in at the mine at Ulys- 
ses killed Taylor, age 17, son of Mr. & Mrs. George 
Hughes of Gibbonsville. Taylor was the third and last 
Hughes boy to die in seven years. It was said that the 
sorrow in that house was almost too much to bear. 
Lemhi Herald, Dec. 7, 1911. 

JOHN C. STANTON: Jack was shot and instantly killed 
by Frank Smith at Gibbonsville in 1898. Smith got sev- 
en years. Lemhi Recorder kprW 22, 1898. 

DAVID 0. STAHL: Served as Sheriff of Lemhi and 
Custer Counties in 1874 when they were one county. 
Lemhi Herald, December 5, 1912. 

CHARLES ROBERT HULL: Age 14, was crushed by a 
snow-laden woodshed while gathering kindling for his 
mother in Jan. 1920. Idaho Recorder, January 23,1920. 

WILLARD DUNTON: He arrived in Gibbonsville around 
1890 and established a grocery store and post office. 
He served as Justice of the Peace and Notary Public. 
Died at age 83 in 1922. Lemhi Herald, June 23, 1922. 

FRANK WALLACE ANDERSON: Died at Leadore in a 
fire on board the train. Born Aug. 7, 1879 in Illinois, he 
had been a railroad employee for 15 years. Recorder 
Herald. September 7, 1938. 
From the Lower Salmon River Country: 

F. A. BABCOCK: Babcock committed suicide at his 
tent home down the Salmon River from North Fork. 
About age 70, he thought he had stomach cancer and 
several years earlier had lost a foot. Mr. E. T. Eby, close 
friend and neighbor, found Babcock with this note, 
dated March 24, 1916, "Friend Eby - Make a rough 
square box out of these boards and plant it here where 
the digging is good. Would have Ed Wolfe to have the 
Navy blue suit and all pertaining to it. No coroner is 
needed. That is all. By-Bye, Babcock. P. S. The check 
will pay you for your trouble. Everything is yours". A 
$20 check was with the note and after the Coroner 
was notified he said to follow the old man's wishes. 
Idaho Recorder, March 24, 1916. 

CHARLES H. SPAYD: He owned and operated the 
way-station and saloon-cum-store at the Indian Creek 
Settlement, and served two years as County Commis- 
sioner of Lemhi County. He was inclined to partake of 
an occasional whiskey and was not exactly a financial 
success. He was unceasingly kind and generous to a 
fault. Around 1905 he sold the Indianola Way-Station 
to Charles Layton and settled into semi-retirement with 
his old friend William (Wild Bill) Vergis and Tom Wend. 
It was at the Wend Ranch at Hale Gulch that Charlie 
shot and killed himself in 1909. He was buried beside 
Wild Bill Vergis at the Ulysses Cemetery. Idaho Re- 
corder, May 13, 1909. 

WILLIAM M. VERGIS: Wild Bill died February 1909, 
his death the result of a fight with Indian Creek's way- 
station proprietor, Charles Layton. Layton denied the 
killing and said Wild Bill had him down pounding him 
with a six-shooter when Layton's ten year old son, Roy, 


grabbed up a gun and shot Wild Bill to save his father. 
A jury found Layton was lying to save his own hide and 
convicted him of second degree murder. The sentence, 
twenty-five years at hard labor . Idaho Recorder, March, 
4 & May 6. 1909. 
From Leesburg: 

WILLIAM LUDERMAN: William was shot and killed in 
Leesburg in 1880 by John McCullough, alias Tim Con- 
ners. McCullough was hanged in Salmon on gallows 
newly erected just for him. The gallows were removed 
nine years later. Lemhi Recorder, March 14, 1889. 

ANGUS McGILLIVARY: Angus was found dead near 
Leesburg. After an evening of heavy drinking he laid 
down near the trail and chilled to death. He was buried 
in Leesburg the next morning. Idaho Recorder. Octo- 
ber 18, 1893. 

CHING QUONG: Ching, an old Chinaman, was killed 
in a shooting by "another celestial'. He was buried at 
Leesburg. Idaho Recorder, November 21, 1902. 

MARK QUINAN: Died Aug. 17, 1899 at age 75. From 
Ireland, Mark had a pair of ivory handled revolvers pre- 
sented by Queen Victoria for gallant service in the Brit- 
ish Navy. (O.E. Kirkpatrick, pps. 125-126) 
From Yellowjacket: 

EVAN STEPHENS: A resident of Yellowjacket, he had 
the mail contracts between Yellowjacket and between 
Forney and Meyer's Cove . In 1907 he was thrown from 
a bucking horse and sustained internal injuries. A doc- 
tor was sent for, but road conditions were so bad that 
only medicine was sent and Evan died a short time 
later. Age 31. Idaho Recorder, May 30 & June 20, 1907. 

JOHN MURRAY: An old time miner in the county and 
foreman of the Kentuck Mine at Shoup, John died at 
Yellowjacket in May 1895. 

THOMAS CLEVELAND: About 75 years old, Thomas 
died at his cabin on Silver Creek. He had been to Yel- 
lowjacket area with three companions just prior to gold 
being struck there. On that trip, he and his fellow pros- 
pectors found gold, but did not recognize its value and 
left the area unclaimed. He later returned and spent 
twenty years in a fruitless search to relocate the strike. 
Idaho Recorder, September 7, 1905. 

WILLIAM HEBER STEEN: Born in 1937, Bill died too 
early at age forty-seven. A spring and summer resident 
of Yellowjacket during the late seventies and early 
eighties. He was a miner, the president of Yellowjacket- 
Mines, Inc. and the son of Yellowjacket pioneers. He 
was interested in developing the property and pre- 
serving the Steen family history. Much of his time in 
Lemhi County was dedicated to the Idaho Oral History 
Center's Yellow Jacket Project. Recorder Herald, June 
7 , 1984. 

JOHN McTAGGART: While on Fourth of July Creek 
between Yellowjacket and Forney, he and his dog were 
struck and killed by lightning. He was a sheepherder, 
about 55 years old, and worked for the Woods Live- 
stock Company. Lemhi Herald, August 8, 1907. 

DAN (or Ben) SELMER: Drowned in Loon Creek in 

May, 1932. He and his horse tumbled into Loon Creek 
when the trail gave way. He was buried near where he 
was found, ladho Recorder, August 10 & 17, 1932. 

ARTHUR TALIAFERRO: Night foreman at the Lost 
Packer Mine on Loon Creek, he was crushed by a huge 
rock. About 30 years old. 
From Lemhi County in general: 

GEORGE W. HURST: A resident of Shoup, George was 
going home across the ice of the Salmon River in the 
spring of 1899, when halfway across, the ice separated 
and he disappeared into the freezing waters below. He 
was about 45 years old. Idaho Recorder, March 14 & 
21, 1899. 

GEORGE SANDERLIN: George drowned in the Salm- 
on River below Shoup. He had worked in the mines, 
run freight down the river, and prospected. He was a 
native of Scotland. Lemhi Herald, August 8, 1907. 

GUSTAFF VOTTLER: German-born in September, 
1855, "Gus" disappeared while working his placer claim 
on Vottler Creek in the summer of 1920. A search party 
of Arthur Ludwig, George Anderson and Ed Caperon 
went to his cabin near the Gibbonsville Cemetery and 
discovered the mine entrance caved in. Believing the 
old miner to be trapped inside they attempted to dig 
it out, but gave up after several exhaustive days with- 
out success. Gus was never heard from again. Lemhi 
Recorder, August 27, 1920. 

Editor's Note: These excerpts are from Julia Randolph's 1989 pub- 
lication, This Quiet Ground and are reprinted here with her permis- 

David Vessel's arrival in the Lemhi Valley was the beginning of the 
end for him. The cards were stacked against him. First his age, 65, 
was against him and he was in a strange place. Next the weather 
was against him. It was December of 1901 and it was cold. The 
winter wind howled around him until be became disoriented. When 
he was found his feet were frozen and the local doctor finally had 
to amputate both feet. David lingered several days, and the stumps 
seemed to be healing, but his stamina was spent and he died. The 
painful story reached newspapers far and wide and the January 8, 
1902 issue brought a response from a sister who had been searching 
for her brother for 3'j years. Ammi Workman's quest ended in 
Lemhi County. 

-Julia Randolph 

Smith, Oassclin i EdRir. {'top's. 

Halsna. Montana. 

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ontana Marble WorkQ 



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fioiion jn.r«ol..<L 



Leesburg - After 1900 

-As * 

The stagecoach provided necessary transportation. 


A sleepy Leesburg existed for many years af- 
ter the "Boom." 

Black and white, a buggy drives 
through town. 



^ i 





Pony Lake Reservoir, located on 
Pony Creek; almost non-exis- 
tant today. 



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0*«.a. W*dU, , Proprltlor 

Kigr> «r«Ja ••' re«4 Ur ■•■•. 

OSli* and HUbl*— UalD St.. eer. St. CbarUi. 

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Reverend Howard visiting Leesburg 

» #• ..^ „- 





it^""^' .*Jfc^*' 

Winter came early 
and stayed late in 



Residents gather at the Leesburg Post Office. 

All dressed up for the occasion. 

People came from far and near to attend the Reunion. 

Old friends met and greeted each other. 


i, WJKdift .ti 

Stories were exchanged and the day enjoyed. 

A plaque was dedicated to the original pioneers of Leesburg. 


Early Family Homes 

This frame house at 1001 Main Street, is one of the oldest houses 
on Main Street. It was built about 1883 by Edgar S. Edwards who 
also owned the International Hotel and acquired a large ranch as 
well. The house has shiplap siding, a gabled roof and early American 
carpenter steamboat Gothic design trim on the porch. The single 
story addition was added to the house in 1905. Restored in 1982, 
it is now an antique shop. 

Built in the late 1890's and purchased by Colonel Shoup, this house 
at 116 N. Daisy, has had several owners, the most recent being 
Margaret Swift Benedict. Colonel Shoup's wife and daughters lived 
here until 1926. This gabled roof home is built of three colors of 
brick laid in a random pattern. The second floor has shingle siding; 
there are two dormers for the upstairs windows, one a shed dormer 
and the other a gabeld dormer. The windows have a filigree glass 
design — muntins, diamond trim. Corinthian caps top the large 
white wood columns on the porch. In later years the porch was 
glassed in. 

Contructed in 1885 as a warehouse for Col. George L. Shoup, the 
house is built of Pollard brick, which was sandblasted in 1985. Note 
the arched brick dentils over the wood supports on the windows 
and the Chicago bay window. Originally the lower floor was used 
for unloading and storing freight and the upstairs for lodging, as 
it was a stopover point for stagecoaches. Since 1888 it has been a 
rooming house, always owned by women. Restored in 1985 and 
decorated in Victorian style, the fourteen rooms are now the Her- 
itage Inn, at 510 Lena Street. 

The Socrates A. Myers house was built in 1900 on the east bank of 
the Salmon River at Hall and Terrace Streets. It is frame construc- 
tion with brick veneer. Dentil frieze brick work is used and brick is 
rotated to expose the corner, to create an unusual shadow effect. 
The veranda roof and columns recall the popular take-off of steam- 
boat Gothic carpentry of the period. It is included in the National 
Register of Historic places. 


i angsdorf & co. i 
Bankers | 


Esiabiisiied, lEOt. 


Gold Boufrbt. 

Monev Orders Sold. 

Facing page: At South St. Charles and Hope Street is the William 
Anderson house, a cottage with a hip roof, eaves and rafters char- 
acteristic of an oriental roof line. It was built in 1907, with much 
attention to ornamentation. There are French beveled leaded glass 
windows, elaborately carved eave runners in steamboat gothic de- 
signs, columns with carved Corintian caps, and a fish-scale gable. 
Total cost was $7000 and he paid his workers in cash every evening. 
Rumor has it that there is yet, a prohibition-days still in the base- 


Built in 1880 this two story log house stands at the corner of South 
St. Charles and Vandreff Streets. The foundation is solid and it has 
a basement. It is built of hand-hewn timbers and square nails. The 
logs were squared with a broad axe and axe marks may be seen, 

even now, on the logs. Roof rafters are built of round timbers, 
flattened on the roof side and there are two brick chimneys and 
two gable roofed dormers. Lars Geertson owned the house in 1883 
and two Probate Judges lived here in early years. 




Constructed in 1910 from local Pollard brick, this building was built 
by E. K. Abbott as the home of his newspaper The Herald. It stands 
in the 100 block of North Terrace Street. The trim is brick dentil 
frieze with a heavy lentil stone over the doorway. The building and 
a false front to give the illusion of height. In 1932 the newspaper 
moved to a Main Street building. In 1945 the Salmon Grange ac- 
quired the building and added a kitchen, restrooms and gas furnace. 

This was the Gwartney home on Terrace Street. 

This was originally the home of the Merritt family. Ada Merritt 
and her son Allen Merritt were well known in Salmon. 

The rock retaining wall on Front Street was built in the 1930's by 
the CCC workers. Overlooking the Salmon River and the City of 
Salmon these were the homes of Fred Viel, Peter McKinney, and 
R. M. Murdock. 



:^?^<^^C^^'- ,^- 


Dr. Hanmer's house on Neyman Street. 

. .. , b.^. ... - . ^ , 

SyS Smiii jB ^j iiigjpj na ^.ir:;;^^^ 


£^^">'^:*g.-;>'j?i/t,v.v< ^;j!g sywprg^ ^" 

Peter McKinney, pioneer rancher and business man, built this 
beautiful brick home on his Carmen Creek ranch in 1910. It was 

described by the Recorder Herald as a "baronial structure among 
ranch houses." 


^ niillNi^S 


Construction began in 1872 when Lars Geertson, a native of Denmark began to build a home for his family on what is still known as 
Geertson Creek. The house took eleven years to complete and was the first house to have running water. It was equipped with water 
pipes made of wood. Using a gravity flow system, water was obtained from a nearby spring. It is a fine example of early log construction. 



Miners at the El Dorado 
Mine on Geertson Creek. 


The Gilmore Store was well stocked. Patrons are unidentified. Facing west on Main Street in the early 1900's. First building on 

photo courtesy of Michael Hernandez left is the Redwine Building built on the corner of Main and Andrews 

Streets by H. G. Redwine, attorney. 

t w ... -^ 


Joe Porterfield - throwing the diamond hitch 

Jake Lipe, Kadletz daughter, Ted Ames, Charles Lipe, John Hil 
Nat Carr, Bill Kadletz. 

1903 - Joe Porterfields, alias Big Joe, has pulled his long shadow out 
of this town, and carried it tot Thunder Mountain. There is gloom 
in the village, there is sorrow among the ladies, for Joe is such a nice 
man. But he is gone. No, not for good. For he will come again. 

1909 Station Wagon: Corinne Edwards, George 
L. Shoup, Lois Edwards, Janice Edwards, Frank 
Edwards, Margaret Shoup, Gertrude Edwards. 


Connie King, Herman Carl, Anna Carl, Two 
unknown men, Alice Carl, at the Carl home in 
Gibbonville. GIA photo 

1926 - Susan Harding - Killed in an automobile accident on March 
16, 1926 as she was on her way home from a trip to Washington. 

The 1905 Girls Basketball team. Clockwise 
from bottom they are: Olive Kadletz, Zella 
Morrill, Alta Barrack, Beulah Clayton, Grace 
Clayton, Pearl Leacock. 

Zella Morrill's father was a miner and the 
family lived at Shoup, Gibbonsville and 
Ulysses. Zella lived with the Green family in 
Salmon during high school and when the 
Greens moved away, she went with them, 
never returning to Salmon. Alta Barrack 
Burnamn's parents were John and Josephine 
Barrack. Alta died in 1919 in California after 
a lenghty illness. 

Nothing is known of Beulah and Grace 
Clayton after they moved away shortly after 

More information can be found on Olive 
Kadletz and Pearl Leacock in the Family 
History volumes of this publication. 

Olive and Reuben Moore 


James H. Hockensmith and wife, James Norton, F. B. Sharkey, 
Mrs. N.I. Andrews, Norman I. Andrews and Murdock McPherson 


Give Slim 'a Griivrhc'll take-you 

In and treat you-ton glass 


Peter McKinney and his pack string at the west end of the 
Salmon bridge, heading out to Thunder Mountain. 

Bessie Moore (Cannon) and Charles Cockrell at 
Hughes Creek Ranger Station. On the back she 
wrote "... I was ready to go fishing." 



Dr. E. L. Hubbard and wife. He was an early dentist in Salmon. 

Lora Moore, Mrs Olive Moore, Lillian Moore and Bessie Moore 


of course, but there is no dtaler 
in the city of Salmon who is bet- 
ter equipped to supply you with 


.^t the very lowest prices, con- 
sistent with good goods. I solic- 
it your patronage and assure you 
right treatment. 

E. L. Hubbard 

8®*0nc door west of Hank. 



An older Dr. Hubbard and wife, possibly a second wife. 


Willie Beatty and sisters. 

, •iiUlfti 

Walter Scott Brown when he played in the 
town band. 

Ethan Elder • Son of Newton and brother of Tom Elder. 


Milton C. Slavin played baseball for 
the Salmon Team - 1919. 

Lemhi Indians assemble for the 1926 parade. 



Cim Mi^4 





This was Main Street lool^ing west in 1926. The parade celebrated the County Fair and the opening of the new bridge. 


Geraldine Goddard (Odell) - 1925. The old milkhouse at the Boyle Creek 
stage stop and the cedar tree from which the stage warning bell hung. 

Jack McPherson, early day cowboy, worked 
for various ranchers in the area. Picture 
about 1955. J. Randolph photo 


This rather "up-town barbershop" was 
located in the basement of the building 
that is the Masonic Lodge Building and 
was operated by the White brothers. The 
patrons in the picture are unknown, but 
the barbers are Fred and Russ White. 

Call and Scr (lie 

\\.- (.'.^r^ M-.-..- ^..^■ r. 

■ r.ii.i- ...■.! «.v'>Mi'i.(.Ti; 

l.>i> .<■ IK.I t^l.vl.. 

Csmpotont IXTcrlcmon Emplcyed. 

In 1922 these mining and business 
associates met every Wednesday 
afternoon in a brick house behind the 
Catholic Church. Front: Dr. James 
Kirtley, Murdock M. McPherson, James 
Horton, Norman I. Andrews. Back: 
James Beattie, Edgar S. Edwards, James 
H. Hockensmith, Thomas Pope, Eli 



«rW«t Indtblfd lo tho rtrm of Fr«/irb 
A Keiin«r muat sritle tlia itnins before 

August 1st, 1890i 

Tha builnm will be conilnclcd lh» •nme 
M rormerly, except wo shall »ll sirlrUy for 


film .n CUT, Idnho, June U. Igr,. 

Friends and neighbors at Boyle 
Creek • 1925. Front: Charles 
Mitchell, Norene Mitchell, Emma 
Jewett, Leopal Mitchell, Wesley 
Jewett, Dorothy Aikens, "Babe" 
Aikens, Varney Aikens. Back: Pearl 
Johnson, James Kellogg, Emma 
Aikens, Fred Mitchell, Lee Aikens, 
Art Johnson. 



Office front room over Pennej Store. 

Phone No. 235 



Office In Odd Fellows' Block 

Salmon, Idato 

Phone No. 7d 

In 1929 Allen Baker was the manager of the Salmon and 
Gibbonsville Stage Line carrying, among other things, the U S 

1918 - The ladies managing the public library have moved its books 
to the millinery store of Mrs. Murdoch where the books will be given 
out every Friday afternoon with Mrs. Wright and Mrs. Preston in 
charge. The quarters at considered highly desirable for the institution. 

19 19 - Mail service between Salmon City and Shoup has been increased 
to a semi-weekly which is a great accomodation to the people at the 
Kentuck, Grunter and Pine Creek mines. 


Roy L. Dryer's tire shop on 
Main Street about 1926. 

What price beauty? Lila Lee's Beauty Shop • 1936. Standing: 
Margaret Pyeatt and Lila Lee. Seated: Lucille Peterson, Hazel 
McFredrick, and unknown patron. 

1903 - Indianola. Wm Fowler arrived at camp this afternoon. He is 
one of them Salmon sports. Killed one of Mr. Spayd's chickens and 
thought he had bagged a mountain grouse. 

19 18 - Lew Elliott, Gilmore mining man, has bought the residence of 
Mrs. A. L. Keys in Salmon, for ^600. The location is in Brooklyn. 

"Salmonettes Riding Club" about 1936 at Sun Valley. Front: 
Margaret Nilsson, Gayle Jakovac, Ann Carl (Hirschey), Pat Kirtley 
(Long). Back: Connie Snook, Myrtle Hixson, Audrey Hodges, Lois 
Bell, Ruby Dawson, — , Edwina Yearian (Nichols). 



aiul all 



OICO. OrWENTZ; Pi'oprictor; 






'"-•-^SSr X-X :i^S^>miiLO' 



^f#'' ■" *^ 




Turn of the century Stage Stop at Boyle (Tower) Creek. Mrs. 
Nieman and daughters served travelers a meal before they 
headed north over the mountains. 

This clothing store belonged to Russ White, the former barber, 
and was located in the 400 block on the north side of Main 
Street. The entire block burned in 1931. 


by Bessie Ellis 

God, when you thought of the mountain peak, 

How did you think of the snow? 
And how did you dream of those stately pines 

That circle the base below? 
And how did you think of that ice-cold creek 

That melts from the glacial flow? 

God, when you pictured the meadow green 

How did you think of the deer? 
When startled he raised his antlered head. 

And stomped the ground with fear. 
And how did you know his graceful leap 

Would clear every bush growing near? 

God, when you fashioned the Meadowlark, 

Our harbinger of spring, 
How did you think of his golden throat 

And the speckles on his wing? 
And how did you know his early call 

Would cause my heart to sing? 

Thank you, God, for our canyon 

With sunrise all aglow. 
But, God, when you thought of the mountain 

How did you think of the snow? 

Editor's note: This poem was sent to Phyllis Caples by Bessie Ellis, 
one of our early pioneers. She wrote it while in Arizona during her 
"wintering" there, when she became homesick for Lemhi County. 
The Ellis Ranch is on Freeman Creek below Freeman Peak. 

Freeman Peak 





With the advent of World War II In 1941, many lives 
were radically changed, some never to be the same 
again. Husbands, sons and fathers left home and those 
they left behind took on new responsibilities. Everyone 
pulled together to support the war effort and to help 
each other to get through the difficult years before the 
end of the war and the return of their loved ones. There 
was rationing. Gas, sugar, tires; almost everything was 
in short supply. We collected paper, scrap metal, even 
string, and "Lucky Stike Green" went to war, too, re- 
member? For the people of the valley, growing their 
own food was nothing new and at least there was al- 
ways plenty to eat. Some people left the valley to work 
in defense plants, some did volunteer work at home. 
New and ingenious ways were found to accomplish 

Some of the men did not come home, as was the 
case at the end of other conflicts such as Korea, Viet- 
nam and the Gulf War, and even earlier after World War 
I. Others came home with their lives unalterably 
changed as a result of their experiences in battle. 

In 1992 a memorial plaque was place in front of the 
Lemhi County Courthouse and dedicated to the men 
and women who have served their country and Lemhi 
County. The following are lists of those who lost their 
lives while serving in the military during World War I 
and II. Death lists from the Korean conflict, Vietnam, 
or the Gulf War, were not available at the time of pub- 



J. N. Anderson 
R. A. Anderson 
Bert M. Beattie 
0. F. Beller 
H. J. Blasingame 

D. N. Blasingame 
J. M. Brazelton 
W. G. Butterfield 
Selway Carlson 

E. H. Clawson 
Clarence Condie 
Rice Grain 
John Dunkin 

T. R. Goddard 
Harley E. Harlow 
Tony Harris 
B. E. Holcomb 

E. F. LaMunyan 
Frank Charles Lee 

Robert W. Lipe 
Ralph Phillips 

Stanely Prosser 
H. A. Rackham 
John E. Randolph 

Walter Shoup 
Ed Stephanishen 
Chester 0. Ward 

William Watson 
George Wayman Jr. 
J. B. Webster 

C. E. Whiteside 
Robert Whitsett 
Frank Wright 











George Leiand Allen 
Abe Bergeron 
Harry A. Bullock 
Duncan Carleton 

Guy C. Frazee 
William J. Hank 
Millard Johnston 
John E. Kirkham 

Archie E. Lindsey 
John P. Loveless 
Charles Roy Manfull 
John Pyeatt 

Frank A. Schwartz 
Lloyd Shaw 
H. Manson Soule 
Elmer Stroud 

BONSVILLE. The mortal remains of the first of the Salmon soldiers 
who gave their lives in a foreign land for the cause of freedom has 
arrived for burial at home. This was George Leiand Allen, who died 
in far away Siberia. 

1918 - Ron Myers drives car of General Bell in France. 

19 18 - A fine riding horse which John McKinney used for a cow horse 
for several years and which was quite a character in these parts was 
recognized recently by some Lemhi soldier boys on the French Front 
doing patriotic duty in the Cavalry forces. 

The memorial plaque that was placed at the entrance to the 
Lemhi County Courthouse in 1991. 

Official Veterans' Day color guard. 


Veterans' Day 1953 - unofficial celebration continues as "George Washington" feels compelled to sacrifice a cherry tree ■ much to the 
distress of the owner. Jim Egge (in hat), Joe Houver (sailor), Perry Smith, Fred Summers, John Kapp (in tree), Vern Bell (G. Washington), 
Claude Boyle, William Butterfield. 


•• ••• •■A- 


The late Vern McDonald reads the list of veterans of the Spanish American War which 
is framed with this old flag from that war. There were 45 stars in the flag at that time. 
Lettering reads: Idaho Troop - Co. D 2nd Regt. U.S.V. - Torrey's Cavalry. 

This quilted wall hanging is on display at the 
Courthouse. It comemorates those who served 
during Operation Desert Storm in 1991, and each 
star is embroidered with a serviceman or 
woman's name. 


American Legion 

Lloyd Shaw Post No. 67 of the American Legion, a 
national veteran's organization, is named for Lloyd 
Shaw, the first soldier from Salmon to lose his life in 
World War I. He was twenty one years old. 

The Post was formed in 1920 with Reverend L. E. 
Vincent as the first Commander. They met at different 
places once a month, the most frequent place being 
Dr. C. F. Hanmer's office on Main Street. 

The Post and its Auxiliary Unit were chartered in 
1924 and needed ten or more members to do so. At 
that time there were twenty five to thirty members, 
but not thinking of the historical importance, they sent 
in the first ten or twelve names of the members paying 
dues for that year. Later it was realized that some of 
the first members of the Post were not included on 
the charter. 

In the early 1940's, with a cash donation from the 
local chapter of the American War Mothers and bor- 
rowed money from a local rancher, they purchased 
the present site of the Post's home. They built the 
building with membership labor and designed it and 
used it as school rooms for several years. The bor- 
rowed money was paid back with proceeds from Bingo, 
dances, card parties, raffles, and member's donations. 
A club room was added in the 1970's. Present mem- 
bership is one hundred forty. 

Lloyd Shaw, the first Lemhi County soldier to loose his life during 
World War 1. 


County Commissioners 

Lemhi County operates with three County Commis- 
sioners directing the operation of the County. Many 
prominent citizens have served as County Commis- 
sioner. The County is divided into three districts and 
a candidate must reside in his district. The Board reg- 
ularly meets to conduct business in the Lemhi County 
Courthouse. The old Commissioners' Room was on the 
first floor, a part of what is today the County Clerk's 
Office. The present Commissioners' Room, is on the 
second floor and also is used as the Court's Jury Room. 

George L. Shoup, E. H. Tuttle and Benjamin L. Heath 
were the first three County Commissioners. At least 
one hundred people have served since 1869. Some 
members of the same family have been elected. George 
Shoup's brother, Jim Shoup served a term as County 
Commissioner. Jacob Yearian and George W. Yearian 
both served and the McKinney family has been rep- 
resented by Peter McKinney, John McKinney, and Sam 
McKinney. Both Fred H. Snook, Sr. and his younger 
brother Quinton Snook served since World War II. Bob 
Literal of May served for twenty-four years followed by 
Charles B. Kane who served twenty-two years. Charles 
Kane was an extremely dedicated man who never 
missed a meeting during his long tenure. His position 
was filled by Louis Demick of Salmon who served twelve 
years. From the Lemhi River area, Corliss R. Morhpey, 
Sam McKinney and Quinton Snook all served lengthy 

Commissioners District 1 
George L. Shoup, appointed February 22, 1869, 
served until June 1870. B. F. Price, June 1870-January 
1875. The following served from January to January 
of the years listed: Jacob Yearian, 1875-77; A. P. Jen- 
kins, 1877-79; J. D. Wood, 1879-81; J. S. P. Robinson, 
1881-83; James K. Fuller, 1883-87; F. B. Sharkey, 1887- 
91; Wm. H. Andrews, 1891-95; Chester B. Mathewson, 
1895-97; Wm. A. Holland, 1897-99; Wm. J. Wil- 
son, 1899-1901; Wm. Anderson, 1901-03; Benjamin F. 
Ibach, 1903-05; John Long, 1905-09; George W. Kings- 
bury, 1909-13; Thomas J. Atkins, 1913-15; Louis F. 
Ramey, 1915-17; Peter McKinney, 1917-21; Harry L. 
Summers, 1921-23; Fred L. Viel, 1923-29; Peter 
McKinney, 1929-33; Harry Kelly, 1933-35; Minor A. 
Brown, 1935-37; Fred L. Viel, 1937-41; Russ White, 
1941-47; John McKinney, 1947-51; Fred H. Snook, 
1951-55; Charles B. Kane, 1955-77; Louie Demick, 
1977-89; Denny Hawley, 1989- 

Commissioners District 2 
E. H. Tuttle, appointed February 22, 1869, served until 
June 1870. James Glendenning, June 1870-January 
1873. The following served from January to January 
of the years listed, except as noted: Rudolph Mohr, 
1873-1875; E. J. Jenkins, 1875-1877; A. P. Challis. 


1877-79; E. J. Jenkins, 1879-81; James Shoup, 1881- 
83; J. P. Clough, 1883-85; Robert Dunlap, 1885-87; 
Ralph Nichols, 1887-89; George V. Gross, 1889-91; 
John Clark, 1891-93; Robert G. Rees, 1893-97; Charles 
D. Long, 1897-July 1898; John E. Rees, appointed July 
1898- January 1899; James H. Hockensmith, 1899- 
1903; Robert G. Rees, 1903-05; Richard Morphey, 
1905-07; Robert Wilson, 1907-09; Wilbur F. Stone, 
1909-13; William Oltmer, 1913-15; George Grubb, 
1915-17; George W. Yearian, 1917-21; Charles F. Sny- 
der, 1921- 23; W. H. Fayle, 1923-31; R. H. Davidson, 
1931-33, S. H. Seaweard, 1933-35; R. H. Davidson, 
1935-37; Earl H. McRea, 1937-43; Corliss R. Morphey, 
1943-57; Sam McKinney, 1957-75; Jack Weigand, 
1975-79; James E. Ellsworth, 1979-81; Quinton Snook, 

Commlssioners District 3 
Benjamin L. Heath, appointed February 22, 1869, 
served until June 1869. Fred Phillips, June 1869-June 
1870. M. McPherson, June 1870-June 1872. W. Mor- 
row, June 1872-January 1875. The following served 
from January to January of the years listed. A. P. Chal- 
lis, 1875-1877; Jacob Yearian, 1877-79; Caleb Davis, 
1879-83; A. M. Stephenson, 1883-85; J. J. Gilson, 1885- 
87, 1889-91 and 1893-95; Charles Spaydes, 1887-89; 
James M. Nighswander, 1891-93; Fred P. Dunton, 1895- 
97; Jeremiah Fahey, 1897-99; Armstead L. Kirk, 1889- 
1901; John W. Ostrander, 1901-03; Eddie E. Edwards, 
1903-05; Hiram F. Haynes, 1905-07; Charles M. Hull, 
1907-11 and 1913-15; Peter McKinney, 1911-13; H. F. 
William Nieman, 1915-17; George Grubb, 1917-19; W. 
A. Briney, 1919-23; Joseph D.Brown, 1923-29; Minor 
A. Brown, 1929-33; V. A. Coiner, 1933-47; M. R. (Bob) 
Literal 1947-57 and 1961-75; James W. Caples, 1957- 
61; Don M. O'Neal 1975- 

County Clerk, Auditor & Recorder 

The title of this very important position has changed 
over the years. There was first an Auditor and Re- 
corder, R. H. Johns was the first person appointed. 
There was then a County Clerk. Charles G. Chamber- 

James w. Caples, Sam McKinney, William W. Simmonds-1957. "Bil- 
ly" Simmonds served as County Clerk for forty-two years. 

lain was the first appointee. The position then was con- 
solidated to Clerk of the District Court, Auditor and 
Recorder, commonly referred to as County Clerk. 

In Lemhi County when people think of County Clerk, 
they think of one person, W. W. Simmonds. Simmonds 
served in that position from 1919 until 1959, a total 
of forty years. No other person has ever held any office 
longer in the history of Lemhi County. John Hogan was 
an early fixture, serving fourteen years, and Eleanor 
Aldous served fifteen years, from 1967 until 1982. Al- 
berta Wiederrick has currently completed ten years in 

Auditor & Recorder 
R. H. Johns, appointed February 22, 1869; Jesse 
McCaleb, June 1869- June 1870. 

County Clerk 
Charles B. Chamberlain, appointed February 22, 1869. 

Clerk of the District Court 
Auditor & Recorder 

A. J. McNab, June 1870-January 1873; The following 
terms ran from January to January unless otherwise 
noted. John Hogan, 1873-87; Timothy Dove, 1887-95; 
John P. Clough, 1895-1903; William C. Smith, 1903- 
11; James L. Kirtley, Jr., 1911-19; William W. Sim- 
monds, 1919- 59; Thomas H. Ball, 1959-61; Paul Ad- 
ams, 1961-67; Eleanor Aldous, 1967-March 1982; Al- 
berta Wiederrick, March 1982 -. 


The names of the past Lemhi County Assessors im- 
mediately spell history. Names such as F. M. Pollard, 
Thomas Pope, E. S. Edwards, James L. Kirtley, Jr., and 
Roy B. Herndon among others, were all long time, es- 
tablished citizens. An amazing fact is that only five peo- 
ple have held this elected position during the past sev- 
enty-three years! William C White held office for four- 
teen years, but his record of longevity was then erased 
by John Igou, who made the Courthouse his working 
office for the next thirty-four years. Fred Randolph only 
served two years but then Gertrude Barrett completed 
eighteen years. Current Assessor, Aria Boots, has been 
serving since 1987. 

Isaac Evans, appointed April 3, 1869, served until Oc- 
tober 1870. C. W. Monasco appointed October 1870- 
January 1879. The following terms ran from January 
to January unless otherwise noted. John E. McDonald, 
1879-85; F. M. Pollard, 1885-1887; L. F. Weber, 1887- 
89; Thomas Pope, 1889-91, Hal H. Chase, 1891-93; 
W. C. Woozley, 1893-94; E. S. Edwards, 1894-95; Dwight 
J. Kenney, 1895-97; James L. Kirtley, Jr., 1897-99 and 
1905-07; Charles Simpson, 1899-1901; William Smith, 
1901-03; Harry S. Waters, 1903-05 and 1907-09; Roy 

B. Herndon, 1909-11; Albert H. Ford, 1911-19; William 


C. White, 1919-33; John Igou, 1933-67; Fred W. Ran- 
dolph, 1967-69; Gertrude M. Barrett, 1969-87; Aria 
Boots, 1987- 


E.G. Whitsett was the first appointed and the first 
elected Treasurer for Lemhi Go. The position changed 
hands regularly with no long term service until Earl L. 
Gilbreath during the Depression Years through World 
War II. Beloved, Alice Hobbs took office in 1947 and 
held the position until 1975. Shirley Hoy has now held 
the office for the past seventeen years. 
Lemhi County Treasurers 
E. G. Whitsett, appointed April 1869, also served June 
1869-June 1870. J. G., Finell, June 1870-January 1873; 
Eli Minert, January 1873-January 1875; Ira Tingley, 
1875-1877 and 1887-89; M. M. McPherson, 1877-79 
and 1881-87; E. G. Whitsett, 1879-81; Robert Dunlap, 
1889-93; John Hogan, 1893-95; Josiah E. Ghase, 1895- 
99; Herbert E. Burnett, 1899-1901; Ada Merritt 1901- 
May 1902; Herbert E. Burnett, appointed May 1902- 
January 1905; Guy Edwards, 1905-1909; Jessie M. 
Langsdorf, 1909-13; George W. Meitzler, 1913-17 
Gharles A. Beers, 1917-19; Earl L. Gilbreath, 1919-31 
Frank G. Miller, 1931-33; William G. Smith, 1933-45 
Margaret Rand, 1945-47; Alice Hobbs, 1947-75; Shir 
ley R. Hoy, 1975- 

Lynn Scott, Manager of Idaho Power and Lemhi County Treasurer, 
Alice Hobbs, who served twenty-eight years. 

Lemhi County Prosecuting Attorney 

Numerous attorneys have held this position. The old 
office was in the upstairs of the Lemhi Gounty Gourt- 
house where the Gounty Law Library is today. The po- 
sition has been a springboard to other positions. The 

'late Gharles Herndon held the position for the longest 
time, eighteen years during three different intervals 
starting in 1941 and ending in 1965. Gharles then ran 
for Governor on the Democratic ticket in 1966 and 
defeated Gecil Andrus in the primary. Gharles would 
have won the general election, but tragedy struck, when 
he was killed in an airplane crash while traveling during 
his campaign. Sherman F. Furey, Jr. went from Lemhi 
Gounty Prosecutor to United States Attorney for the 
State of Idaho, appointed by President Eisenhower. 
Fred H. Snook, Sr. served as Prosecutor until he en- 
tered the Army at age thirty-six, during World War II. 
After the war he was elected Gounty Gommissioner. 
Frederick G. Lyon went from the Prosecutor's office 
to Glerk of the Idaho State Supreme Gourt; a position 
he holds today. James G. Herndon served as Prose- 
cutor for two different terms and was then elected 
District Judge with chambers in Blackfoot. Fred Snook, 
Jr. was elected to the Prosecutor's office for six terms 
and from 1972 through 1982, until his appointment as 
Magistrate Judge, with chambers in Salmon. 

Prosecuting Attorneys 
Terms run from January to January of the years fol- 
lowing each name: R. E. Hobb, 1873-75; J. W. Brown, 
1875-83; John McDonald, 1883-95; Alfred Budge, 1895- 
99; George F. Hansbrough, 1899-1901; Gornelius A. 
Boyd, 1901-03; Frederick J. Gowen, 1903-05 and 1907- 
09; John G. Sinclair, 1905-07; William H. O'Brien, 1909- 
11; John K. Rankin, 1911-13; George W. Padgham, 
1913-15; John E. Rees, 1915-19; Erie H. Gasterlin, 
1919-21; H. J. Burleigh, 1921-23; Francis R. Hall, Jr., 
1923-31; F. A. McGall, 1931-35 and 1945-47; E. W. 
Whitcomb. 1935-41; Gharles Herndon, 1941-43, 1947- 
53, and 1955-65; Fred H. Snook, 1943-45; Sherman 
F. Furey, Jr., 1953-55; Frederick G. Lyon 1965-69; 
James G. Herndon, 1969-73 and 1983-85; Fred Snook, 
1973-83; Sherman F. Furey, III, 1985 -October 1986; 
Jordan P. Smith, October, 1986- 


Festus Butts was the first appointed Sheriff of Lemhi 
Gounty, however, he only served a few months until 
the first elections were held. John S. Ramey then be- 
came the first elected Sheriff of Lemhi Gounty. As 
Leesburg was still quite active. Sheriff Ramey regularly 
patrolled that area while his first deputy sheriff, John 
Wals Snook, resided in Salmon. Jesse McGaleb, who 
was later killed by Indians near Mackay, was another 
early day Sheriff, holding the position about three years. 
Thomas J. Stroud was the first long time Sheriff. He 
served from 1913 to 1916, then returned from 1919 
to 1922. He was re-elected in 1929, serving through 
all of the Depression until 1938. Robert Isley then 
served twelve years from 1939 to 1951. In 1956, a 
young man by the name of William "Bill" Baker was 
first elected. He served for thirty-two years and at the 
time of his retirement had served as Sheriff longer than 


anyone else in the State. 

Only one man was ever executed by a Lemhi County 
Sheriff. The man was Tim Connors, who murdered a 
man in Leesburg. The gallows were built in Salmon, 
where the hanging took place. The old gallows re- 
mained in place for many years afterward. However, 
once the State Penitentiary system became estab- 
lished, any executions were to be performed at the Old 
Penitentiary in Boise, rather than in the individual 
counties. Finally, the Salmon gallows were removed, 

their symbol of deterrence falling to modern day pro- 

Throughout history, this position has always attract- 
ed more candidates for election than any other county 
office. In 1924, eight candidates ran; A. W. Beason, J. 
D. Lemble, T. J. Stroud, Lewis Ramey, Joe Mulkey, S. 
A. Ball, Donald Martin and F. W. Bellamy. All were well 
known and respected Lemhi County residents. This 
trend continues today, as candidates line up for the 
1992 election. 


m ^ 

Robert Isley, served twelve years as Sheriff. James Egge, Sheriff from 1951 to 1956. 

William N. "Bill" Baker, best known Lemhi 
County Sheriff, serving thirty-two years. 


John Wals Snook, first Deputy Sheriff of Lemhi County. 

Lemhi County Sheriffs 
Festus Butts, appointed February 22, 1869; John S. 
Ramey, June 1869-June 1870; Jesse McCaleb, June 
1870-January 1873. 

The following served from January to January of the 
years listed: Henry P. Barry, 1873-74; J. C. Hissmell, 
1874-75 (appointed); Dave Stahl, 1875-77; J. G. Fin- 
nell, 1877-79; Samuel Young, 1879-83; Egbert Nas- 
holds, 1883-87; John Miller, 1887-91 and 1895-97; Wil- 
liam H. Potter, 1891-93; Edward Johnson, 1893-95 

Evan J. Reese. 1897-99; Thomas J. Taylor, 1899-1901 
Robert B. Hughes, 1901-03; Rudolph Wright, 1903- 05 
Matthew W. Stewart, 1905-07; William L. Mulkey. 1907- 
09; Harry S. Waters. 1909-1911; James Mahaffey. 
1911-13; Thomas J. Stroud. 1913-17, 1919-23 and 
1929-39; Emerson Frazier, 1917-19; Donald E. Martin, 
1923-27; MattW. Stewart. 1927-29; Robert Isley, 1939- 
51; James Egge, 1951-57; William N. Baker, 1957-89; 
Dave S. Call, 1989- 

formerly Kirtlcy's 
Salmon, Idaho 
Dinner and Supper, 50 cents. 


Probate Judge & Magistrate Judge 
The Probate Judge was the People's Judge, handling 
a number of functions from criminal cases to probates. 
Frank P. McCracken was the first Probate Judge to 
hold chambers in the new Lemhi County Courthouse. 
Probate Judge E. H. Casterlin went from that position 
to deputy United States Attorney General, and was also 
a very prominent trial attorney. Elsewhere in this vol- 
ume read the humorous story of George W. Cronkrite, 
whose wife was sentenced to jail for disturbing the 
peace after brandishing an ax at the Judge. Emerson 
Hill held the position for the longest term, twelve years. 
Donald Martin was elected to the position after he had 
served as Lemhi County Sheriff many years before. 
The last Probate Judge was Irvin Robertson, who held 
the position for ten years, until it was eliminated by 
the creation of the Statewide Magistrate Court Sys- 
tem. Judge Robertson then became the first lay Mag- 
istrate for Lemhi County. Milton A. Slavin was appoint- 
ed the first lawyer Magistrate Judge and served for six 
years. Fred Snook is the current Magistrate, having 
served for the past ten years. 

Magistrate Judge 
Irvin Robertson, 1971-73; William H. Puette, 1973-76; 
Milton A. Slavin 1976-83; Fred Snook, 1983- 

Honorable Frank P. McCracken in his office in the Lemhi County 
Courthouse, May 21, 1914. 

Honorable G. B. Quarles, early day Probate Judge. 

^MC V 



Honorable Irvin C. Robertson, last County 
Probate Judge, and first lay Magistrate. 

Honorable William H. Puette, 1973-76. 

Honorable Milton A. Slavin, first lawyer Mag- 
istrate Judge, 1976. 

Honorable Fred Snook, current Magistrate Judge, serving since 1983. 

Justice of the Peace, 
Constable & City Police Court Judge 

These three offices were not totally researched. All 
three positions have been eliminated by consolidation. 
Originally, the Justice of the Peace position was for 
each precinct in the county; that is, there was a Justice 
of the Peace for Salmon, Leesburg, Gibbonsville, Shoup, 
etc. As times advanced and the transportation and 
communication progressed, the position of Justice of 
the Peace also became more consolidated. The last 
Justice of the Peace to serve Salmon and Lemhi Coun- 
ty was the late Fred Carl. About 1971, the position of 
Justice of the Peace was consolidated with the posi- 
tions of City Police Court Judge and County Probate 

Judge, into the State Magistrate Court System. The 
City Police Judge was an appointed position. Harold 
Neyman held that position in Salmon for twenty-six 
years, from 1945 to 1971; longer than any other per- 
son. The last Constable for Salmon was the late Elmer 
Keith, internationally known big game hunter and ac- 
knowledged dean of American gun writers. 


The Coroner is an unsung hero in Lemhi County's 
history. Few people appreciate the duties of the Coun- 
ty Coroner. It is a difficult task with little monetary 
reward. The position is rarely contested on the ballot 
and the Coroner is oftentimes the highest vote getter 
in local elections. Reviewing the names of past Coro- 
ners, the reader will recognize many of the old time 
doctors on the list. William C. Doebler held the position 


Fred Carl, longtime Justice of the Peace for Lemhi County. 

for thirty years. Later, Del Jones faithfully served the 
office for twenty-six years. Del's son in law, Doug Casey 
is the current Coroner and has held office since 1975. 

Lemhi County Coroners 
J. P. Jewell, June 1869-January 1873; Murray Williams, 
January 1873-January 1875; H. E. Colvin, 1875-1877; 
J. S. Shuk, 1877-83; George A. Kenney, 1883-93 and 
1905-09; William C. Whitwell, 1893-95 and 1899-1901; 
Jasper Fane, 1895-97; Wiley J. Rose, 1897-99; Hiram 
J. Jones, 1901-03; Charles L. Kirtley, 1903-05; Charles 
F. Hanmer, 1909-11; William C. Doebler 1911-37 and 
1939-43; Charles Doebler, 1937-39 and 1943-45; Ray 
McGoldrick, 1945-49; Delbert C. Jones 1949-75; Doug 
Casey, 1975- 

County Surveyor 

This is another position that has been eliminated in 
recent years. J. W. Birdseye was the first County Sur- 
veyor starting in 1881. Well known surveyor, Allen C. 
Merritt held the position twice and Fred Crandall served 
fourteen years. A. E. Ferguson served twelve years fol- 
lowed by Hugh Coiner. Hugh was the last County Sur- 
veyor, holding the position from 1949-1963. 

County Surveyors 
All terms from January to January of the given years. 
J. W. Birdseye, 1881-85; Charles Barclay, 1885-93; 
John Rees, 1893- 97; Peter McCardell, 1897-99; J. W. 
Birdseye, 1899-1903; William H. Craigue, 1903-1907; 
Allen C. Merritt, 1907-11 and 1915-19; Charles Mc- 
Clung, 1911-13; E.B.Thornhill, 1913- 1915; Fred Cran- 
dall, 1919-33; A. E. Ferguson, 1933-41 and 1945-49; 
Robert Simmonds, 1941-45; Hugh Coiner, 1949-63. 

Internationally known celebrity, Elmer Keith was Salmon's last Con- 

Harold Neyman held the position of Salmon City Police Court Judge 
for thirty-six years. 


City of Salmon 

BOARD OF TRUSTEES-1903: William Peterson, Chair- 
man; John W. Kadletz, George H. Monk, Edwin Abbott. 
CHAIRMEN: 1905-E. K. Abbott; 1905-George H. Monk; 
1906-John H. Kadletz; 1906-Thomas J. Atkins; 1907- 
William Peterson; 1909-Frank C. Miller. 
MAYORS: Emerson Hill, 1911-13; William Peterson, 
1913-15; Thomas J. Atkins, 1915-17; L. E. Glennon, 

1917-22; George K. Brown, 1922-23; Charles F. Han- 
mer, 1923-37; D. L. Nichols (acting), 1937-41; Fred L. 
Viel, 1941-51; Gerald Butler, 1951-57; L. N. Gwartney, 
1957-59; Sherman F. Furey, Jr., 1959-61; William C. 
Cannon, 1961-74; Bill Miller, 1982-84; Neal James, 
1984-86; Jack Nelson, 1986-90; Edward Guyton, Jan- 
uary 1990-July 1990; Patricia A. Hauff, July 1990-. 

Information on elected officials compiled under the direction of Dep- 
uty County Clerk Tern Morton from the records of Lemhi County. 


by Fred Snook 


Donald Embley Martin's election to the office of Lem- 
hi County Probate Judge in 1952 was a very interesting 
political race. The ballots for the general election had 
already been printed at the time of the death of Pro- 
bate Judge Don C. Reed, who was the unapposed in- 
cumbent on the Democratic ticket. 

Don Martin announced his candidacy after Judge 
Reed's death, and asked the voters for write-in votes 
on the Republican ticket. Salmon attorney, F. A. McCall, 
was a candidate for Prosecuting Attorney on the Dem- 
ocratic ticket, but announced his decision to withdraw 
said candidacy, and compaigned for election as Pro- 
bate Judge. 

The winner of the election was Don Martin who was 
sworn in as Judge in January of 1953. However, McCall 
contested Judge Martin's election on the grounds that 
all write-in votes must be in the fourth or blank column 
on the ballot. Because of said contest, Judge Martin 
could not be paid for his services and served eight 
months without salary, until the case was resolved. 

Judge Henry McQuade of Pocatello heard the case, 
after Judge Preston Thatcher disqualified himself, and 
decided in Judge Martin's favor. McCall then appealed 
the decision to the Idaho Supreme Court, where it was 
argued September 17, 1953, in Pocatello by E. H. Cas- 
terland and Fred H. Snook for Judge Martin and F. A. 
McCall and Wayne Loveless for appellant, McCall. 

(F* ^. 


FRONT: Harold F. Neyman, Clerk; Mayor William J. Cannon; Fred 
Snook Sr., City Attorney. BACK: Councilmen Charles Walchly, L. 
N. "Mick" Gwartney, Dr. Roy D. Sinclair, Frank Kerin, Bill Perry, 
and Roy Durand. 

The Supreme Court announced their decision thir- 
teen days after hearing said arguments, and an- 
nounced a unanimous decision in favor of Judge Mar- 

Donald E. Martin 


Over the Past One Hundred Years 

The first state legislature in 1891 had Lemhi County 
represented by M. M. McPherson, J. M. Shoup, and 
Thomas Pyeatt. Governor Shoup's son, Walter C. 
Shoup, was a State Senator in 1909. Salmon attorney, 
E. W. Whitcomb served five terms in the Senate from 
1911 through 1922. Salmon businessman, rancher and 
miner, Howard Sims was elected seven times to the 
State Senate beginning in 1937 through 1942 and then 
from 1955 until his final election in 1963. Howard was 
tragically killed in an airplane crash while serving as 
Senator. Clyde Starr was another veteran legislator 
serving during the late 1940's into the 1950's. James 
Ellsworth, a Leadore rancher, was elected to six terms 
in the State Senate and served as Senate Pro Tem for 
many years. During the State Centennial he was se- 
lected as one of the most important Senators in the 
State's one hundred year history. No resident of Lemhi 
County has been elected to the State Senate since 
James Ellsworth retired in 1976. Lemhi, Clark, Custer 
and Jefferson Counties were combined in one legisla- 
tive district. Jefferson County has more population than 
the other three counties combined, and it is very 
doubtful if any person who resides outside of Jefferson 
County will ever be elected to the State Senate. 

The House of Representatives seat for Lemhi County 
has also been filled with historic personalities. Names 
such as Rees, Kirkpatrick, Kirtley, Snook, Hanmer, Ni- 
chols, Ramey, Beers, Carl, Slavin, and many others 
from old time Lemhi County families are on the House 
records. Emma R. Yearian, the "Sheep Queen" from 
Lemhi, was the first woman ever elected to the Idaho 
House of Representatives in 1930. L. N. Gwartney 
served three terms starting in the late 1940's and Car- 
men Creek was represented by Ted Slavin, 1955 to 
1959 followed by George Howell 1959 to 1965. Besides 
Emma Yearian, the only other woman to serve in either 
house from Lemhi County was Helen McKinney. Helen 
was elected to four terms from 1965 through 1972. 
Ray Infanger won election in the 1972 election and has 
been re-elected a record ten times with twenty years 
of faithful service. 

Photos of Lemhi County's past state legislators are 
on display at the State Capitol. It is worth the time to 
visit the Capitol in Boise, and go back a moment in 
time to revisit these distinguished citizens of Lemhi 

1895 John E. Rees 1945 

1899 Hyram G. Redwine 1947 

1903 C. G. Mathewson 1949 

Robert W. McBride 1951 

1905 0. E. Kirkpatrick 1953 

1907 J. Kirtley 1955 

1909 John Snook 1957 

1911 Edwin J. Hanmer 1959 

1913 Roy B. Herndon 1963 

1915 De Witt L. Nichols 1965 

1917 R. E. Wickham 1967 

1921 John W. Snook 1969 

1923 Owen Swift 1971 

1925 H. L. Summers 1973 

1927 H. L. Summers 1975 

1929 J. C. Sorenson 1977 

1931 Emma R. Yearian 1979 

1933 Louis F. Ramey 1981 

1935 Louis F. Ramey 1983 

1937 Louis F. Ramey 1985 

1939 Fred Carl 1987 

1941 Clyde Starr 1991 
1943 Charles A. Beers 

David Schultz 
L. N. Gwartney 
L. N. Gwartney 
L. N. Gwartney 
Robert Henderlider 
Ted Slavin 
Ted Slavin 
George Howell 
George Howell 
Helen McKinney 
Helen McKinney 
Helen McKinney 
Helen McKinney 
Ray E. Infanger 
Ray E. Infanger 
Ray E. Infanger 
Ray E. Infanger 
Ray E. Infanger 
Ray E. Infanger 
Ray E. Infanger 
Ray E. Infanger 
Ray E. Infanger 

John W. Snook - House of Representatives, 1921 



J. W. Yearian 9 $ C 00 

Tboiuas Tope II 16 CO 

Thomaa Top* II 15 00 

Bam yoiiiKt 21 50 00 

|). K. llemmiuger 21 60 00 

Augrmttlalt Ifl 3 00 

Puutoo & tIa\T 31 eO 00 

Ht». A. \V. Polliiou ..10 3 00 

Mrs. E. NoeloIJa 10 3 00 

D. J. Kennrj 10 3 DO 

Jsrrmiiib Fahey 5 24 00 

J. C. Matlineljr 21 60 00 

Wnh BIdr 9 00 

Oeorge Sicel 10 3 00 

J. h. Klrllej 10 3 00 


1891 M. M. McPherson 

J. M. Shoup 

Thomas Pyeatt 
1893 G. F. Yearian 
1899 H. Redwine 
1901 Wm. C. Whitwell 
1907 Wm. C. Whitwell 
1909 Walter C. Shoup 
1911 Enoch W. Whitcomb 
1913 Don C. Reed 
1915 Enoch W. Whitcomb 
1917 Enoch W. Whitcomb 
1919 Enoch W. Whitcomb 
1921 Enoch W. Whitcomb 
1923 A. C. Amonson 
1925 L. E. Glennon 
1929 Karl 0. Spahn 
1931 Owen T. Stratton 
1933 Owen T. Stratton 

1935 Owen T. Stratton 
1937 Howard Sims 
1939 Howard Sims 
1941 Howard Sims 
1943 Murd McPherson 
1945 Charles A. Beers 
1949 Clyde Starr 
1951 Clyde Starr 
1953 Clyde Starr 
1955 Howard Sims 
1957 Howard Sims 
1959 Howard Sims 
1961 Howard Sims 
1963 J. H. Sims 
1965 James Ellsworth 
1967 James Ellsworth 
1969 James Ellsworth 
1971 James Ellsworth 
1973 James Ellsworth 
1975 James Ellsworth 

Senator James Ellsworth 

Senator Enoch W. Whitcomb 

Senator Howard Sims 

Rp»jd5 <t:Mtdol 21 GO 00 

J. 0. Glbbl 21 DO 00 

n. Williams 21 60 00 

Bing Kbs ID 3 00 

Joliu DiTli 10 3 UO 

T. D. Mill.... 10 3 00 

Ed MfRe» 2a IC UO 

Ohm. Siog 10 3 00 

II. 0. Kood 10 3 00 

OrossBroi C 18 CO 

Wm. M»t?lD 21 60 to 

Tbof. Pop* 21 50 00 

Kenlock MIna 10 3 00 

Frtnch A Konoey 18 00 

p. NV. Thonifion 10 3 00 

Ed Southwick 10 t 00 

J. U. LUb 10 J 00 

Peo. L. Shonp i Co 3 16 00 

A. r >^;i xridoD 19 10 00 

Jim I.oe 10 3 00 

'Via. Wiliou 21 60 CO 

W. Melh»Dy 10 3 00 

Hfll HcDe»il« 10 3 00 

0. 0, Mittewion 10 3 00 

0. DanllDR A Oo 6 24 00 

^mltb £ Oltrk, 8 00 

FoDg Res A SJDg 00 

p. O. Weniz 10 3 00 

AVin. J. DrowD C 00 

|I. 11. Dntij 8 9 00 

Tolol t78C 00 

June aoih, WKi SbtrifT of Lembi county. 



Salmon's public library had its first rudimentary be- 
ginnings as a reading club created in an effort to keep 
young men off the streets and out of trouble. The 
Washington Reading Club was formed by a group of 
young people with the goal of founding a public library 
and reading room for Salmon. By February of 1892 the 
group had a "room in the rear of the auditor and re- 
corder's office in the Odd Fellows' building fitted up 
for a reading room" (Idaho Recorder, 24 February 

The club's success was due in part to generous do- 
nations from Senator Shoup and his previous business 
partner Mr. Glendenning. Senator Shoup donated many 
magazines, public documents, reference materials, and 
a large map of the U.S. to the club. In an article in the 
Wednesday March 16, 1892 edition of the Idaho Re- 
corder "The box of books contributed by Mr. James 
Glendenning to the public library established by the 
Washington Reading Club, was received by coach . . . 
There are 100 volumes 54 bound books, and 46 paper 
covers, comprising works of science, art and travel, 
containing useful and interesting information, as well 
as many works of fiction by standard authors." Later 
the Shoup home was donated to house the library. 

Col. Shoup's original log home "was purchased by 
James Martinelly who refurnished it and lived there 
with his bride until his death. After that the house was 
occupied by Salmon's first public library, where it re- 
mained until the property was sold to the First National 
Bank" (Recorder-Herald, Diamond Jubilee edition 1886- 

Research is lacking on the history of the library 
shortly before and after the turn of the century, but 
according to a history paper compiled by Beulah 
Brenneman, a trustee of the Salmon Public Library, 
the idea of a library was revived in 1916. At that time 
a group of local women decided to form a lending li- 
brary for their own improvement. Each member 
brought a book, and exchanged with another member. 
Later, a birthday party was given, at which time each 
member brought a book and donated it to the library. 

Eventually individual members of the Culture Club 
gave a dollar to be used for the purchase of books. 

A shelf was donated in the Charles A. Norton Jewelry 
store and the few books were placed there. Each Sat- 
urday, a member gave her time and checked out books 
to the public. 

Soon the Culture Club was changed to the Women's 
Club of Salmon. Bimonthly meetings were held and the 
members took turns in giving cultural programs. 

The first paid librarian was Margaret Shoup, young- 
est daughter of the late Senator Shoup, who was the 
last Territorial Governor and the first Governor of Ida- 

In 1918 the ladies managing the public library moved 
its books to the millinery store of Mrs. Murdoch where 

the books were given out every Friday afternoon by 
Mrs. Wright and Mrs. Preston. The quarters were con- 
sidered highly desirable for the institution. 

After World War I the books were moved to a small 
frame house on Main Street. That building has since 
been demolished and is the site of the present Rigby 

A Library Board was formed after the acquisition of 
the Main Street building and the Women's Club turned 
over the affairs of the library to this board, as agreed 
to by the City Council. 

The first board consisted of Mesdames Millicent 
Herndon, Ella Ketchum, Minnie Hart, Brandling Wright, 
Ada Barber, Lillian Padgham, and Maurine McBride. 

The library was again moved, this time to the Shenon 
Building, now the Herndon block, and was housed in a 
section that later became law office of James Herndon. 

Later, Mrs. Frank Miller was appointed librarian and 
Mrs. Estelle Carpenter succeeded her when she re- 

Fund raising efforts in 1933, collected three thou- 
sand dollars for a new library building. The library books 
and equipment were moved to the second story of the 
Cavaness building, formerly the Brown Block. Unfor- 
tunately, the bank in which the funds had been de- 
posited failed and a second bank failure wiped out what 

The City of Salmon erected a new city hall on Main 
Street and provided a room for a new library. In 1939 
the books and all the library equipment were moved 
to the new location. Both the city and the county ap- 
propriated money for the library. 

Estelle Carpenter resigned to take a position as li- 
brarian in the Salmon High School. Clarice Smith be- 
came librarian and was succeeded by Eunice Robert- 
son two years later. She served until 1964, when Mar- 
garet Morphey became the librarian. 

In August 1975 a fund, started with five hundred dol- 
lars left by the late Estelle Carpenter, was established 
for the erection of a new library building on ground 
donated by the city between the City Hall and the Lem- 
hi County Historical Museum. Shortly thereafter, a drive 
was underway, headed by Dave Ainsworth. The goal of 
forty thousand dollars in local funds was met and ex- 
ceeded in a very short time. This enabled Salmon to 
match for a sixty thousand dollar public library con- 
struction grant from the Idaho State Library — part of 
the State Aid funds appropriated by the Idaho State 
Legislature in 1976. 

The building, designed by architect Dates Fryberger 
of Ketchum, Idaho, was erected by contractor Don 
Schafer of Salmon, was finished January 1, 1977 and 
opened its doors to the public some weeks later, in 
March. The formal dedication was postponed pending 
arrival of tables, chairs and other furnishings. The li- 
brary was officially dedicated on June 9, 1977. 


Librarian Margaret Morphey retired at the comple- 
tion of major construction, at the beginning of 1977. 
She had been librarian for thirteen years, seeing the 
library through its period of greatest growth and 
change. Librarian Marian Emerson, after superintend- 
ing the move from the old library to the new, moved 
from the area and Kathleen Cramer was appointed to 
succeed her. 

Kathleen Cramer also saw the library through a pe- 
riod of expansion. With grant monies from the State 
Library additional space, an office and workroom were 
added to the library. Kathleen Cramer retired in 1991. 
Current trustees are Helen Durand, Phyllis Caples, 
Phoebe Ann Finlayson, Barry Miller, Janice Neal, and 
Luke Prange. The current librarian is Ramona Combs- 

I^If yon ladies wish an eli gant dn s", 
write for samples and prices. If yon 
wish to bny a fine sboe, eleRaut Inces, 
Jovely underwear, a nice fashionable 
wrap, or moit anything a lady needs,, you 
can get it by writing to the O. K. L(3wis 
Mercantile Company, Dillon, Montana.' 


Cobalt is a mineral that, when combined with certain 
other minerals in the making of steel, produces an alloy 
that retains both its strength and dimension at white 
hot temperatures. It has great utility in cutting tools 
used in manufacturing metal products. The develop- 
ment of this alloy, called Stellite, made mass produc- 
tion possible. Stellite was developed just prior to World 
War I. The advantages cited above made cobalt of stra- 
tegic importance. It had come a long way from being 
considered an impurity in ores of other metals such as 
gold and copper. Most of the cobalt produced in the 
world is a by-product of copper mining in Zaire, for- 
merly the Belgian Congo. It is controlled by the Minere' 
de Katonga, a European cartel. 

The initial mining activity on Panther Creek focused 
on gold. Claims were filed, and what proved to be most- 
ly surface gold was removed. The interest in mining 
cobalt in this area came after the development of Stel- 
lite shortly before World War I. The mine at Cobalt was 
developed during World War I by a subsidiary of Union 
Carbide. The ore was crushed by a stamp mill and con- 
centrated for shipment to a refinery in Kokomo, Indi- 
ana. Power for this mine and one in the Leesburg basin 
to the north was provided by a hydroelectric plant on 
Panther Creek. The route of the original powerline in 
still followed today by the current powerline. 

After World War I, demand for cobalt faltered, and 
the mine at Cobalt fell idle. It was sold for back taxes 
during the Depression. Just prior to World War II, the 
U.S. Government and Howe Sound Mining Corporation 
became interested in the Cobalt area. Working at first 
independently and later in a joint effort, they did ex- 
tensive diamond drilling to determine the extent of the 

deposit. This lead to exploratory tunnels to further ex- 
amine the quality and scope of the deposit. 

New applications for cobalt appeared at this time, 
making it even more vital to the military. Jet engines 
were being developed, and the cobalt alloy was needed 
in the blades of those engines. ALNICO, or ALuminum- 
Nlckel-CObalt was developed, and this proved to be a 
very powerful magnet, making much smaller motors 

Howe Sound's subsidiary, Calera Mining, developed 
the town of Cobalt, together with the mine and the 
processing plant, during the 1940's. When Idaho Power 
built the current powerline in the 1940's, the high ten- 
sion span across Panther Creek was the longest in the 
world on wooden structures, at 5200 feet. It is still the 
second longest. 

At Calera Mining, production was ready to begin in 
1950, when the Korean conflict began. The govern- 
ment offered Calera a large contract if they could dou- 
ble their rate of production. The necessary changes 
were made and production began in 1951. The town 
of Cobalt was a remote, isolated, but friendly place, 
largely supplied by Salmon businesses. It had a food 
store. Post Office, recreation center, school, and 
church services. Many mining families lived at the 
townsite, which was just a few miles from the actual 
minesite. In the 1950's, at its peak. Cobalt had perhaps 
1500 residents and the mine employed 450 people. 
The government contract was completed in 1959. 

Another use of cobalt developed by this time, was 
the process that binds enamel to metal surfaces. Ap- 
pliance manufacturers would therefore be a potential 
market. In 1959, Calera contacted G.E. and Westing- 
house, and both were interested in buying domestically 
produced cobalt. Minere' de Katonga sent both man- 
ufacturers a letter advising them that if they bought 
any cobalt from another source, they could not expect 
to buy any from them. The cartel then sent Calera 
Mining a letter stating that the price of cobalt on the 
world market was very unstable and could in fact drop 

A birthday party at Cobalt about 1920. Front left is Tommy Boyle 
and front right is his wife Sally. Others unidentified. 


to zero. Their copper mining business is so lucrative 
that they do not have to worry about the profit they 
make on their cobalt. Their cobalt is strictly an impurity 
in the copper, an impurity they can virtually give away 
and yet one of great importance in national defense 
and manufacture. After the cartel so effectively dem- 
onstrated its ability to control the world market, Calera 
closed its doors. It left behind a 10 year supply of ore 
identified and ready for extraction. 

The property is currently owned by Noranda Mining 
Corporation. They have spent over $1 ,000,000 to build 
a water treatment facility to correct some of the pol- 
lution problems stemming from the mine. The pollution 
comes from the leaching of the waste piles; piles of 
rock left after the ore is extracted and concentrated. 
Also from leaching of the ore body exposed in the open 
pit mine in Big Deer Creek, and drainage from the tun- 
nels. Noranda's water treatment plant operates twenty 
four hours per day, every day. 

Noranda's operation was short lived. In the late 
1970's and early 1980's they employed several hun- 
dred employees in reconstructing and development. 
The economy of Salmon started to have a mini-boom. 
Then just as suddenly, the Company closed the op- 
eration. Salmon fell into recession, many families moved 
away, the school system laid off teachers and times 
were tough (1982- 1985). Times were even tougher on 
the town of Cobalt, Idaho. The Company sold the town, 
that is, sold all of the buildings of the town in a public 
auction. Many houses were moved to Salmon and else- 
where, others were dismantled for material. In 1991, 
a crew began dismantling the mill. Cobalt, Idaho is his- 
tory, for now, but, the metal is there, and who knows 
when Cobalt will Boom Again! 


by Marsha Smith 

Sam Jones, said to have been a cousin of Frank and 
Jesse James, discovered the Kentuck mine at Shoup 
and some at Pine Creek. He sold his claim for a con- 
siderable amount but was generous to a fault. Sam 
would ride to Shoup on his big white horse and on the 
outskirts of town pull out his fiddle and gallop in playing 
the Arkansas Traveler. When they heard him coming, 
men would throw the saloon doors open so he could 
ride in on his horse. Jones would order drinks around, 
dismount, and let someone take his horse to the stable. 
He continued buying drinks until he was drunk and his 
friends would carry him to a rooming house. 

Sometimes Sam would come into Salmon and always 
set up drinks for the boys at Al Smith's saloon. One 
evening they decided to have some fun, so they got 
him drunk, called in a prostitute and had the Justice 
of the Peace marry them. In the morning Sam asked 
the lady, "Who are you?" "I'm your wife, don't you 
remember getting married?" "The hell," exclaimed 

Sam and out the door he went. The curious twist is 
that Sam Jones died not long after. The lady kept track 
of him and claimed his bank account. There were plen- 
ty of witnesses to the marriage, so she inherited 

The Clipper Bullion Mine is a small property one half 
mile west of Shoup on the south bank of the river. 
Shoup, Idaho lies roughly eighteen miles west of North 
Fork on the Salmon River. Today there is little to be 
seen of the town which once served some 3,000 peo- 
ple. Since discovery in 1887, it has yielded about 
$75,000, in gold. Three veins were found on the prop- 
erty. They were found at higher elevations on the 
mountainside and are locally known as Tramway, Hen- 
nessey and Clipper Bullion. These mines were unique 
in that the ore was transported by tramway down to 
the river. The most productive vein of the three was 
the Clipper Bullion. From the north bank visitors can 
see the old rundown building and various mining equip- 
ment that is in the process of being restored. Also vis- 
ible is the old cable going up the hill. 

Gold Hill Mine is located nine tenths of a mile below 
Shoup. The Gold Hill Mine's history dates back through 
the Gold Rush days of the late 1800's and early 1900's 
when this region was the scene of one of Idaho's wil- 
dest gold rushes. 

Today's owners, John and Patty Hulihan have col- 
lected many tools and artifacts from the mining days. 
They present guided tours during summer months for 
tourists delight. You may even try your hand at gold 

When Lewis and Clark made their journey West, even 
they concluded that these mountains were too deso- 
late and too difficult to traverse. They sent a guide from 
North Fork near Spring Creek, just upstream from, 
Shoup before making the decision to head up over Lost 
Trail Pass and into Montana. 

The Salmon River, got its name "The River of No 
Return" from the gold rush days. Boatmen ferried sup- 
plies downriver to Shoup where the flatboats were dis- 
mantled and sold for building supplies to the miners 
and prospectors. What went down did not come back. 

Today, the Salmon River is no longer a serious threat 
to an experienced boatman. It is a marvelous river for 
tourists and each year thousands come to float and 
relax along its shores. As one of the West's great moun- 
tain rivers, its four hundred undammed miles offer con- 
stantly changing scenery that is richly imbedded with 
human history and offers a trip back into the great 
American West. 

In addition to the gold mining influence. There is still 
visible along the road, evidence of the Sheepeater In- 
dians. The shelters have been excavated and contain 
evidence of habitation to eight thousand years ago. 
Two roadside shelters display petroglyphs which can 
be seen from your vehicle. One is located between Pine 
and Panther Creeks, while the other is just before Ebe- 
nezer campground. 


Shoup, Idaho in earlier times. 


Viola B. Anglin 

During the 1890's this vicinity had a small store usu- 
ally managed by the Postmaster in connection with the 
Post Office within a few miles of the present location. 
In 1902 the place was called "Hover", but when John 
Reese and Charles Lipe built a store building in 1904, 
the Post Office was moved there and the place was 
named "Sunfield." Later Lipe sold out to Reese and 
Mr. and Mrs. Charles Fox took over the store. When 
they sold to Ed Venable, he moved the store to what 
is now called the Ball Ranch on Agency Creek. 

In 1911, Fred Pattee built a store building on the 
Pattee Ranch near the new railroad. He rented it to 
Gene Smith and Logue Igou who put in a good supply 
of groceries and merchandise. The Post Office was 
moved there and the place named "Tendoy" after the 
Indian Chief. Soon the place became a depot, cream 
station, and community center. Smith sold to Igou and 
later he sold to Dad Rathbun, who sold to Ray Pierce. 
After several years, in 1928, Pierce built a new building 
on the Ball Ranch near the State Highway and the 
Tendoy school. With help from his brother Warren, he 
stocked the store and it became well known over the 
county. Pierce was a good merchant! 

In 1944 he sold out to Barbara and Clint Quesnell. 
Within a short time, they sold to Mr. and Mrs. Guy 
Frazee. On June 26,' 1948, the Frazees sold the store 
to Viola and Bill Anglin and Vivian and Herb Godfrey. 
The two women managed the store while the men held 
other jobs. 

1890 - The first ball known to Pine Creek since the history of time 
began was given by Mrs. F. W. Niemann on the 23rd instant. Invi- 
tations were out three weeks previous to the date and the dancing public 
of Shoup responded by the following named: Thomas Boyle and wife, 
W. W. St Clair and wife, Thomas Stevens, James Welch, Joe Laughlin, 
William Taylor, Thomas Pound, George Chamberlain and Thomas 

All that remains of the original Tendoy Store in 1990. 

The railroad was abandoned and tracks removed in 
1940-41. The State bought the railroad right of way 
and built a new highway on the railroad bed. The An- 
glins and Godfreys purchased property along the new 
highway directly in front of the first Tendoy Store. They 
moved the Pierce building and stock there in October 
of 1948. The move was a good one and the store was 
a busy place. 


The old Tendoy store built by Fred Pattee in 1911. 

In April of 1961 the Godreys sold their share to the 
Anglins who increased the stock, added a trailer court, 
and built a new addition to house the Post Office when 
that office advanced to Third Class. 

The store located on the Lemhi River just twelve 
miles from the place where Sacajawea led Lewis and 
Clark into Idaho, two miles from Chief Tendoy's grave, 
and two miles from the old Mormon Fort Lemhi enjoys 
a great tourist trade along with business from ranch- 
ers, loggers, miners, fishermen, hunters, and all the 
local people. It is very well stocked with groceries, 
hardware, ranch supplies, dry goods, drugs, jewelry, 
sporting goods, beer, pop, and gas and oil. 

When Bill Anglin died in 1982, son Kelly came home 
to assist his mother with the store operation. In 1983 
he was commissioned Postmaster at Tendoy. Today 
the store is still owned and operated by the Anglins. 

From notes written by Phoebe Pattee 


0( .lliuoat Conntaat Worth aJdU Beau- 
ty Tliroutfhouc tUe Yea:r. 

Tl;o tlt'uro irom Aineilcaa Gaidenlng 
shows a slu^le piaiit oC Rosa tnulUflora, 
liulgiiC. 7 I'oec <i lacUtiu; dlanmter, 11 
feet. A corresiJouUeot says: "I con- 
siiier tUi3 oue oil the uioat useful rose* 
giotva bi^'ause of the luaar places la 
which It i:aa be used auJ yet aoc bo 
luther unslghily some time lu the year, 
lu the early .^prlo;, oi course, ULe all 
the other roses, Us ireeneiT Is beautl 


Larze Strniv Suu Hats the Lateat De- 
vice For Hor»ea' Comfort. 

The lilca it placing a wltle brimmed 
straw hat over the horse's head to pre- 
vent 3unstroUe Is said to have ori|;luai- 
!d la New YurL. ami it Is claimed that 
straw hats are much better proteutora 



Soule & Kail. Props. 

Wholesale and Retail Dealers in 
Meats of All Kinds. Ranch Pro- 
duce, Fruits and Candies. 

Salmon. Idaho. 



fiil, but more so because of its freedom 
from the stiffness of most other rose- 
b\ishcs. la June It is notlceahle for 
the number of dowers. 

"For August It Is still holding its 
own as a green bush, while the other 
rosea are hardly presentable. A month 
or so later you may thluU It not .so bad, 
and as the season slips Into winter the 
sight of thousands of bright scarlet 
berries, above the carpet of snow per- 
chance, makes you speculate at what 
time of the year— -Vprll. June, Decem- 
ber or Jlarcll— RoKa multldora Is at Its 


than any of the awuing arrangements. 
From this primitive start a number of 
novelties have beeu evolved and put on 
the market. 

Coarse straw braid hats are largely 
manufactured In a variety of styles, 
some of which are hera shown. This 
headgear gives a decided appearance of 
comfort ou horses under the scorching 
summer sun. 


Jl'» '^^ ->i- ■■** 


by Bob Loucks 
Lemhi County Agricultural Agent 

Chris Darnutzer, Charles Chamberlain, and George 
Yearian. Range cow herds were imported from Oregon, 
Utah, southern Idaho, and Montana. By the early 1870's 
the livestock industry was well established. The earliest 
cattle ranch in Pahsimeroi Valley was started about 
1870 by a man known as French Joe. He was soon 
followed into the valley by Lorenzo Falls, Wilson and 
George Ellis, Edward O'Neal, and J.B. Morrow. 

The early cattle herds were longhorn crossed with 
eastern native cattle. Cattle were herded in the moun- 
tains in the summer and in the native meadows during 
the winter. The severe winter and deep snow of 1889- 
90 brought an end to these types of operations and 
started the era of raising and storing hay from the 
valleys for winter feeding. By 1891 the native cattle 
were largely supplanted by Durham or shorthorns. In 
the late 1920's or early "30's" Hereford cattle came 
to the county. At this time, most cattle in the county 
are cross-bred with a Hereford or Angus base. 

During the early part of this century and into the 
1960's, the cattle industry in the county was closely 
aligned to the Big Hole. Several herds wintered in Lem- 
hi County but spent the pasture season in the Big Hole. 
Big Hole ranchers were also an important market for 
calves. The Hirschy family, in particular, came into the 
county in the fall, purchased calves, and trailed them 
to the Big Hole where they were wintered on hay and 
then pastured. 

Artwork • Helen Yowell 

Agriculture did not have too auspicious a beginning 
in Lemhi County. When the Mormons established the 
Fort Lemhi Mission to the Indians in June 1855, they 
immediately dug an irrigation ditch from Pattee Creek 
and planted 10 acres of peas, potatoes, turnips and 
corn. Unfortunately, an early frost on September 4 
wiped out the crop. That winter the missionaries en- 
larged their irrigation system and plowed more ground. 
In 1856, a plague of grasshoppers destroyed their 
crops. Fortunately, their livestock was faring substan- 
tially better than the crops. Their cattle herd had in- 
creased to more than 300 head by the time the Indians 
rustled them and sold them to the army in 1858. 

The next farming venture in the county was at the 
same site. A father and son produced vegetables at 
Fort Lemhi and packed them to Bannack in 1863 and 
1864. Permanent agriculture began with the discovery 
of gold at Leesburg in 1866. Some of the early pioneers 
brought milk cows to Salmon City and the Leesburg 
Basin. Vegetables and cereal grains were produced in 
the Salmon area in 1867. 

The first homestead in the county was that of Lester 
Withington at Baker in 1866. It was soon followed by 
F.B. Sharkey at the Fort Lemhi site and others. Public 
land surveying was active from 1873 to 1887, so the 
early homesteads were of necessity metes and bounds 

The livestock industry in the county followed the gold 
rush. The first cattle were longhorn steers from Texas 
by way of Montana. These cattle were "run out" and 
trailed to the mining camps and butchered as needed. 
Among the earliest cattlemen in the Salmon area were 

New officers of the Cattlemen's Association - 1956. Steve Mahaffy, 
Bill Clark, Bill Fayle. 


Pine Creek bulls at a Central Idaho Hereford Sale in Salmon. 
Second man from left is Emmett Reese and far right is Neal Thomas. 

^ < 4 

A very busy ewe on the Cockrell ranch. 

Bob Johnson photo 

Ben Dillon shearing a ewe. 

Little data is available to describe the development 
of the sheep industry in the county. A lot of the higher 
elevation range is more suitable for sheep than for cat- 
tle. The early transportation system also favored sheep 
because the lambs could be trailed to market or a rail- 
head when fat. In any case, the industry apparently 
reached its peak size in the 1930's with over 50 thou- 
sand ewes. As late as 1950 there were still over 40 
thousand ewes in the county; however, by 1970 ewe 
numbers were down to 15 thousand and the current 
sheep population is less than 3000 ewes. 

Horses have always been part of the scene in Lemhi 
County. The first commerce in horses, of course, was 
when Lewis and Clark traded with Cameahwait's In- 
dians to obtain horses for their journey west. Horses 
and mules provided most of the transportation and 
draft power until the 1940's. According to census fig- 
ures, the maximum population was about 4500 head 
of stock. Horses were run out in the foothills and gath- 
ered as needed for draft purposes. All the old timers 
remember bands of range horses even into the 1950's. 
In addition to the population needed for draft and 
transportation purposes, several ranchers produced 
horses for sale to the military, the Oliver Ranch pro- 
duced polo ponies, and the Snooks and others pro- 

duced race horses. The Salmon Select Horse Sale, one 
of the premier sales of working horses in Idaho, cel- 
ebrates its 20th annual sale in 1992. 

Changes in transportation, eating habits, and food 
preservation have created major changes in agricul- 
ture in Lemhi County over the years. During the late 
1800's and early 1900's, agriculture was considerably 
more diverse than the primarily livestock economy 
which has dominated since about 1950. Small family 
dairy operations supported three small cheese facto- 
ries over the years. Until the 1930's about 2000 acres 
of spring wheat was grown in the county. This sup- 
ported at least two flour mills which exported flour. 
About the same period, the county was a major dry 
pea seed production area. Old timers report that a 
small acreage of sugar beets was grown near Salmon 
in the late 1930's and exported on the railroad for 

Commercial mink production was started by Larry 
Bills in 1951. This was an important industry for about 
six ranches until recent times. The industry peaked in 
size during the 1960's at around 3000 breeding fe- 
males. Currently, there are only two ranches producing 
mink with about 1100 females. 

Because of topography, climate, distance to market. 


and aptitude of ranch operators, agriculture in the 
county has become dominated by range livestock op- 
erations. During the last 40 years, beef cow numbers 
remained relatively constant, fluctuating between 31.5 
and 32.5 thousand cows. Lemhi County usually ranks 
second or third among the counties in Idaho in stock 
cow numbers and ranked 89th in the United States in 
1987. The range livestock industry in the county is 
quite dependent on public ranges. Over 12 thousand 
stock cows spend 4-5 months on public range. In fact, 
about 30% of the beef cattle feed base is derived from 
BLM and USPS permits. About 116 of the 225 com- 
mercial ranches in the county have public range per- 
mits. Dairy cow numbers have increased in recent years 
to around 1200 cows. 

Although the amount of cropland in the county has 
changed very little over the years, changes in farming 
equipment and methods has led to a vast reduction in 
the number of ranches. Mechanization of haying has 
probably been the biggest single factor in allowing an 
increase in ranch size. From the scythe to the horse- 
drawn mower to the tractor mower to the self-pro- 
pelled swather-conditioner for mowing; from the pitch- 
fork to the dumprake to the buckrake or sweep rake 
to side-delivery rakes to the baler or round baler or 
ton baler for raking and accumulating; from the slip or 
hay wagon to bale wagons and trucks for yarding; from 
the pitchfork to hay derricks to beaverslides to bale 
wagons for stacking; haying has become increasingly 
mechanized. From the time when it was not uncom- 
mon for a small ranch to employ five or six men during 
haying until today when it is not uncommon for a family 
to harvest and stack 500 to 700 tons of hay by them- 
selves, mechanization and economies of scale have en- 
couraged a trend toward larger ranches. 

Except for the period when the railroad was active 
(1910- 39), transportation and distance from markets 
has created marketing problems for agriculture in the 

Thrashing grain on Sandy Creek. This was the first steam tractor 
in Lemhi County. 

Harvey Bell photo 

county. Producers have attempted to create a more 
competetive marketing environment through several 
methods. Sheepmen first began pooling wool in the 
1930's. By consigning their wool to a pool, enough 
product could be offered for sale to attract interest 
directly from the woolen mills. The original pool was 
incorporated in 1952 and continues pooling lambs and 
wool to this time. As an affiliate of the PNW Lamb Mar- 
keting Association, the pool was one of the pioneers 
in tele- auctioning lambs in the early 1980's. Cattle and 
calves were all marketed to country buyers (notably 
John and Jack McKinney) for many years. About the 
end of World War II, Colonel Lykens constructed a sale 
yard just east of Salmon. This yard operated very suc- 
cessfully until the mid-1950's. The Salmon Sale Yard 
was constructed about 1960. It operated with a variety 
of owners until the mid-1970's. Currently, most calves 
are marketed to country buyers. Judd and Scott Whi- 
tworth, Don Burtenshaw, Roy Hoffman, and Jack 
McKinney have been the most prominant buyers for 
the past 15 years. Cull cows and bulls are primarily 
marketed through auction markets in Eastern and 
Southern Idaho. 

Agriculture has always been the largest part of the 
basic economy of the county. Livestock ranching is 


Mowing hay on the Sandy Creek Bar about 1916. 

Harvey Bell photo 

■^_ , , _ ^ , . _£ .^^ - ? ^ 

.' ^i-^ ik ' * 


responsible for almost 50% of county employment and 
almost 40% of county household income. Mining has 
been either boom or bust; the timber industry devel- 
oped slowly and peaked in the 1960-80 period; but 
agriculture came to supply the mines and remained as 
the economic mainstay. Unless there are major chang- 
es in access or price of Federal range, livestock agri- 
culture will continue to be the dominant part of the 
basic economy of the county. 

1 90 1 - F. W. Nieman of Boyle Creek, was in towii yesterday. He has 
an orchard of i,ooo trees including peaches, pears, plums, apples and 
cherries and says the trees ar all in bloom and in fine condition. The 
yield of fruit this year will be enormous. Mr. N. is horticultural inspector 
for the 6th district. 

19 18 - A whole train load of lambs from one ranch in Lemhi Gsunty, 
that of Thomas H. Yearian at Lemhi, and made of eighteen double 
deckers, was sent out for the main line, yielding the owner, Mrs. Yearian, 
fifteen cents per pound at Axmstead. 

Lloyd Clark of Leadore, bucking hay the old fashioned way. 

The buckrake that was in common use for many years. 


Stacking hay at Leadore with a beaver-slide 

Lost: — A span 
gray, branded 

of geldings, 

] on 


shoulder; the bay branded blurr- 
ed "H" on right hip, also branded 
Jc. Last heard of they were en 
Carman creek. Si 5 reward lev 
their reUirn to W. Rairden, Fo:'. 
Lemhi, Idaho. 


Turn br»J recorded 
8linit Hoin :uiU Jerff 
Culllr: nlio Kfudca. W* 
nto ibf gdvornor brmid 
fn oalllo tUiii: i 

H»rtiid UolftrlhJ 
eiihl«r III th«j 

-..^^ »=<r •!"• Ill* »n.l cut nir 

tvo illtii Inward from Ih* oropp«d And. 
«08 hnvo Hio gOYonior lirorid on tb» 
li>ri chnuldPt. Kaneaa -Ciiriiioii Croeli nn4 
Itndror nprlngi. ]■. O. atJdi«i>t: Baimoii City 
Miihn m»r3l-«i 

J. 4 A. UAnnACI 
Our f^'illlo braml !• on 
left Hide of nnlmrl. 

Alnn v\t n liorKenhrtinU- 
cd Ike «uh:r •■i ti\tlle 
only tho brnnrt U uii loft 

• iKlUld.T. 

rtonKn --Nnjili nMo of 
I.cinhl liver spvc.i inlic^ 
fioni Hnlmon r.llv. 

roftt'>11lou Htlfhrtis: .1 . A 
A. I DitilinCIl). Idiiho 


Land Udlcc at llnllry, Idnho, ) 
Mny .1, mo. f 

Nolloei Is hereliy elrrh Ihni (ho Mllowhiar 
iianipd Eoltler hn^ HIpiI iinlhe of lilt Inlcii- 
llon lo moke fliiKl proof In •iioporl of liH 
claim, niid Hint lold jiinnf will be made Iih- 
fiiro -riinniaH Elder, riolmin .liiil;p, at Sal- 
mon Ully. Idaho, on .Inns 12tli, I8WI, viz: An- 
Ihony llornliack, who mudo llomestend 
Application Nu. 172 for the W.'i .SWy, and 
."iKli 9\VJ,' of sec. 10 and NKU HE'A of see. 9. 
Ip. II N. It. 22 E. 

lie nainea the following wltn«»ei (oproT* 
hit contluiioiii mldencc upon mill oilllva- 
tlon of (aid land, viz: Slenhcn Q. Munfiill, 
James I.. Klrtlry, Lewis llnlslcad, Uharle* 
D. Lee, all or8nlinon Clly, Idaho. 

U. O. Bii.i.iNGS, i:«gl<l«r. 


by Marsha Smith 

At one time, countless buffalo roamed this area and 
history reports herds covering an area of seventy by 
thirty miles. The buffalo herds were almost extermi- 
nated by the white man. At the end of the Civil War, 
the cattle market in the north was good while Texas 
had a surplus. Starting in 1866, great numbers of Texas 
cattle were trailed north, starting the greatest range 
cattle industry the world has ever known. 

The year 1854, when a party of Mormon settlers 
brought cattle to the Salmon country, may be called 
the beginning event in our cattle history. Cattlemen to 
our east owned as many head of cattle as the total 
number of cattle in Idaho in 1870; but that area was 
rapidly being overgrazed and the push west began. 
Some range cattle that came from California and Texas 

were of the old Spanish Longhorn type. Most, however, 
were English breeds (Shorthorn and Devn) which the 
settlers brought with them. They used them both for 
work and milk stock. 

Settlers became the cattlemen of later years. Be- 
cause of this, there was little fighting between cattle- 
men and settlers over land or water. 

Branding cattle became a necessity, so stockmen 
could identify their own stock on the range. Laws were 
passed requiring registration of brands. Today, all cat- 
tle shipped must be inspected by an official brands 

A stockman has the choice of design and location of 
brand. Left or right hip, side or shoulder. A registration 
fee is charged and must be renewed every five years. 
In any lawsuit where title or right to possession is in 
question, the animal will belong to the person who owns 
the brand, provided the brand has been correctly re- 


^ TVV 

HaH Ckcl* S 

J. W. SrKsok 

Row»» J, Sotmon, Idaho 

Round Top T FTying O 

Sam WcKinney AiUfl« Hoffman 
Lamhi, Idaho Satmon. Idaho 

Bioktn Heart V 
Mory Turner 
Tendoy. Idaho 

Ti >^ K-J 

T Up end T Down Rocking Horj« 

Bob ond Saba Thomai g^^id 9. and Velmo Rovndol 
>o«/f« I. Solmon, Idohc gout» \. Salmon, Idaho 

Rocking Hors« K Sat i 

«r<3ld 8. and Velmo Rovndol Wrv Annit Scan 

Rout* \, Salmon, Idaho Salmon, Idoho 

A Sloih '■^"Y T Y Hook Triangle Oiomond F 

Arch- Mc/orlond E- C. and lr««. Bolandw Ray Skinner ^^^ 3^,^^ 

Cormen, Idoho Com^. Idoho Salmon, Idaho ^^^^ ^^^^ 

Symbols such as flying, box, bar, walking, diamond, 
slashes, rocking, and swinging are used. 

Lester P. Withington's brand, the "double ox yoke", 
was the first brand to be registered in Lemhi County 
in 1878. Mr. Withington is the grandfather of Lois W. 
Bisson, who with her husband, Roy, inherited the orig- 
inal brand. They have recently sold the ranch and 
moved into Salmon. 

The oldest recorded brand in the State of Idaho, 
1884, belonging to and used by the original owner is 
the "Half Circle S" registered to J. W. Snook and the 
Snook family. 


by Paul Schneider 

Manager, Salmon Office of Idaho Power Company 

Before 1907, there were numerous sets of owners 
of small local enterprises of power throughout the State 
of Idaho. As projects became more expensive, con- 
solidations and mergers took place. The five largest 
companies were consolidated as Idaho Power Com- 
pany in 1915 and began operation in 1916. Since then, 
Idaho Power has purchased other small power com- 
panies within or adjacent to Idaho Power Company's 
service territory. 

In Lemhi County there were several small power 
companies. The Edward Mingle Plant started about 
1897. The Salmon City Electric Light and Power Com- 
pany started about 1898. G. B. and A. J. Quarles owned 
this company and the interest of William Peterson. 
Salmon Electric Company, Ltd. was formed in 1908 
and the Andrews Light and Power Company was formed 
in 1909. Riggs and Mackenzie, incorporated the Lemhi 
Power Company, Ltd. in 1911 and the Salmon River 
Power and Light Company was formed in 1914. 

View of the Power Plant diversion dam, located in the Lemhi River, 
near Salmon, Idaho. It diverted water into the canal to the Power 
Plant located at the end of North St. Charles Street. 

The old spillway of the Idaho Power Plant in Salmon, in August , 

photo Bruce Watters 

The "new" spillway of the Idaho Power Plant in 1944. 

Idaho Power purchased the Lemhi operations in 1928 
when Idaho Power purchased the Salmon River Power 
Company which served Salmon with a small hydroe- 
lectric plant. The plant did not produce power in the 
winter because of ice, so a stand-by diesel generator 
was also used. 

In 1950 the company built a 69,000 volt line between 
Bannock, Montana and the Calera Mining Company 
mines in the Cobalt and Blackbird areas of Lemhi Coun- 







The Salmon Power Plant in the 1930's. 

Canal running from the Lemhi River to the Pow- 
er Plant. 

This building, located on North St. Charles Street 
in Salmon, generated power from a diesel en- 
gine. Photo in 1938. 

ty. The line crosses the Continental Divide at Lemhi 
Pass near where Lewis and Clark first entered Idaho. 
At the same time, the Company connected the town 
of Salmon with the Cobalt line. This was the first power 
into Salmon that was other than its old hydro/diesel 
systems. The 5,240 foot transmission-line span across 
Panther Creek west of Salmon, was at the time, 1950, 
the longest span in the United States. Employees pa- 
trolled the line by airplane, snow cat and on horseback. 

Idaho Power's office was located in the Shenon Block 
at 608 Main Street until the Company built their new 
office at Church and Van Dreff Streets in 1977. 

In 1992, the main, future project for the Company 
is the construction of a second high voltage transmis- 
sion line into Lemhi County from Montana. This second 
source should provide adequate power for the future 
growth of Lemhi County. 

All Photos courtesy of Idaho Power Company. 

Another view of the Salmon Power Plant in 1950. 

19 1 2 - The city is lighted by means of a hydro-electric plant of 600 
horse power, utilizing the current of the Lemhi River for it's enthusiasm. 
It is one of the best lighted cities in the West. 


—DR. A. M, ALLEN, 


FREXCH and ,KEXXrS Drug -'Stare. 
For TE>J DAYS Only. 





-ij ^ ^ ^p ^ ^ 


Owirtg to nccessiiry repairs 
oil tlie plant, tlic electric 
lights will be olf on this Wed- 
nesday, and Thursday nights, 
and possibly off on Fri iay 
night. On Saturday m.dit 
the lights will again be on, 
and we trust there will be no 
further inconvenience for a 
long time. 

Installation of a new diesel generator at the Salmon Power Plant 
resulted in the elimination of the Lemhi River diversion dam and 
hydro powered plant. 


by Doris Brown 

In 1950, a stirring achievement in the history of Lem- 
hi County electric service was the construction of a 
69,000 volt line from Bannock, Montana to Salmon, 
Idaho. Mile after challenging mile, the high-voltage car- 
rier had been pushed by it's builders, leaping the Con- 
tinental Divide through the 8,000 foot high Lemhi Pass. 
In August of that year, the new $401,000 line was en- 
ergized and the Salmon District was linked with Idaho 
Power's inter-connected system. 

The one hundred eighty miles of lines through the 
rugged mountains between Salmon and Bannock are 
checked for faults such as broken insulators, loose tie 
wires, broken cross-arms and damaged or lost hard- 
ware once a year, at the close of the big game season. 
It must be done before the snow flies so that the line 
crews can get there to make any necessary repairs. 

Salmon troubleman Scott Brown had the idea that 
riding a horse to patrol the roughest parts of the terrain 
would be faster and more economical that the con- 
ventional methods of using helicopter and line truck 
equipment. He would be expected to record the lo- 
cation of any trouble by pole number and later notify 
the line crew foreman, who then could arrange for re- 

Consequently, for twenty-three years, in good 
weather and bad, Scott and his registered quarter- 
horse, made the ride for Idaho Power. He usually trail- 
ered his horses to the Continental Divide just out of 
Salmon. For the next thirty- five miles Scott used a 
horse, alternating with a fresh mount every ten miles 
or so, when the path of the power lines could be reached 

Scott Brown and Bankroll Skip patroling the power line 

by truck and trailer. 

The first trip over the mountains was unique, ac- 
cording to Scott, because he miscalculated the time 
needed for the journey and spent a night sleeping on 
the ground, rolled up in his saddle blanket. The trip 
made a very long day in the saddle and sometimes it 
took two days to make. 

Because of this unique company duty, he was fea- 
tured in the February, 1977 issue of Idaho Power's 
Current News Bulletin; the Public Information depart- 
ment used Scott and his horse, Bankroll Skip, in a tel- 
evision commericial illustrating the company's efforts 
to use the best way — new, or old — to get the job done; 
and he and his horse were featured on the back cover 
of the company's 1977 annual report. 

Due to health reasons, Scott retired from the com- 
pany in March of 1978, after twenty-nine good years 
in their service. 



The first in a long series of bridges crossing the Salm- 
on River was built in 1866. The following is from The 
History of Lemhi County by George E. Shoup: 

Darnutzer and Chamberlain, experienced builders, 
constructed a foot and pack bridge across the river 
where they had built their cabins. This was the first 
bridge to span the Salmon River and toll was charged 
for its use . . . The fare or toll was 25 cents per man or 
animal . . . This bridge was well patronized during . . . 

Later, the same year, a foot and pack bridge was built 
by two carpenters . . . Barbet and Johns . . . but a few 
rods above the (other) bridge. In 1868 . . . Barbet and 
Johns cut and hauled fir logs to Salmon. These were 
hewn into square timbers. Low cribs were built in the 
river and filled with rock for substantial piers. Squared 
timbers were first set upright in the frames before filling. 
Upon these upright timbers or posts were placed the 
sills and framework of the bridge. Large poles were used 
for flooring hewed on the top side. This bridge was built 
wideenoughfor one-way wagon crossing. . .This bridge 
later was sold to Jesse McCaleb. (It operated as a toll 
bridge, with the toll gate at the west end.) This was the 
first wagon bridge crossing the Salmon River . . . The 
toll was 25 cents each for man or animal and 50 cents 
per team. 

During the years standing of this rough wooden bridge, 
the high swift water coming near to the stringers each 
year, and during ice jams of winter the well set piers 
withstood it all . . . but in June 1874 a big Cottonwood 
tree with its tangle of protruding roots and limbs struck 
the floor beams of one of the spans and the tremem- 
dous force of rushing water tore the full span from the 

A new toll bridge was constructed in 1875. Ira Tingley 
acquired the bridge from Jesse McCaleb in 1875 and 
owned it until it was purchased by the County in 1884. 

The fourth bridge: a steel suspension bridge built in 1905. 

In 1905 a steel suspension bridge was built to replace 
the old wooden structure. A sign on this bridge said, 
"$5.00 fine for riding or driving over this bridge faster 
than a walk". It served until 1926 when the new con- 
crete bridge was completed. 

Monday morning, November 9, 1925, the old sus- 
pension bridge was closed to traffic when the con- 
tractor pulled the steam shovel into place. Excavation 
for the concrete footings began on November 6, 1925, 
under the west end with pick and shovel. The bucket 
for the steam digger arrived by train, and gravel and 
sand were hauled from the pit on the Railroad Ranch. 
The project was completed in 1926. The new concrete 
bridge had a sidewalk on each side with small benches 
and the latest thing in street lighting. 

This 1887 photograph shows the third of the bridges built across 
the Salmon River. It was a wooden bridge constructed in 1875. 

I T I I » 

.«» id . ,^. 



J. — •■ '1 

^^^^f^'^^iff^f^-^ •=*>'■ ' 


This old postcard shows the area at the west end of the steel bridge. 

Some time around 1954-55 the pipe hand rails were 
removed to make more space for cars to pass, and in 
about 1964 a major contract was let for further im- 
provement of the bridge. While the location was not 
changed, the old concrete bridge was strengthened 
and the traffic lane was widened considerably. The 
walkway on the north side was removed in order to 
widen the traffic lane to its present size, and new light- 
ing has been installed in recent years. 

The bridge across the river is still as vital to the City 
of Salmon as it was to those early pioneers — the only 
link between the east and the west sections of the town 
and the only practical route for transporting supplies. 

J <N e» « > ■■ ■■ » ■« 

O JF» IS IFC .1?^ li JS E^. 

APRIL -23, 1924 

■ Qivcii by .' jj;'^. 


un OENFMr OP. 

IlidliSclioorAllilciic Association L 

Riiii'l mill II a.1 all Iho moiioy^pooii'.lo 


November 1925 - removing the 1905 steel bridge. 

4. -sk 

.V. ■-*,." ■ . 



The fifth bridge: constructed in 1926, this concrete bridge still serves Salmon. 





The Salmon Volunteer Fire Department has served 
for almost one hundred years with great service to the 
citizens of Salmon. Serving without pay, many citizens 
have volunteered hours of their time, risking their own 
lives, to protect the property and lives of their neigh- 

On June 11, 1887, the question was raised, "What 
would we do in this town in case of fire?" The response 
was "that cisterns or reservoirs should be built on Main 
Street, one near Shoup's Store and another near the 
Church. As is it, there is nothing to do but let it burn." 
Nothing much was done. 

On January 21, 1898, John Brough started to or- 
ganize a fire company. Hose and other attachments 
were ordered and a Fireman's Ball was considered to 
raise money for building a house in which to keep these 
new things. 

On January 28, 1898 the old building on Main and 
Center Streets, "Cap's Corner," caught fire. Lack of 
water made it difficult to fight the flames. Much credit 
was given to T. J. Taylor for his water-wagon and to 
George Wentz and Dan Chase for their horses. Many 
individuals carried water from nearby wells to fight the 
roaring blaze in the center of town. Every well in town 
was pumped dry and the citizens then started a string 
of buckets from the Salmon River. Bottles of whiskey 
were sent down the line to fortify the volunteers and 
the result was there was hardly a sober man in town 
when the fire burned out. The Cap Williams Corner was 
a total loss. It was one of the first buildings erected in 
Salmon and named after its proprietor Cap Williams. 
(Williams Lake, Williams Creek) 

On February 18, 1898, the Board of Village Trustees 
ordered a hose cart, 600 feet of hose and a fire bell. 
"When these items arrive, Salmon City will have pro- 
tection against fire second to no other town in the 


. . IVll.I.IAMb' COllNKK . 

A General Supply of Good Wines 

Liquors and Cigars and All 

Kinds of Mixed Drinks. 


Gooil Music, 

Courteous Trcatnicnt 

Good Liquors, and all Kinds of 

Drinks Well Mixed 
for everyone. 

By March 18, 1898, the fire building had been com- 
pleted on St. Charles Street, east of the jail, and the 
work had been approved and accepted by the village 
board. Bagley and Grimes were the contractors. 

On April 6, 1898 the hose cart, 600 feet of hose, 
ladders and fire bell arrived. Fire Chief John Brough 
organized an efficient fire brigade and a test of the new 
equipment was made. A stream of water was thrown 
ten feet above the twenty foot flag pole on Shoup's 
Store, which is three storied. It was considered that 
this was a fair test of the pressure of Salmon City's 
water works. 

On April 21, 1898, a Fireman's Parade was led 
through town by Fowler's Band, followed by the fire 
company in their new uniform shirts and caps under 
the command of John Brough, Fire Chief. They were 
followed by a company of volunteer forces under W. 
H. Norfolk, who acted as drill master. The 1898 Fire- 
men of Salmon were listed as: W. L. Mulkey, Will Warn- 
er, Hugh McCaleb, Frank Andrews, Carl Spahn, Will 
Shoup and Tom Kane. 

After the Parade a Fireman's Ball was held. It was 
labeled as the Grand Fireman's Dance at Shoup's Hall, 
Thursday evening, April 21, 1898. The committees 
were: On Printing and Music, F. G. Havemann. Guy Ed- 
wards, Allen Merritt. Decoration, H. J. Grimes, Ernest 
Nelson. Reception, Hugh McCaleb, Allen Merritt, J. H. 
White. General Arrangements, W. H. Shoup, Thomas 
Kane, James Kirtley, Floor Managers, William Mulkey, 
James A. Vaughn. 

The Fireman's Ball has become an Annual event and 
is one of the highlights of Salmon's social season. Tick- 
ets still cost $1 and each year a worthy member of 
the Fire Department is honored. 

The Fire Department used horse carts pulled by 
teams. The Department had fire teams of six to eight 
men assigned to a cart. The Department had a Big 4th 
of July contest with competition between teams and 
hooking up the horse team to the carts and getting 
their water running. One fire team was assigned to the 
Salmon bar area and one team was assigned to down- 
town. Later two teams were assigned to downtown. 

The Department then received a water tank to pull 
behind a truck. This tank was used at the Ekersall fam- 
ily fire tragedy at the old Billy Bryant place in about 
1915. The two story home was set on fire and the 
family of five, father, mother and three children per- 
ished. The tank froze up while the Department fought 
the terrible blaze. A sheepherder who worked for Mr. 
Ekersall went insane and set the fire. Mrs. Ekersall was 
a Beattie and was Will Beattie's sister. 

About 1915 the Fire Department went belly up. In 
1916 it was reorganized with E. K. Abbott, President 
of the Department. Frazee was Chief of the City (Down- 
town) Company and George Brown was the Chief of 
the Brooklyn (bar) Company. Fred Brough had a fund 


raiser to finance the Department. He served a chicken 
dinner and real beer, two or three barrels, and had a 
stag party at Brough's Cafe on Main Street. 

The Department got a Ford truck which they used 
until after World War I. The truck was short on power 
and they had to push it up the hill on runs up Fulton 
Street or Courthouse Drive. 

Brough got on the City Council and pushed for the 
purchase of the first fire truck in about 1921 or 1922. 
This truck was from Portland and had all the right, up 
to the minute, attachments. 

Over the years a Salmon Fire Truck has normally led 
parades through Salmon. For many years there was 
only one fire truck until the City finally could afford two 

The following memo was sent to all Salmon Volunteer 
Firemen on February 29, 1960 by Frank Kerin, Chief. 

A situation has developed on county fires which must 
be corrected. As you probably know, when we receive 
a call out of town, we must see that not over half of 
the crew goes on the county truck. The remaining half 
must stay in town in case we have a fire. The whole city 
— has its insurance rates set up on this 24 hour readiness 
of the Salmon Fire Department. At our last meeting, to 
assure the city would always have a crew, we decided 
to split the firemen into two groups. The first group will 
be the only ones allowed on county fires during the first 
six months of this years and will be the "Blue Team". 
The second group, or "Red Team" will be ordered to 
stay inside the city in order to take any city fires that 
may occur. July 1st the Red Team will take county fires 
and the Blue Team will stay in town. All city fires will be 
treated as usual with both Blue and Red turning out to 
fight. Check the list below to see which team you are 
on: Blue Team: Bill Canon. Frank Barsalou, Paul Brog, 
Roy Durand, Bob Gwartney, Charles Herndon, Harry 
Holgate. Ken Klingler, Harold Neyman, Mark Phillips, 
Charles Walchli. Carl Zeigler. Red Team: W. J. Lewis. 
Gerald Butler, Glen Mc Frederick, Maurice Cochran. Del 
Jones. Val Black, Max Hemmert, Sam Weber, Bill Koes- 
ter, Voyd Dahle, Joe Herndon, Emmett Steeples, Ray 
Colvin, Jack Stevenson, Bill Pruitt. Dr. Walt Blackadar. 
Ross Smith, Joe Nebeker. 

The Fire Department Station burnt down in the big 
fire of 1962 on South St. Charles Street that destroyed 
the Pioneer Hall, Elks Lodge, Silver Spur Bar, Lemhi 
Hotel, and Drug Store. Later, a new, modern Fire Sta- 
tion was constructed on South St. Charles Street. 
Throughout the last thirty years, several new fire trucks 
have been purchased and the volunteer force keeps 
current with new training procedures. 

Several Fire Districts have been established in rural 
areas of the County in recent years. These districts 
have their own boards, budgets and equipment. 

The Salmon City Fire Department has always had a 
waiting list of future volunteers wanting to join the De- 
partment. It has a proud, historic past and is one of 
the crown jewels of Salmon's history. 

This article was compiled by Fred Snook from notes prepared by 
Salmon historian, Marjorie B. Sims who sent her information to Salm- 
on Attorney and Volunteer Fireman, Charles Herndon in the 1960's. 
Mr. Herndon was preparing a talk on the Salmon Fire Department's 
history. Mr. Herndon's notes, courtesy of Milton A. Slavin. 


Patsy Wolf ley Stokes 

The Alaskan Cold Storage was built by Carl J. Kriley 
and family, in the spring of 1946, on the northeast 
corner of Shoup and Terrace Streets. The substantial 
structure was constructed of concrete and cinder 
blocks with steel window and door frames. It had ap- 
proximately two hundred lockers both wooden and 
metal. A glass case in the office housed the keys for 
the lockers. 

Farmers no longer had to process their own meat. 
The plant cut and wrappted meat to the owners spec- 
ifications. Then it was quick frozen and placed in their 
individual lockers. 

Wild game being plentiful, brought hunters from all 
over the state. They had their meat processed and 
frozen. At the time of shipping, dry ice was placed on 
top of the boxed meat, and it was picked up that morn- 
ing by Miller's Trucking, taken to Armstead, Montana, 
and placed on the train. 

The Kriley's sold the business to Edgar and Carmen 
Wolfley from Etna, Wyoming, who began operating the 
plant in the fall of 1951. It was a great place to cool 
off on a hot summer day, but one did not tarry very 

The plant remained an active business for about ten 
years, but became obsolete in the late 1950's when 
freezers became available for the home. The Wolfleys 
traded it to Chauncey Taylor for the Keystone ranch 
in 1955. At present, the building is the home of the 
House of Bargains. 

The Alaskan Cold Storage - 1953 

Kim Wolfley, Cathy Buster, — Webb, Monty Wolfley, Richard (Dick) 




Rose Coram 

Prior to 1918 a Lemhi County Historical Society led 
by Historian John E. Rees, E.H. Casterlin, Phil Rand, 
Ralph Irvin and others did some work and research on 
Lemhi County History. According to Mr. Casterlin, the 
notes and materials were turned over to John Rees 
when the society disbanded. For over thirty years no 
organized historical effort was made, but during this 
period and until his death in 1928 Mr. Rees was con- 
tacting pioneers and writing their stories and reminis- 
cences. Some stories are published in the Recorder. 
He has left invaluable and authentic records of his study 
and research. 

A condensed history of Lemhi County by George E. 
Shoup was written in 1941 and published for all to read. 

To continue the local history the Lemhi County His- 
torical Society was reorganized by a small group meet- 
ing in the Probate Court room on May 11, 1956. Meet- 
ings were held in the Probate Court room, the City 
Hall, and in the home of Miss Alice McDonald and Mrs. 
Elizabeth Reed. 

Soon old Leesburg relics and objects were acquired 
and a case was donated by Myra McPherson to hold 
them. The case was moved to the lobby of the Herndon 
Hotel. Later a case was placed in the Steele Memorial 

The need for a meeting place and a home for the 
collection made a museum building most desirable. 

The Eagles Lodge offered a ninety-nine year lease of 
their choice lot on the corner of Main and Terrace 
Streets. The offer was accepted with the agreement 
that the Eagles could have their lodge room in the 
basement entirely separate from the museum. Articles 
of incorporation were filed, a lease drawn and signed 
by officers of the Eagles Lodge and the Lemhi County 
Historical Society, and the permanent site was ac- 

The Salmon Junior Chamber of Commerce in 1958 
had a survey to find out what the people of Lemhi 
County would like to have them do for the improve- 
ment of the community. Survey ballots were cast June 
26th resulting in a three to one vote in favor of a mu- 
seum building. A fund raising program began with a 
Halloween masquerade dance at which the first six cin- 
der blocks to be used in the proposed building were 
auctioned. Each block was sold for one hundred dollars 
to: KSRA radio, Myra McPherson, Henry Benson, Pope 
Oil Company, Salmon Rotary Club, and Salmon Cham- 
ber of Commerce. The dance and auction brought the 
fund to $1,945.87. Many other activities together with 
contributions and pledges made a total of $11,956.11. 

Plans were drawn by M.M. McNicoll and submitted 
to Director H.J. Swinney and Art Director and Curator 
George Bowditch of the Idaho State Historical Museum 
for suggestions and recommendations. Mr. Bowditch 
made a complete plan and water sketch of the pro- 
posed building, and was present to discuss the plans. 
Mr. Swinney also gave invaluable aid and help. 

We are indebted to the Junior Chamber for its spon- 
sorship, and especially to Florin Beller, who as chair- 
man, devoted generously time and public spirited lead- 
ership in making funds available. Harry B. Fisher was 
the superintendent of the building. 

Ground was broken on October 23, 1960 for a mu- 
seum building and dedicated on March 3, 1963, exactly 

The Lemhi County Museum 

Museum dedication March 3, 1963. Charles Kane, County com- 
missioner; Dick Banks, Jay C; Mrs. Orville Brenneman, President 
Historical Society; Bill Cannon, Mayor; Elizabeth Reed, Secretary 
Historical Society 


one hundred years after President Abraham Lincoln 
signed the bill that created the Territory of Idaho. Lem- 
hi County Historical officers were: Mrs. Orville Brenne- 
man, President; Elizabeth Reed, Secretary and Mrs. 
Earl Corum, Treasurer. 

In December, 1965, a thirty by forty addition on the 
east side of the building was completed. This addition 
was made possible by Ray Edwards, a son of a pioneer 
Lemhi County family. Mr. Edwards not only provided 
the funds to build the addition but donated an unusual 
and beautiful Oriental collection. Mr. Edwards traveled 
extensively in the Far East during the 1920's. This ad- 
dition was dedicated in 1966 as Leesburg was one hun- 
dred years old. 

The Directors and Officers of the Historical Society 
are the governance of the museum. The present offi- 
cers are Robert Wiederrick, President; Jay Davis, Vice 
President; Mrs. Robert Morton, Secretary and Rose 
Corum, Treasurer. 


by Wynn Stokes 

The Stokes Brothers Dairy came about when Dick, 
Bob, Len and Earl Stokes bought the Golden Guernsey 
Dairy from Glenn and Alice Hobbs in 1944. The busi- 
ness coinsisted of a bottling, cooling and pasteurization 
plant, located on Kids' Creek next to the Hobbs resi- 
dence near St. Charles Street and Lemhi Avenue. Also 
a Chevy panel delivery truck, and customers on the 
route which included residences and businesses. 

They hand milked seventy or so head of cows, night 
and morning, to supply milk for the business. Later a 
Sui-ge milking system was put in, which made the milk- 
ing much easier. During the winter they milked the 
cows at Dick's place, located north of the Lemhi River 
just off of North St. Charles, as that was where the 
hay was kept. In the summer they milked at Earl's, 
located on Highway 93 North , because there was am- 
ple pasture there. The cows were moved from one 
place to the other; down Main Street, across the bridge, 
and down Highway 93 North, then back again. 

Bob ran the delivery route and the preparation of 
the milk and cream. The milk was hauled to the plant 
in ten gallon cans. There, some of it was separated for 
cream, some was pasteurized as whole milk, and all of 
it was bottled. The bottles were washed by hand, then 
steamed to sterilize them, then fed into a machine 
which filled the bottles and put on a cardboard cap 
with a pull tab. The bottles were ready by late after- 
noon and refrigerated for delivery early the next morn- 
ing to customers on .the route. 

People would leave empty bottles on the porch with 
a note telling what they wanted. The order for milk or 
cream would be left on the porch and the empties 
collected along the entire route. At the end of the 

month, or sometimes each day, customers would pay 
their bill by leaving money inside one of the empty 
bottles; 25 cents for a quart, or 75 cents for a gallon 
of milk. The Small Boys Cafe was on the route and a 
very interesting place. 

The dairy was a family business and everybody 
helped; from feeding and milking to cleaning the barn. 
All the kids wanted to ride "Old Dolly" after the cows. 
The property was jointly owned by the brothers and 
all members of the families helped on the ranches do- 
ing whatever needed to be done. 

After several years the dairy was sold to Corwin 
Bowles who ran it with several partners for some time. 

Corwin Bowles dairy truclt. 

w Just a Few w 

I Christmas Suggestions | 

nothing better than n KODAK from 75c to $27.5(i. ^ 
)j| VICTORS and VICTROLAS from $15 up. >H 

All the new RECORDS from 75c to $7.00. ^ 

We have nil kinds of TOILET ARTICLES in \h 
PARISIAN IVORY, uicludiug thr following: *S 

Cuticle Knives Kail Files 

S Powder Boxes Talcum Boxes 

Hair Receivers Perfume Bottles 

a Candle Stlcits (electric) Salad Sets 

Whisk Broom and holder Crumb Tray 

V^ Jewel Boxes, all sizes Shoe Honu 

JS Hair Brushes Cloth Brushes 

Ml Hat Brushes , Military Brushes 

J? Toilet Sets Infant's Sets 

S French Plate Mirrors, all sizes ami styles. 

SOur line of LEATHER GOODS is complete— 
Collar Boxes Music Rolls 

HJI Shaving Sets Tourist's Sets 

j2 Purses and Pocket Books Bridge Sets 

SJI Leather bound Books Manicure Sets 

vL We have BOOKS— any kind you should want. 
jS from 50c to $1.50. 

^ RAVENWARE— Something new— an ideal gift. 
Hj All the leading brands of CIGARS in Xjnas boxes. 
v2 Our line of CANDIES and NUTS arc the best ever 

Fancy Briar and Meerschaum Pipes from $2. -$1''. 
Do your Christmas shopping early. We 

have ample room to lake care of your package tlH 





Red Cross Pharmacy 

Tha ^ivy'^j. Stom 




by Marilyn Alford 

In compiling a centennial history of the county it 
seems appropriate to note that there are at least three 
people, at this writing, who have lived for more than 
one hundred years! While there may be others, and we 
apologize if we have overlooked anyone, we are aware 
of three individuals now living at Salmon Valley Care 
Center. They are Mrs. Cassie McKinney Starr, Mrs. Mary 
Molly Pierce, and Mr. Adrian A. Merritt. Their lives have 
been exceptionally long and their experiences varied 
and interesting. 

CASSIE McKINNEY STARR was born in the mining 
camp at Silver Bow, Montana, near Butte, on August 
25, 1890. Her parents, Peter and Rose McKinney, 
moved from there to Lemhi County when she was two 
years old. They lived on the Big Flats and later Peter 
McKinney built a large brick house on Carmen Creek, 
which still stands and is owned by Albert Schultz. It 
was in this house that Cassie married Clyde Starr in 

Cassie and her brother John, as teenagers, often 
trailed their father's cattle to Ulysses from the Big Flat 
ranch, and from the Big Hole in Montana. They also 
trailed them to Roosevelt at Thunder Mountain, where 
her father owned a meat market. 

Always active as a child, Cassie contracted Rheu- 
matoid Arthritis and by the time she was eighteen she 
was severly affected with stiff and painful joints. So 
much so, that doctors feared she would never walk 
again. Her parents decided to take her to the mineral 
baths at Soap Lake, Washington where she was treated 
for about a year. The trip from Salmon was something 
of a challenge for the family. Cassie was unable to sit, 
so they put a mattress of top of the stage coach, with 
a sun shade, and she was able to lie down for the trip 
to Armstead, Montana and from there they traveled 

Cassie McKinney about age 15. 

by train to Soap Lake. The treatment was so successful 
that she was eventually able to lead an active life, rais- 
ing her own family on the ranch, cooking for the men 
and enjoying dancing when the occasion arose. 

After Cassie's husband Clyde Starr passed away she 
lived at the ranch for a while and later moved into town 
where she was very active in the newly formed Senior 
Citizens organization, serving as Secretary Treasurer 
for many years. 

Her friends and contemporaries are gone and she 
will soon be one hundred two years old, but Cassie 
McKinney Starr is truely a woman to be remembered 
as a pioneer of this community. 

Cassie McKinney-1908 

MARY MOLLY AMES PIERCE is another woman who 
has seen the many changes in Lemhi County over the 
years. She was born December 25, 1890 in Seattle, 
Washington, one of at least five children born to George 
and Lucy Webster Ames. She once said she couldn't 
remember how many people were in her family; only 
that in addition to lots of brothers and sisters there 
were also some relatives and other youngsters living 
with them. 

On October 2, 1909 she married W. F. Pierce. He 
came to Lemhi County in 1919 to work on a ranch on 
Kirtley Creek, and soon sent for Mary and their three 
children. Mary and her husband were later employed 
by the railroad; she as a cook, while he worked at 
repairing track. They found that their combined wages 
were not enough to support the family, and upon hear- 
ing of the need for a meat market in the mining town 


of Gilmore, they opened the Owl Market in May of 1923. 

In 1925 Mary was asked to serve as Postmaster at 
Gilmore. She reluctantly agreed, as she felt her eighth 
grade education was inadequate, but she held the po- 
sition from August 1925 until December 1957; some 
thirty-two years. She saw the population of Gilmore 
reach one thousand people and then dwindle to only 
a few. At one time there were threeteachers and ninety 
children in the Gilmore School. Mary said that although 
there was no electricity at Gilmore, they had a battery 
powered radio, gas and coal-oil lanterns and a butane 
refrigerator, which she thought was one of the nicest 
things. She could have ice cream if she wished and 
even told her husband that he could keep his fish in 
it. She had not liked fish, or fishing, since the time he 
ran out of bait and she had to stomp grasshoppers for 

Mary said, "I loved Gilmore, and I walked every trail 
in those mountains". The winters were bitter and the 
winds ferocious, but her favorite summer hideaway was 
beautiful Meadow Lake in the mountains nearby. 

When Gilmore was largely abandoned, the Pierces 
stayed on and Mr. Pierce died there in 1962 at the age 
of seventy-eight. Mary then moved to Salmon. Of their 
children, only one is still living; Cora Lind of Tacoma, 

At the age of ninety years Mary still did most of her 
own housekeeping, and was active in the Dorcas So- 
ciety of the Seventh- day Adventist Church. She spent 
much of her time reading and crocheting. She had no 
time for gossip and always said she would rather read 
a good book any day. She is known among her many 
friends for her lively wit and her ability to tell wonderful 
stories of the years that she lived at Gilmore. 

At the age of ninety she often walked from her home 
to the library and also to the courthouse to vote. Due 
to failing health Mary Molly moved to the Salmon Valley 
Care Center in 1986 and resides there today. On 
Christmas Day, 1992 she will be one hundred two. 

ADRIAN ALONZO MERRITT was born October 14, 
1891 in Peoria, Utah. Later his family moved to Star 
Valley, Wyoming where he grew up. He then settled in 
Bedford, Wyoming where he met Maude Ethel Nelson 
of Liberty Valley, Idaho. Chaperoned by her mother, 
they traveled together on horseback for two days, to 
reach Montpelier, Idaho where they boarded the train 
for Salt Lake City, and were married in the LDS Temple 
there. Returning to Bedford they settled down to ranch 

Adrian was well known in the community for his fid- 
dle-playing at local dances where he accompanied his 
wife, Maude, and his sister, who sang. He worked on 
various local ranches and was a cook for the Forest 
Service before starting his own freight Line. He drove 
a freight wagon from Star Valley, Wyoming to Mont- 
pelier, making the round trip in four days. Later he 
owned and operated a small mercantile store in Bed- 
ford. Thirteen children were born to Adrian and Maude. 

In 1945 the Merritts moved to Afton, Wyoming, and 
in 1947 they moved to Salmon where Adrian worked 
for the Forest Service as a cook and laborer until his 
retirement in the 1950's. Maude Nelson Merritt passed 
away on December 4, 1958. Adrian later married Josie 
Williams of Salmon, and persued his interest in gar- 
dening, fishing and hunting as long as health permitted. 
He is now a resident of Salmon Valley Care Center and 
was one hundred and one years old in October of 1992. 


X3ort.l.o»- In. 


Charr.picn Harvestir.ij ftlachiiios, 

Bugfjlea, Cuclc-Boarde, Coits, Hoofl V/o'ton-^, 
Plioclons, Spring Worjor.r, Dart) Wire, Blnck- 
smilli's ConI, Tcnls, Crnin r.n(.\ Wool Boys, Hey 
onci Rakes. 

^||aM0S8 and ^aidles. 

Bridles, Bits, Spurs, Whip's, Aoricullurol Ini- 
pleinenla or Every Description. Nc\a^ Goods 
Fresh from Ihe Factories, In Car-Lood Lots, at 
Prices to Meet Iho Current Hard Tlincs. Call 
and Seo Me. 

3D..fk2sr_ T_ cxa:^-^iP3vi:-2^.jisr 

Young friends enjoy the company of Mary Molly Ames Pierce. 


IDAHO 2L 1 and 2L 2 

by Fred Snook 

One of the pleasures of living in a small, rural area 
such as Lemhi County, is that everyone knows ever- 
ybody's license plate number. This characteristic is 
starting to disappear as individual plates, centennial 
plates, and other numbering systems are put into place. 
In local history, the most prestigious plate numbers 
have been 2L 1 or 2L 2. 

In the "teens" Dr. Hanmer served as Mayor of Salm- 
on. He served longer than any Mayor in the history of 
our town. The Mayor received license plate 2L 1; his 
son, the well known and well liked, Bill Hanmer, re- 
ceived license plate 2L 2. When Dr. Hanmer died in the 
1930's, Bill, who became Salmon's Postmaster, had 
both plate 1 and 2. The next year, the assessor told 
Bill, that it was unfair for him to have both numbers 
and that he would have to chose. Bill chose 2, which 
had always been his number and was on his favorite 

Plate 2L 1 went to another popular figure of the time, 
businessman rancher, horse dealer, George Oliver. 
George had plate 1 on his big car, usually a Lincoln or 
Cadillac, until he moved from the community in the 
1960's. Plate 1 then passed to another Salmon com- 
munity leader, Max Hemmert. Again the plate rode 
through town in luxury on Max's Lincoln. Upon Max's 
death, his car and plate passed to Doug and Elizabeth 
Casey who still proudly display plate 2 L 1. What of 
plate 2L 2? Bill Hanmer kept it all these years, and 
from 1977 until his death in 1990 it was on his luxury 
car, a 1977 Chrysler. It was then claimed by Lemhi 
County Assessor, Aria Boots, and is now attached to 
a very sporty, blue Pontiac Grand Prix. 


The history of the bureau of Land Management in 
Lemhi County begins with predecessor agencies. The 
first such agency, the General Land Office, was created 
in 1812 in order to survey and dispose of the federal 
public domain. By the 1880's the Land Office, based 
first in Blackfoot and then in Hailey, was surveying lands 
in Lemhi County and patenting them under the various 
mining laws, homestead acts, and townsite laws. In 
1875, the Lemhi Indian Agency was withdrawn from 
the public domain and in the early 1900's, the Forest 
Reserves were set up out of the original public lands. 
Throughout the west, the effects of uncontrolled live- 
stock grazing were seen on the remaining public lands, 
and in 1934 the Taylor Grazing Act was passed to reg- 
ulate the grazing and stabilize the livestock industry. 
In 1936, the Salmon Grazing District was established, 
and a District Grazing Advisory Board was appointed 
to provide advice to the District Grazier. The first local 
Grazing Advisory Board consisted of Milford Vaught, 

Bert Coates, Thomas Campbell, Merle L. Drake, Verne 
Coiner, Ora Cockrell, Doyle Mulkey, George Howell, 
Steve Mahaffey, Floyd Whittaker, and Sherman Furey. 
The first District Grazier was Frank Miller, with offices 
located upstairs in the building currently occupied by 
Salmon Artworks and Floral (504-6 Main St.). 

In 1946, the General Land Office and the Grazing 
Service were merged to form the Bureau of Land Man- 
agement. It wasn't necessarily a happy marriage at 
first, since the old Land Office still wanted to dispose 
of the public lands, and the Grazing Service was trying 
to manage them for livestock grazing. By 1957, the 
expanded role of the agency required more space, and 
the offices were moved to the old fish hatchery, lo- 
cated in the wetland area on Bean Lane, behind In- 
dependent Lumber. 

In 1964, the Classification and Multiple Use Act was 
passed. As the firs multiple use management act for 
the public lands, it did away with the conflicting mis- 
sions of the old agencies. Also in 1964, the current 
BLM office was built on Highway 93 South. A second 
building, the Teton Building, was acquired in 1980 from 
the Bureau of Reclamation project site at Teton Dam. 

Today, under the authority of the Federal Land Pol- 
icy and Land Management Act of 1976, the BLM is a 
multiple use, multiple user, multiple disciplinary public 
land management agency. Traditional uses an users, 
such as livestock grazing, mining, and timber produc- 

Planting trees, using an auger. 

Doug Carlson photo 


tion are integrated with the newer programs such as 
outdoor recreation, wildlife, fisheries, cultural re- 
sources, and watershed. The resulting management mix 
strives to provide public lands for all to use, share, and 


The mountains of central Idaho have provided re- 
sources for people throughout the history of Lemhi 
County. Native Americans, explorers, fur trappers, 
miners settlers, ranchers and loggers all used the for- 
ests, streams and land that eventually became the 
Salmon National Forest. Around the turn of the century 
the American people started to realize the need to 
conserve these resources for sustained use and future 

fThe Salmon National Forest Reserve was estab- 
lished by proclamation of President Theodore Roos- 
evelt on November 5, 1906. The reserve included most 
of the land between the Middle Fork and main Salmon 

Forest officer setting back fire from fire line -July 23, 1919. 

River. Later presidential proclamations and executive 
orders added or eliminated lands from this original 
Salmon River Forest Reserve. In 1907 the names of 
the Reserves were changed to National Forests. 

On July 1, 1908, portions of the Bitterroot National 
Forest and the Lemhi National Forest were added to 
the Salmon National Forest. The area south of Camas 
Creek was eliminated from the Salmon and added to 
the newly created Challis National Forest. 

Major F. E. (Frank) Fenn, Supervisor of Forest Re- 
serves in Idaho, came to Salmon in February 1907 to 
help the new supervisor of the Salmon National Forest 
set up the administration of the Forest. Fenn told the 
concerned citizens of Lemhi County, 

The objects of the forest policy are three-fold: To 
protect the remaining forests from ruthless slaughter, 
to reduce the loss occasioned by forest fires, and to 
guard the head of streams for conservation of the water 
flow. Incidentally, the government proposes to improve 
and protect the grazing ranges within the limits of the 
forest reserves, and add to their carrying capacity for 
the betterment of the livestock industry. 

In 1907 the Forest employed a Supervisor, Assistant 
Supervisor and eleven forest guards and rangers. 

Today the Salmon National Forest covers more than 
1.8 million acres of land, nearly twenty-four percent of 
which lies within the 2.3 million acre Frank Church - 
River of no Return Wilderness, which was created in 
1980. The Forest acreage outside the wilderness con- 
tinues to provide lumber for the local timber industry, 
grazing lands for cattle, and a significant watershed for 
the Salmon River, as well as mining activity on the 

The Salmon National Forest is widely known for hunt- 
ng, fishing, and recreational opportunities. Elk, deer, 
bear,, bighorn sheep, mountain goats and moose all 
nhabit the Forest. 

The Salmon River and Middle Fork have been des- 
gnated Wild and Scenic Rivers. The excellent floating 
on these rivers had made Salmon a white water capitol. 


by Kay Springer, Administrator 

Steele Memorial Hospital was built in 1949-50 after 
a grant of $75,000 was awarded by Eleanor Steele 
Reese. Local residents at the time went from door to 
door to raise matching funds to make the hospital a 
reality. The hospital was dedicated in 1950 and has 
provided services as a county hospital since that time. 

Today the hospital has thirty-five beds and an active 
medical staff of General/Family practitioners. Com- 
plementing the physicians are four physician's assis- 
tants; one of which is located in Challis and supervised 
by a Salmon physician. 

Typically, small rural hospitals limit the type and 
scope of services, and frequently patients with critical 


Wmt mi 

conditions will be Lifeflighted to larger facilities. This 
pattern is very characteristic of the hospital in Salmon. 

In the last five years new equipment and services 
have been offered, including new x-ray, laboratory, ul- 
trasound and mammography, plus birthing room and 
outpatient services. This has been accomplished in spite 
of financial challenges resulting from higher costs, 
combined with highly restrictive Medicare policies as 
well as those of private insurance companies. 

The changing healthcare environment has been re- 
sponsible for closing several hundred small hospitals 
in the last few years. In Salmon we believe our situation 
is unique, and we must remain, no matter what. 


Candidate for Governor of Idaho 

Everyone knows that Salmon pioneer businessman 
Colonel George L. Shoup was the State of Idaho's first 
governor, but Salmon almost had a second governor 
of Idaho, John Charles Herndon. Charles was born 
February 9, 1911 in Bloomfield, Missouri. His parents 
moved to Salmon and Charles attended public schools 
here before graduating from the University of Idaho. 
He then graduated from law school at Stanford Uni- 
versity in 1938. 

He served in the Army during World War II and was 
discharged as a Captain in 1945. He resumed his prac- 
tice of law in Salmon and served several terms as Pros- 
ecuting Attorney. Charles purchased the Shenon Hotel 

Steele Memorial Hospital 

Block and developed the Herndon Block. He added the 
Herndon Courts to the old Hotel, added the Salmon 
River Inn, and moved his law office to the Herndon 
Block. He was very active in other community affairs 
such as the Masonic Lodge, the Salmon volunteer fire 
department, and the Episcopal Church. 

Charles had a wonderful family. His wife, Lucille Tway 
and three children, Jim, John and Betty Lou were all 
active citizens. Lucille ran for the Idaho Legislature and 
Jim was Lemhi County Prosecuting Attorney before 
being elected District Judge. 

In 1966, Charles entered the race for Governor of 
the State of Idaho on the Democratic ticket. He won 
the Primary election, defeating Cecil D. Andrus! In the 
fall election, he faced the Republican candidate, Don 
Samuelson who had defeated the incumbent Gover- 
nor, Robert E. Smylie, in the Republican primary. 
Charles had the ability, the personality, and the plat- 
form to win the November, 1966 election. 

Tragedy struck when he took a small airplane flight 
from southern Idaho to northern Idaho on the cam- 
paign trail. The small plane went down in the rugged 
mountains near Stanley, Idaho. Charles was killed as 
a result of the terrible accident and Lemhi County's 
hopes for another Governor of the State of Idaho per- 
ished with him. Cecil D. Andrus went on to serve many 
terms as governor. Idaho's history might well have been 
very different if not for the tragic death of Charles John 


Pratt Creek Mining District 

by Norman A. Lamb 
Secretary-Treasurer, Goldstone Mining Co. 

The Goldstone vein was first discovered in 1885 by 
Archibald and John McKillop, veteran placer and quartz 
miners, who located the Goldstone, Climax, Dark Horse 
and Home claims. The brothers sank the Climax shaft 
to a depth of 30 feet and drifted on the vein for a 
distance of 250 feet and stoped out to the surface. The 
ore was a high-grade oxidized gold-bearing rock. They 
built an arrastra and milled all the ore that was possible 
by this primitive method. In 1890, the property was 
bonded to a man named Chrissman from Salt Lake 
City, Utah. He sank the Climax shaft to a greater depth; 
and at the same time, began the erection of a 10-stamp 
mill. The mill was never completed due to financial dif- 
ficulties. The property reverted back to the McKillop 
Brothers in 1897. They then bonded it to Richard Gies 
of Great Falls, Montana. After six months operation, 
he bought the four claims for $40,000. 

Mr. Gies extended the Climax shaft to a depth of 300 
feet and drifted 250 feet on the 160-foot level and 690 
feet on the 300-foot level. In 1900, he completed the 
Hope shaft by sinking and raising, thus furnishing the 
mine with an excellent supply of fresh air. During this 
time the mill was finished. About 3,000 tons of ore were 
hoisted to the surface through the Climax shaft and 
milled. Later he ran the long No. 5 crosscut level and 
opened up the 500 and 400 foot levels of the mine. 

In 1907, the property was lease-optioned by Climax 
Gold Mining and Milling Company. The mine was pre- 
pared for production and the mill was started. At that 
time the mill was 700 feet below the boardinghouse 
near Pratt Creek. It had operated a short time when 
the hillside against which it stood started slipping. The 
building was pushed out of plumb putting the mill com- 
pletely out of commission. The machinery was moved 
to a new location near the mouth of the No. 5 crosscut 
level. In 1919, after having everything in readiness again 
for a long mill run, Richard Gies died leaving the prop- 
erty to his widow, Isadora Gies. Operations continued 
on a limited scale through 1926. In 1926 Isadora Gies 
located the Custer No. 1 and No. 2 claims across the 
Continental Divide in Montana. The nine key claims 
that comprise the heart of the Goldstone Mine today 
were consolidated as follows from west to east: Gold- 
stone, Climax, Dark Horse, Teddy Roosevelt, McKinley, 
Custer No. 1 and Custer No. 2 for a total of 1 1,000 feet 
along the Goldstone vein system, with the Paul Kruger 
adjoining the Dark Horse on the south and the Home 
claim oriented North-south adjoining the Paul Kruger 
on its south side. 

In 1927, Andrew Prader and 0. C. Lapp of Spokane, 
Washington, acquired a lease-option on the property. 

They organized Goldstone Mines Corporation in 1928 
and assigned their lease-option agreement to it. To 
that time the property had production by owners and 
lessees of about $75,000. Goldstone Mines built a mine 
in 1929. Construction also began that year on a 100- 
ton-per-day amalgamation flotation mill at the portal 
of the No. 5 level. The new mill was completed in 1930. 
Extensive sampling was done in 1929 by L. F. Paddison 
for United States Smelting, Refining and Mining Com- 
pany. He concluded that the good values held close to 
an average over 4.47 feet of 0.418 ounces gold, 0.88 
ounces silver, 3.30 percent lead and 0.47 percent cop- 
per per ton. The Goldstone Mine was then the largest 
and most active mine in Lemhi County. Operations were 
suspended in 1931 while Goldstone Mines Corporation 
reorganized as Western Gold Mines, Inc. Due to the 
depressed economic conditions, they were unable to 
continue financing the operation. They gave up their 
lease-option in 1932. 

In 1933, Callahan Zinc-Lead Company of Wallace, 
Idaho, acquired a lease-option but did little work. An 
assignment of the agreement was acquired in 1935 by 
James McCarthy, President and W. L. Zeigler, Mill Su- 
perintendent, of Hecia Mining Company, Wallace, Ida- 
ho, and James Fitzpatrick, President of Union Iron 
Works, Spokane, Washington. They formed Goldstone 
Mining Company and thus began the most active and 
productive period of the mine's history. The hydroe- 
lectric power plant was re-equipped and the mill re- 
modeled to house a new flotation unit. Development 
work was emphasized during the next several years 
and considerable ore was mined and milled largely from 
the 400 and 500 foot levels. Late in 1938, a winze 
below the 500 foot level was started and sunk off the 
vein to the 600 foot level where a drift was driven 
westerly 120 feet. The vein in the drift averaged 0.63 
ounces gold. Exploration also began to develop the 
probable eastern extension of the Goldstone vein in 
Montana. An 86 foot adit on the Custer claim exposed 
a 65 foot shoot averagingO.125 ounces gold. The Gold- 
stone Mine averaged 40 tons per day and produced 
13,214 tons by 1939, when unfortunately, the mill 
building was struck by lightening and destroyed by the 
ensuing fire. Mules used to pull mine cars from the No. 
5 level were trapped by the fire and suffocated from 
the smoke. 

Records show recovery of 0.38 ounces gold, 0.25 
ounces silver, 0.55 percent lead and 0.60 percent cop- 
per per ton. Mr. McCarthy and Mr. Fitzpatrick passed 
away within a short time of each other. The property 
was operated thereafter; but because of World War II 


Bennett W. Porter, founder of Goldstone Mining Company, at the 
portal of the Mottman Adit, circa early 1950's. 

No. 5 crosscut level of the Goldstone Mine and flotation mill, about 

restrictions and the inability of new operators to get 
lease extensions, it reverted to the owner Isadora Gies. 

Production from the Pratt Creek Mining District from 
1901-40 was 19,613 tons, averaging 0.21 ounces gold, 
0.23 ounces silver, 0.42 percent lead and 0.18 percent 
copper per ton in recovered values. Including the 3,000 
tons mined prior to 1900, mine production has been 
about 22,000 tons; nearly all attributed to the Gold- 
stone Mine. 

In 1943 Bennett W. Porter of Seattle, Washington, 
acquired a lease-option on the Goldstone Mine from 
Isadora Gies. He formed Goldstone Mining Company 
to re-open the underground workings for mapping and 
sampling. In 1944 their mining engineer, Arthur Lakes, 
estimated that the mine contained 29,900 tons above 
the 600 foot level with an average grade of 0.35 ounces 
gold across a 2.5 foot stoping width. Goldstone Mining 
Company incorporated in the state of Washington on 
April 24, 1947. The plans of the late McCarthy and 
Fitzpatrick were followed to drive a long crosscut adit 
to the vein some 400 feet below the 600 foot level. 
The adit would serve as a drain tunnel to dewater the 
upper workings, and was sheltered from the excessive 
snow drifts that prevented year round operation at the 

No. 5 level. The crosscut was named the Mottman Adit, 
after Emil Mottman, Secretary of the Company. From 
1948 to 1956 the Company drove the crosscut dis- 
covering the blind Mottman vein at 825 feet and the 
Goldstone vein at 1900 feet from the portal of the adit. 
The Mottman vein assayed 0.19 ounces gold, 0.7 
ounces silver and 3.88 percent copper across a width 
of 2.0 feet. The Goldstone vein was a wide shear zone 
at this point with a narrow streak that assayed 0.2 
ounces gold, a trace of silver and 0.2 percent lead. It 
was recommended that a raise be driven up 400 feet 
to the bottom of the 600 foot level to prospect the 
Goldstone vein and drifting be commenced on the 
Mottman vein. By 1957, the Company had completed 
purchase of the property; however, the increasing cost 
of labor and materials and the fixed price for gold pre- 
cluded any further work. In recent years extensive sur- 
face exploration by the Company and various opti- 
onees has been conducted at the Goldstone Mine. Cur- 
rent officers and directors of Goldstone Mining Com- 
pany are James E. Brousseau, President; D. H. "Shorty" 
Brown, of Salmon, Vice President; and Norman A. Lamb, 


by Fr. Peter Bourne and Bro. Maurice Mansfield 

We, the Hermits of Mount Carmel, are a monastic 
group of men of the Catholic Church, who attempt to 
imitate Jesus Christ, like all Churchmen do, except that 
we have chosen to imitate that particular aspect of His 
life when He went off to the wilderness to pray. For 
this reason did we choose the upper region of Hayden 
Creek to establish ourselves. It is the last homestead 
before one reaches the National Forest, sometimes 
called the old Negus Ranch. 

Our numbers vary each year. At present, February 
1991, there are only two in residence and one who is 
studying in Arizona. In 1979, we felt the "call of the 
wild" and came to Idaho, precisely because it did offer 
a wilderness location. We came from New Hampshire, 
where we had lived and worked for ten years with the 
Carmelite Order of the Church. You might say that we 
came also to gain the freedom to do what we wanted 
to do, and it is significant that we entered the State 


from Wyoming at the town of Freedom. We looked over 
most of southeastern Idaho, while staying in Pocatello, 
to find an ideal location. It was only after we made a 
trip up the Lost River Valley through Arco and Mackay 
that we found the Mountains that attracted us. 

We reached Salmon and decided to go down the 
Lemhi Valley. When we saw that lonely little mission 
church of St. Joseph in Leadore, we decided that this 
was the place that needed our help. With the Bishop's 
permission, we stayed in the sacristy of the little mis- 
sion until we found a place to live, which was the Bob 
Plum house in the Clark Addition. The following year 
we bought the old Tage place and five acres ten miles 
north of town. We lived here for four years under Goat 
Mountain. We were able to sell the place as a down 
payment in 1985 for the Negus homestead which was 
owned by Dorothy Peterson. We now have 200 acres 
of land in the mountains with stream frontage and trees; 
it is ideal for our purposes. 

We decided to add to the few log buildings by ac- 
quiring other old log houses from our neighbors. We 
have dismantled and transported six log cabins. For 
these we are thankful to the Amonson family and the 
Snyders especially. One of these cabins was built by 
Peterson, and may be one of the oldest in the valley. 
Another is the old Alphin house from Maires Lane. Our 
present chapel comes from Augusta Mines, who was 
over one hundred years old when she died. The Taylors 

The Chapel of St. Joachim and St. Anne ■ The Augusta Mines cabin 
with addition. 

have agreed to let us take the old Episcopal Mission 
from the Lemhi Reservation. We will restore its use as 
a chapel. We are conscious of preserving some of Lem- 
hi history. 

Concerning the residents, there is Brother Maurice 
Mansfield, known throughout the valley as "Brother 
Mo." He is a licensed electrician and has worked on 
many of the houses in the Valley over the last ten 
years. Brother Mo is a native of Nashua, New Hamp- 
shire; he was born there on January 9, 1941. His father 
ran a saw sharpening business for a number of years, 
where as a boy, he helped to earn his keep. Very early, 
he went to the seminary, and became a Brother in the 
Carmelite Order. He had been stationed in Massachu- 
setts, New York, Wisconsin and Hew Hampshire before 




Common House, under construction - buildings will be joined to- 
gether, and include the Alphin House and Peterson Cabin. 

*" '* »■' • 

The Hermitage of St. Elijah, in construction. 

The Hermitage of Bl. Nicholas the Frenchman 
The Negus cabin. 


coming West. Brother Mo is a jack of ail trades, plus 
an excellent cook, and he has an abiding interest in all 
arts and crafts. 

The second member is Father Peter Bourne. He is 
the Prior of the Hermitage at Lemhi, and Pastor of the 
Mission Church in Leadore. He was born in Harrisburg, 
Pennsylvania in 1929, but grew up on a farm outside 
of Crumpton, which is located on the eastern shore of 
Maryland. Father Peter spent his youth on the farm, 
and later attended various colleges. He entered the 
Navy during the Korean conflict, and after discharge, 
entered the Carmelite Order. 

After studies in philosophy and theology. Father Pe- 
ter was ordained a priest. He was sent to teach in 
seminaries in Peterborough, New Hampshire, and 
Medellin, Colombia. He also studied in Mexico. To- 
gether with Brother Mo and others, he ran a retreat 
house in New Hampshire until 1975. Between 1975 and 
1979, they both lived in a small hermitage in the woods 
of New Hampshire, where they enjoyed hiking on the 
Appalachian Trail, and climbing in the White Mountains. 

Even though their roots are Eastern, they have never 
felt comfortable in an urban setting. They have found 
their home on Hayden Creek, where they will most 
likely spend the rest of their lives, living simply and 
enjoying nature as God intended it. 

jf. . !i %•. 

The Commons House 

The Bip 4 Theatrical companj' 
arrived in Sahiion this week, and 
being unable to secure a hall, 
have erected a temporary ,)avil- 
ion near the river. They open 
Saturday night in a roaring com- 
edy entitled "Uncle joSh." Thcj' 
will show all next week, and 
promise "'Uncle Tom's Cabin" to 
be on their interesting list. This 
company comes highly spoken of. 


by Geneal Anderson, Executive Director 

The Salmon Arts Council was organized in the kitch- 
en of a Salmon household in the fall of 1978. Since 
that time it has grown from a group of five, to a thirteen 
member Board of Directors with a paid part-time Ex- 
ecutive Director, an eleven member advisory board, 
an office, and an annual operating budget of $40,000 
or so. 

The mission of the Salmon Arts Council is: "To foster 
the growth, quality, and awareness of the Arts and Hu- 
manities." This is accomplished through the presen- 
tation of arts events; providing arts education in the 
schools; and continuing arts education for adults. 

Over the years, the organization has received a tre- 
mendous amount of support, financial and otherwise, 
from the community through membership drives and 
also through attendance at arts events. The Salmon 
Arts Council has also received support in the form of 
grants from the Idaho Commission on the Arts, the 
National Endowment For the Arts, the Idaho Humani- 
ties Council and the National Humanities Council. These 
grant awards have been used for technical assistance, 
visual and performing artists contracts, sponsorship of 
workshops for aspiring professional artists, and general 
operating support. Due to Salmon's somewhat remote 
location, the opportunity for the area residents to ex- 
perience high quality arts events had been limited until 
the formation of the Salmon Arts Council and its sub- 
sequent arts programming for the community. 

Over the past fifteen years, the Council has pre- 
sented an abundance of events and programs: Several 
ballets, including The Nutcracker, a touring symphony; 
mimes, clowns and magicians; opera excerpts; cham- 
ber music groups; comedy; theatre, including fall and 
spring dinner theatre. Also presented are childrens' 
theatre; an annual artist in the schools program; chil- 
drens' art-in-the-park; chautauquas; and the annual 
Idaho Cowboy Poetry Gathering. We have also adopted 
a section of Highway 28 to maintain. Space does not 
permit all that is accomplished by this organization. 

In 1988 the Salmon Arts Council was awarded the 
Governor's Arts Award for Excellence in Support of the 
Arts. The nomination was made by the local school 
district and was the only one given, up to that time, 
to an arts organization. The Award hangs in our office 
in the Salmon Valley Center. 

The Salmon Arts Council is a definite asset to this 
community, in that it fills a definite need. Sometimes 
that need is so subtle that one does not realize it exists 
until it has been filled. The purpose of the arts is: To 
provide the "AAH' in our lives. The Salmon Arts Council 
is committed to the "AAH". 



Barbara and Richard Young, originators of 
the Salmon River Playhouse 

Missoula Children's Theatre 1989 production of "The Fisherman's 
Wife", presented by the Salmon Arts Council and featuring many 
local children. 



In 1979 the community of Salmon experienced 
something it hadn't since 1902; a live theater. The peo- 
ple who originated the idea were Richard and Barbara 
Young. Armed with a background rich in theater and 
music, they formed a non- profit organization in the 
spring of 1979, to buy and transform the old Assembly 
of God Church on Water Street, into the Salmon River 
Playhouse. With help from their five children and a lot 
of local people, the renovation was miraculously com- 
pleted in less than a month. Risers were built for the 
installation of used theater seats, which were pur- 
chased from the Liberty Movie Theater in Great Falls, 
Montana. A gold velvet curtain, damaged in the Teton 
flood, was acquired and remade into a stage curtain 
and theater drapes. Stage lights were procured from 
Theater 138 in Salt Lake City. The walls were painted 
and wall paper hung. Then the stage was set for the 
first performance at the Playhouse. On June 22, 1979 
Neil Simon's Barefoot In The Park opened the season. 

Four years later, the Youngs decided to retire from 
the demanding operation of running the Playhouse. 
Thus the Salmon River Players were formed in the fall 
of 1982, with a board of directors and twenty-six mem- 
bers. The group expanded their operation to more than 
"summer theater." They sponsored singing telegrams, 
did variety shows and Christmas time productions. The 
Youngs didn't completely leave the theater scene how- 
ever; they were still directly involved in sales and pro- 
duction work to get every season going. 

In 1988 it was discovered that Barbara had cancer. 

One of the many productions at the Salmon River Playhouse. 

The Playhouse took too much energy that was needed 
to keep up with this illness, and unfortunately that year 
the Salmon River Playhouse closed its doors. 

Barbara died in the spring of 1990, and with her the 
spirit of the Playhouse. Through the ten years of op- 
eration, over five hundred people worked with the Play- 
house in various ways. Memories of Arsenic and Old 
Lace, The Miracle Worker, Annie Get Your Gun, The 
Mousetrap, Abie's Irish Rose, and many more titles still 
linger in the walls of the Playhouse. 

Salmon High School has recently been renovating 
the Playhouse for student productions. Otherwise the 
Playhouse sits in silence, waiting for another theater- 
lover's interest to be sparked and the stage to be set 



information provided by Renee Smith 

Before February 27, 1959 the Salmon area was en- 
tirely without a radio station. That was the day that 
KSRA 960 AM signed on for the first time at 12:30 p.m., 
thanks to the efforts of two men; David Ainsworth and 
Gene Shumate. 

Gene Shumate and Dave Ainsworth met in Iowa where 
Dave was a newspaper columnist. Gene owned a radio 
station in Rexburg and the two formed a partnership 
to bring Salmon's first radio station into being. The 
broadcasting facility was located in the building on the 
southwest corner of Main and Water street for some 
time before being moved up on the bar, in the vicinity 
of the present Elks Club. A few years later Dave bought 
Gene Shumate's interest in the partnership. Dave was 
a very civic minded individual and did a great deal for 
his adopted community. 

In 1969 the station was sold to Dale Smith, another 
highly respected member of the community. His fa- 
miliar voice brought news of the addition of FM fre- 
quency 92.7, in 1979. In 1983 the operation was moved 
from the old building on the bar to its present location 
at 315 Highway 93 North; the building that was for- 
merly the Herndon home. 

Since Dale Smith's untimely death in 1986 KSRA has 
been under the able management of his wife Renee 
Smith. Further progress was the addition of a trans- 
lator into Challis, frequency 94.3, in April 1987. 

KSRA continues to be a vital part of this community, 
serving the interests of business, public service and 

The present home of KSRA 







ij' h"b^_- A 

.mVHJJJ^I^^^II^^^Hfe " -' ' 


by Bettye Gott, Sheryl Amar & Marsha Smith 

In the fall of 1962 Wanda Rafferty and Bettye Gott, 
both newcomers to Salmon, decided to combine their 
efforts to organize a Beta Sigma Phi chapter in Salmon. 
Bettye had been a member in Coeur D'Alene, Idaho 
and Wanda was a member in Jerome, Idaho. The Jer- 
ome Chapter led them in a friendly venture with a mod- 
el meeting held on November 20, 1962. A pledge ban- 
quet was held on December 5th, with twelve pledges 
and three members present. Another member had been 
discovered living in Salmon, Helen Howard from Alpha 
Theta Chapter of Council, Idaho. The first twelve pledg- 
es of the new Beta Alpha Chapter were: Jean Brog, 
Beth Reed, Lois Bisson, Snookie Harris, Ardis Briggs, 
Harriet Pearson, Shelly Hawkins, Beverly Owens, Ann 
Moore, Linda Sherretts, Wilma Doyle and Virginia Klin- 
gler. Coleen Barkes later moved to Salmon and joined 
the chapter. The first sponsor was Mrs. John Mulder 
who joined in April of 1963 and remained a sponsor 
until she moved away in 1967. Beta Alpha was termi- 
nated in 1985. 

In November of 1966, Beta Alpha led a friendly ven- 
ture to organize a Nu Phi Mu chapter in Salmon. 
Through the efforts of Bettye Gott, as Extension Offi- 
cer, Jean Brog, President and Lois Bisson, Co-advisor, 
Phi Kappa Chapter was formed with eleven members. 
Nu Phi Mu was terminated in 1975 with members pro- 
gressing into Ritual of Jewels chapter. 

Beta Alpha became over crowded so in April of 1970, 
Idaho Beta Omicron was chartered. This group of am- 
bitious girls friendly ventured to Challis to form a Ritual 
of Jewels chapter. Beta Omicron was terminated in 

The first Exemplar Chapter, Xi Alpha Theta was 
formed in May of 1968, with Snookie Harris as the first 
president. Again a chapter became too crowded and 
another Exemplar chapter, Xi Beta Kappa was formed 
in April 1980. 

In April of 1977, Salmon was ready to charter an- 
other level of Beta Sigma Phi. Idaho Preceptor Phi was 

As time has progressed, so have these ladies and in 
April of 1984, Salmon was ready for the next level of 
Beta, and Idaho Laureate Lambda was chartered. 


In 1976, Beulah Brenneman was installed as a life- 
time Honorary Member of Beta Sigma Phi. Her honor 
was written in our sorority magazine, The Torch. 

Our community oriented members decided in 1980 
that it would be a good idea to give a scholarship. The 
Beta Sigma Phi Scholarship is given yearly in the 
amount of $1,000 to a graduating student in Lemhi 
County. In 1985, in memory of Beulah Brenneman, her 
name was added to the Scholarship name. 

Kimberly Amar, Amy Chorn, Suzette Stenersen, Penny Stenersen, 
Annisa Stenersen, Merelda Gough, Esther Johnson, Helen Nielsen, 
Olga K. Sobczak, Debbie Neugebauer, Laurie Santee, Martha Mood- 
ie, Lisa Stenersen, Janet Nelson Taylor, Kimberly Peterson, Terri 
A. Orr, Elizabeth Snook, Laura Chorn Gough, Sue Stenersen, Betty 
J. Cochran, Chris Slavin, Janice Glanzer, Kathy Ellis, Ruth F. Blay- 
den, Evelyn Heidemann, Judy Skinner, Donna Keirnes, Martha An- 
drews, Rose Morphey, LaRae West, Vicky Smith, Sue Dickens, Esther 
Hallock, Sheila Ankrum, Jean Brog, Sheryl Lyn Brog Amar, Barbara 
Amar, Ellen Gleason Smith, Phyllis Farquhar, Doreen Mildon, Bar- 
bara McNee, Marsha Smith, Terri Herman, Bonnie Gray, Lucille 
Gibson, Linda Robie, Roberta Fadness, Rhonda Paul. 


Her Own Story 

When only a day or two old, on November 1909, I 
was left at St. Vincent's Orphanage in Chicago. I left 
there at eleven or twelve and did all kinds of domestic 
jobs for the next few years. At age twenty-one I entered 
the Chicago School of Nursing, but after two and a half 
years, found my eighth grade education was not enough 
to get me a Registered Nurse diploma. I went to aircraft 
building school, but there was no future there either, 
as no girl could get a license. I was a cook, waitress, 
box board factory worker and had jobs for board and 

During those days in Chicago I knew all the gangsters 
and their histories. There was Al Capone, John Dillin- 
ger, Ma Barker, Dutch Schultz, Bugs Moran, Bonnie 
and Clyde, and Pretty Boy Floyd. Machine Gun Kelly, 
Baby Face Nelson and Legs Diamond all had machine 
guns. All claimed a territory in Chicago and if any other 
hood came in, he was ventilated by a Chicago Type- 
writer or something else befell him. A rich man's boot- 
legger, Floyd Fyckes, was a personal friend of mine. I 

rode with him to deliver to rich people. Once I furnished 
him an alibi and carried warning to him. He stopped 
one day at a store, grinned and handed me $100, and 
said, "Go get yourself some clothes. I want to see what 
you look like." 

I hiked from job to job all over the U. S. and Canada 

parts of Mexico. When my thumb failed me, I rode 
freights, and the rods and tenders on passenger trains 
at sixty miles an hour. I remember riding through Moffit 
Tunnel in Colorado 

on top of a freight car, my head wrapped in a damp 

During World War Two I bought a ranch and a sixty 
head forest permit in Colorado. Then I took a job driv- 
ing a State 

Highway truck and building roads in Colorado and also 
was a timekeeper on this job for nearly four years. I 
leased the ranch and kept my job to pay it off. In time 
I sold the ranch and cattle I had accumulated. I put 
the money in the bank and spent the winter rounding 
up wild horses at $25 a head. I also trapped one whole 
winter at Douglas Pass Colorado for coyote, bobcat 


and honey badger. I harvested apples, peaches, beans 
and spuds in Colorado and also rodeoed a little at 
Glennwood Springs, Colorado. Then I ran wild horses 
in Utah and cooked at the Yellow Jacket Mine there, 
mined Uranium, Vanadium and high test Carnatite, and 
loaded railroad cars at Thompson, Utah. While in Utah 
I hunted, trapped and punched cows on ranches. I took 
part in a drive of about two weeks, up out of Moab in 
the Henry Mountains. We drove none hundred head 
one time, and a thousand another, to shipping pens at 
Thompson. We had a chuckwagon, bedwagon, and 
horse herd all with us. 

Besides my Colorado and Utah ranches, I have 
owned, in partnership with my former husband Ernest 
Turner, six hundred two acres at Leadore; formerly the 
Vezina ranch. In 1959 I bought the Langfitt ranch at 
Lemhi; four hundred forty acres with over one hundred 
head of cattle and range rights for one hundred four 

For most of the over forty years spent in Idaho I 
have done my own work to pay for the ranch. I spent 
twelve years as water surveyor for the Geological Sur- 
vey on the Lemhi River and two or three years as water 
master for the George Ellsworth and Yearian Ranches. 

At eighty-two I am now retired on a small section of 
the ranch, but still working, so people can't call me 
lazy, and living free in an unfree world. 

My motto: Be sure you are right, then go ahead and 
nothing can stop you. Far better it is to dare mighty 
thing, to win glorious triumphs, even though checkered 
by failures, than to take rank with those poor spirits, 
who neither enjoy much nor suffer much, because they 
live in the grey twilight that knows neither victory or 

I feel that I have a host of good friends in this valley. 

Editor's Note: Mary Turner was a local legend in Lemhi County. Al- 
most everyone, has a favorite "Mary Turner" story to tell. Prior to 
her death in January 1992, she had submitted the above story for 
inclusion in the Family History section of this book. After she passed 
away new facts were discovered that make the following story nec- 
essary to update the reader. 

Mary Royer Turner 

by Fred Snook 

Mary Turner was a study in contrasts. She could be 
pleasant to visit with and very sociable, but one did 
not try to go to her house to visit. Her main gate was 
always locked at the road. She did not like visitors and 
immediately grew suspicious if anyone tried to help her 
do anything; unless she asked them to help. Then she 
would become extremely angry if a friend or neighbor 
did not drop everything and respond at once. Mary had 
a telephone, but had an unlisted number that she gave 
to no one. Over the years she changed mailing ad- 
dresses several times. In short, she was extremely pri- 
vate and overly suspicious. 

Mary was found dead, just outside her home near 


Highway 28, in January of 1992. She probably fell and 
then froze to death. She was discovered by an Idaho 
Power employee several days after her death. 

Mary had been receiving food stamps and some as- 
sistance, but for the last several years, she continually 
moaned about how poor she was, and how she could 
not afford to live. The day her death was discovered, 
Lemhi County Sheriff Deputies found more than 
$40,000 in cash in her purse! Inside the home, was 
her purebred Doberman-Pinscher, a trained guard dog; 
also, several oldtime bear traps. In her china cupboard, 
in an official looking box, was an imitation snake on a 
spring, set to move when you opened the box. Her 
weapons included an old time Thompson Machine gun, 
and a scoped rifle with a full silencer barrel, among 

She willed almost all of her estate to the University 
of Idaho, Department of Agriculture. So maybe, her 
thought was that it was okay to receive some assis- 
tance from the State, because she was going to leave 
them somewhere near $100,000 in her estate. 

Mary had always said she was an orphan. Yet in her 
downstairs spare bedroom, officials found an old time 
chest full of family treasures, including pictures and 
letters from family. From that information we were able 
to learn that Mary Turner was actually born as Mary 
Royer on November 25, 1909 at Clarkshill, Indiana. Her 
parents were Curtis R. Royer and Minnie May Royer. 
She had one brother, John H. Royer, who was born 
February 10, 1907. John died about 1986. 

Mary was raised on an Indiana farm and attended 
school in Clarkshill, Indiana. She then attended and 
graduated from the Chicago School of Nursing in 1930. 
Her diploma was with her effects, together with ma- 
terial from her nursing exams. 

She moved to the State of Colorado where she was 
married on September 24, 1936 to Tino Cordova of 
Thompson, Utah. Mary's address on the license is 
Glenwood Springs, Colorado. They leased ranches in 
Colorado and were involved in various ranching activ- 
ities. They were later divorced. 

Mary then moved to Lemhi County, Idaho, where 

Mary Turner with her furs from trapping in the Leadore area prob- 
ably in the 1950's. 


she married Ernest Turner. They purchased a ranch, 
the Slavin ranch, on Texas Creek a few miles above 
Leadore. She and Ernest later divorced and he moved 
from the area. Mary sold the Leadore ranch and pur- 
chased the old Langfitt Ranch on the Lemhi River be- 
tween Tendoy and Lemhi. She operated this cattle 
ranch by herself and never remarried. 

Mary was a very large woman, and physically, prob- 
ably the strongest woman I have ever known. At age 
sixty, she could toss an eighty pound bale of hay around 
like a loaf of bread. The name of her new ranch, was 
the "Broken Heart Ranch" and she had a large sign 
depicting a broken heart erected. She later sold most 
of the ranch retaining some property across the high- 
way. This property included a steep hillside vantage 
point that had a view of the valley below. There she 
constructed her new home, in which she lived until her 

Mary had not lost contact with her family. Her fath- 
er's obituary and estate documents were in her pos- 
session, together with many letters from her mother. 
Also, included were some photos of her mother and 
brother taken in the past twenty years. 

What caused Mary to act like this? That is the ques- 
tion. She claimed to have ties to the Chicago Mob, and 
it is true she was in Chicago during the late twenties 
and early 1930's. We can only speculate. Some feel 
she said she was an orphan to gain sympathy; but Mary 
was woman for whom it was hard to feel sympathy. 
Every person has their own theory. 

In the six months before her death, Mary's actions 
became even more bizarre. She called often, com- 
plaining that she was freezing to death and the power 
company was shutting her power off. When the power 
company responded they found the temperature to be 
over eighty degrees in her all electrically heated home. 
Mary complained to me for six months before her death 
that she had no meat. She had a 1900 pound, yes that 
is right, 1900 pound steer, that she would not butcher. 
She explained that she had been told that if she butch- 
ered it. Health and Welfare would take the meat. I tried 
to explain several times this was not true, and sug- 
gested that she have the animal butchered; but she 
refused. Sure enough, upon opening her freezer after 
her death, I found there was no meat in it. There was 
basically nothing in her large freezer. 

In the upstairs of her nice barn, was found, the old, 
old, small sign, "Ernest and Mary Turner" that once 
stood outside of her Leadore ranch. She never seemed 
to get over that divorce, although she certainly would 
not have admitted that to anyone. 

Mary would often complain about the cost of eve- 
rything, but when she bought something, she bought 
quality. Her wardrobe consisted of work clothes, but 
also some very good quality clothing. When Mary went 
to town she liked to dress nicely. She would drive down 
the highway wearing an old straw cowboy hat in her 
pickup truck one day and the next day she would drive 

by in her Corvette, which she sold several years ago. 

She had a Federal Firearms License and talked of 
buying and selling guns. One letter found in her col- 
lection from an Arizona acquaintance, was addressed 
as follows: Mary (Gun-Moll) Turner, better known as 
Sweety-pie or "Toots" Turner. Turner's Hideout & Way 
Station on the Lemhi, P Box 1385 Salmon, Idaho 
83467. In the letter, the writer asked, "I haven't heard 
from you for a long spell — have you broken your writen 
hand or gone blind from drinkin cheap rot-gut whiskey, 
or maybe a bear got you or you've fallen in the Lemhi 
and drownded and are now polluting the stream — God 

Mary was obsessed with power and strength, maybe 
control is a better word. She wanted no one to have 
any control over her. She admired or respected few 
people, but five whom she would mention often to me 
were, my father, Salmon attorney, Fred H. Snook, 
whom she would call, "Old Fred." "Now, if 'Old Fred' 
were here, he would tell me what to do, but I'm not 
so sure if you can," she would often comment; just 
before she asked me to do something for her. Next, 
was longtime Lemhi County Sheriff, Bill Baker. "Why, 
if there's any trouble. Bill will pull that old hogleg out 
and use it, if he has to. By God, he ain't afraid to use 
it," was a familiar refrain. The third was her neighbor, 
Lemhi rancher, George Ellsworth, whom Mary de- 
scribed as "about the best person I ever worked with." 
Ernest Waterman, the Salmon carpenter who con- 
structed her new home located on the "perch", was 
another person Mary appreciated, and she never spoke 
unfavorably of Salmon rancher, Vergil Olson. That was 
probably the hardest thing for anyone to accomplish; 
NOT to have Mary speak ill of you. Usually, the more 
you tried to please her, the more she would find fault 
with your efforts. 

Mary has passed on, and we probably will never know 
the complete truth of what caused her paranoia, or 
why she denied her family; but like most people, there 
was good in Mary, and Mary's act of leaving her estate 
to the University of Idaho, College of Agriculture for 
research may help many others for generations to 

During the construction of her home, Mary had se- 
cret compartments built into her home. After her death, 
these hiding places were empty. Did she leave other 
hidden money or treasurers? Perhaps. It may be odd 
that she had all of her money in her purse, but then, 
she was complaining that she thought people were 
breaking into her house whenever she went to town. 
Maybe she just decided to keep it all with her wherever 
she went. Many speculate and wonder where some- 
thing else would be hidden or, if it is hidden, whether 
it is bobbytrapped. Only time will tell and time can 
sometimes take forever. 



The Lemhi Piecemaker's, a group of quilters, made 
the beautiful Centennial quilt that is now on display at 
the Salmon City Center. Each of the panels of the quilt 
represents a different time period in Lemhi County's 
history, and was put together by one or two women 
with others helping with the small detail. 

1890-1900; Salmon was a thriving trade center, sup- 
porting the area mining operations. Chinatown was re- 
stricted to an area near the river. Captain Guleke built 
and piloted flatboats to Shoup and beyond, delivering 
mining supplies. The mining industry at Gilmore built 
the charcoal kilns there. 

1900-1910: This quilt block contains the old Stage 
Stop, Red Rock Stage, the Syringa and the Blubird, 
Idaho's State flower and bird. Also a map of the Red 
Rock Stage route. Agency Creek Narrows, rivers and 

Some of the drivers for the Red Rock Stage were 
Charlie Beach, Harry Williams, Milliard Grieber, George 
LaMunyan, Riley Pyeatte, Monte Caldwell, Ferrell Ter- 
ry, Fred Kroeger, and Mr. Paul. 

1910-1920: River travel was common from Salmon 
to Shoup, but the return trip had to be made by foot 
or on horseback, as did any trip between Challis and 
Salmon. The G & P Railroad came to Salmon via Ban- 
nock Pass and the Lemhi County Courthouse was built 
on the hill above Salmon. 

1920-1930: Prohibition was in effect from 1920 until 
December 1933. On March 18, 1920, Helen Tobias 
came to Gilmore to live with her parents. She had been 
accompanied from the flat by Sheriff Ed Whiddoson. 
That night nearly everyone in Gilmore got drunk and 

the Sheriff was told that Helen had brought the whiskey 
in her trunk. Later she found out that her arrest and 
the humiliating search of her room and belongings were 
only a test for being accepted in Gilmore. 

In November 1925 construction began on the new 
concrete bridge replacing the old wooden bridge. 

In 1930 Emma Yearian, The Sheep Queen, was the 
first woman from Lemhi County to be elected to the 
State Legislature. 

1930-1940: Burrel Mulkey won a silver-mounted sad- 
dle at Madison Square Gardens where he was named 
World Champion Cowboy. The rock wall behind him 
still stands at Highway 93North and Courthouse Drive. 
It was built by the WPA during this decade. The man 
on the horse is a CCC man. The logging industry is 
represented by the giant Ponderosa Pine. Miners are 
shown with an ore car piled high. The background col- 
ors represent the sagebrush covered hills, the moun- 
tains and the Salmon flowing between them. The set- 
ting sun represents the great depression, and the blue 
sky, the dawn of a new era of hope. 

1940-1950: The mining industry slowed and more 
people depended on livestock for their livelihood. In 
the 40's there were over 530 ranches and farms in the 
county and 42,650 cows and calves. As sheep and dairy 
cattle numbers declined in the 50's and 60's, beef cat- 
tle increased to an estimated 32,815 head. 

Brands at the top of the panel represent some brands 
that have been registered and used by the same ranch- 
es for at least the past fifty years. 

1950-1960: The beginning of the interest in a wil- 
derness area was felt here. The gold mine at Leesburg 
and the mine at Cobalt were important to the area's 

1960-1970: The Frank Church River-of-No-Return 
Wilderness Area was established and world class Whi- 
tewater river trips brought many people, famous and 
otherwise, to the area. The adventurous tried kyaking, 
while most found thrills enough in rubber boats or Mak- 
enzies. A trip down the river road rewards the sightseer 
with views of wildlife and Indian paintings on the rocks. 
1970-1980: This was a decade of growth with the tim- 
ber industry flourishing. Champion International bought 
the largest mill, but several small ones ran also and QB 
beam plant was going strong. Many new roads were 
built. 1980-1990: Salmon experienced one of the worst 
winter floodsin recent memory; damage was extensive. 
On the positive side, a new High School was completed 
and Patchwork, a compilation of local history, was be- 
gun as a multi-year project by the high school students. 

Salmon River Days, begun 31 years ago, continues 
today with spectacular fireworks on July 4th. In spite 
of some down times during this decade, we are looking 
with renewed hope toward the next 100 years of Idaho 

The Centennial quilt made by the Lemhi Piecemakers. The 
description of the segments of the wheel moves clockwise, 
beginning with the first block to the right of center. 



by Fred Snook 

The Idaho State Centennial Celebration was a major 
event. The State Legislature made provisions for a Cen- 
tennial Committee in every county, and without a doubt, 
Lemhi County had the best organized Centennial Com- 
mittee in the State. This was largely due to the efforts 
of the late Barbara Young, Lemhi County Centennial 
Chairperson. Barbara got into the Centennial program 
on the ground floor, and had our Centennial Commit- 
tee organized a year before most counties even knew 
about the Centennial Celebration. 

The Centennial Celebration lasted several years. The 
State organized Statehood Day Celebrations from 1986 
through 1990, in five different cities. Salmon was se- 
lected as the Statehood Day location for 1989. Salmon 
was the only small city selected in the entire state; 
probably for three reasons. First, Barbara Young's ef- 
forts at the beginning of the State wide planning; sec- 
ond, Lewis and Clark first entered Idaho in Lemhi Coun- 
ty; and third. Colonel George L. Shoup, Idaho's first 
governor was from Salmon. 

The Lemhi County Centennial Committee consisted 
of: Barbara Young, Chairperson, Harold Heidemann, 
Finance, Sharon Infanger, Information Management, 
James Ellsworth. Legislative, Mona Van Overen, Arts 
and Humanities, Jerry Rosin, Publications, Pat Fitz- 
gerald, Homecoming, Wilmer Rigby, Education, Kaye 
Guth, Centennial Historian, Bob Johnson, Public Infor- 
mation, Fred Snook, History, and Paul Schneider, 
Chamber of Commerce. 

Some funding was received from the State of Idaho 
through the statewide Centennial license plate sales. 
A special Centennial plate was designed and when 
county residents purchased the plate, a share of the 
money went to sponsor their county Centennial activ- 
ities. The State also produced a special limited edition 
Centennial poster which included a picture of Governor 
Shoup. Revenue from these sales also helped finance 

The first activity that created local interest in the 
Centennial was the State Pioneer Certificates. These 
certificates were presented to individuals who filed 
proof that their family lived in Idaho before 1890. Lem- 
hi County had one of the largest percentages of resi- 
dents file for Pioneer Certificates in the entire State. 

Lemhi County residents Marjorie Sims and Julia Ran- 
dolph received recognition for their efforts in docu- 
menting our history, and received "Take Pride in Ida- 
ho" awards from the Centennial Commission. 

Julia Randolph has made many presentations of her 
slide show about Cemeteries in Lemhi County, and also 
took charge of the Ethnic Heritage section of Lemhi 
Counties Centennial. 

Marjorie Sims was honored for her many, many years 
of collecting the history of Lemhi County with special 
emphasis on Leesburg and the Chinese. 

The Salmon branch of the East Idaho Federal Credit 
Union sponsored a Centennial Talent Show to help fi- 
nance Centennial activities. Bonnie Groll and her staff 
donated many hours of time organizing the show which 
was held at the Salmon High School Football Field. It 
was a great show with a lot of local talent. Unfortu- 
nately, the weather did not cooperate, and a very small 
crowd braved a blustery, cold wind to watch the ac- 

On July 3, 1989, Statehood Day converged on Lemhi 
County. The Centennial hot-air balloon circled Salmon 
to kick off the activities. Norma and Tom Tapscott or- 
ganized the largest parade ever held in Salmon. Gov- 
ernor Cecil D. Andrus led the parade on horseback, 
followed closely by the Centennial Calvary Honor Guard, 
who were then followed by United States Senator Steve 
Symms. The historic parade, that lasted over an hour, 
opened with a release of balloons, and the ringing of 
all the bells in town for five minutes. A large crowd 
jammed Main Street to view the many floats, oldtime 
cars, tractors, horses and parade participants, while 
KSRA Radio broadcast the parade live with Salmon 
commentators, Jim Caples and Ray Cheney providing 
the color. The Guyaz family professionally videoed the 
parade and tapes are available. 

Following the Centennial Parade, Governor Andrus 
and Senator Symms spoke at a Statehood Day Lunch- 
eon at the Catholic Church Center. (It is interesting to 
note, that Colonel Shoup held both of those of those 
powerful positions during his political career.) The 
luncheon concluded with a toast to the past, present 
and future led by Master of Ceremonies, Fred Snook. 

Other Statehood Day events were: The Centennial 
Cemetery Slide Show by Julia Randolph; the "Saca- 
jawea of the Shining Mountains" Puppet Show, pre- 
sented by Barbara and Alden Wolfe. (This popular pup- 
pet show has been presented many other times to 
school children throughout the area); a Centennial 
Photographic Display, Agricultural Display and Art Ex- 
hibition at the Junior High School; Bev and Ray Cock- 
rell put together an Historic Mining Exhibition and Dis- 
play that featured placer gold ,,,,mining; the Centennial 
Quilt was displayed at the Masonic Lodge Building, while 
the Farrier Display was at the Frontier Plaza. 

A Centennial Readers Theater highlighted the lives 
of three Pioneer women, Mrs. Amonson, Belle O'Con- 
ner and Anna McCaleb. 

They were portrayed by Mavis Delong, Sherrie Furness, 
Vicki Harbor. 

Statehood Day ended with a Western Play Day fea- 
turing old time horse races at the Fairgrounds. Races 
included the Statehood Dash, the Centennial Charge 
and the Governor's Cup. 

The Centennial Cavalry Guard consisted of: General 
General Judge Snook, Major General Agent Loucks, 


Major State Officer Rockwell, Colonel Colonel Sheriff 
Call, Salmon City Major Freel, Major Doctor C. Heck- 
endorf, Major McPherson S. Beller, Emergency Medic 
Captain Snyder, Colonel Major Agent Cook and Dis- 
patch Captain Buck Adams. No group photo was ever 
taken of this auspicious group and their western image 
lives only in memory. 

Statehood Day, 1989, was one of the greatest cel- 
ebrations ever in the history of Lemhi County. It also 
marked the 365 day countdown to the Centennial Cel- 

As the Centennial Parade began, KSRA radio broad- 
cast the "Salmon Statehood Day Proclamation" by 
Centennial Committee Member Fred Snook: 

"Ladies and Gentlemen! Ninety-nine years ago to- 
day, our great State of Idaho was admitted as the forty 
third State of the United States of America. Today, we 
pay honor to our historic past, our present, and to our 
promising future by celebrating Statehood Day! It is 
therefore proclaimed that our citizens celebrate by 
ringing bells throughout Salmon City and Lemhi County 
for the next five minutes as a salute to our great State 
of Idaho. Let the Centennial Celebration begin!" 

Activities continued throughout 1990. The year be- 
gan with a Day of Thanksgiving, which was a gathering 
of Lemhi County's churches for thanksgiving through 
song and the narration of church histories. Former 
Mayor, Bill Cannon read the narrative prepared by Bar- 
bara Young. 

February began an informative lecture series held at 
the Salmon City Center entitled "A Centennial Look at 
the History of Lemhi County and the Salmon National 
Forest". Topics presented throughout the spring in- 
cluded: "Lewis and Clark's Route Through Lemhi 
County" by Michael Crosby: "Nez Perce-Trail of Tears" 
by Dr. Richard Clark; "Shades of Idaho Cemeteries; 
Stories and Legends of Rural Lemhi County" by Julia 
Randolph; "Back up the River of No Return - The His- 
tory of Power Boating on the Main Salmon River" by 
Mel Reingold; "Gifford Pinchot - From the Other Side" 
by Gary Hines; "Captain William Clark's Reconnais- 
sance of the Salmon River Canyon" by Wilmer Rigby; 
"The Gilmore and Pittsburg - Lemhi County's Only Rail- 
road" by Lyie Longhurst; and "The Legend of Walt 
Blackadar" by Ron Watters. 

In April, 1990 there was a Centennial Fashion Show 
entitled, "A Century of Fashion". This funfilled, enter- 
taining and educational event was coordinated by Ruth 
Blayden, assisted by Karen Whitworth and many oth- 
ers. It featured authentic clothing from the turn of the 
century with a historic narration. 

Kaye Guth and Jon Wright coordinated the Lemhi 
County Time Capsule project in which residents pur- 
chased a time envelope to fill with individual memo- 
rabilia. The Time Capsule is on display at the Court- 
house and will be opened in 2090. 

Beverly Cockrell organized the Commemorative Fort 
Lemhi Trek. This wagon train trek started at Birch Creek 

and made their way to Salmon. It lasted several days 
and commemorated Lemhi County's first white set- 
tlers' journey to Fort Lemhi. The wagon train followed 
off-road trails as much as possible, and from Leadore 
to Salmon, followed along the old back road system. 
It was a lot of fun and very educational for all the par- 
ticipants. The group invited the community to join them 
near Tendoy for the Fort Lemhi Pageant. This special 
program was based on the experiences of the Mormon 

Mona Van Overen and Paul Schneider worked on a 
Sacajawea monument. Local sculptor and western art- 
ist, Gary Ericsson began work on the model. This pro- 
ject has not yet been completed. A very limited number 
of small statues are being sold to help finance the large 
sculpture. When completed it will be put on display in 
an appropriate area near Salmon. 

In June. 1990, The Centennial Flotilla passed through 
Lemhi County on their way to Lewiston. Starting near 
the headwaters of the Salmon River, the assembly of 
boats and kayaks were joined near Salmon by the two 
Centennial Scows. These replica scows were built un- 
der the direction of Bob Smith of North Fork, in the 
pattern of Captain Guleke's oldtime Salmon River 
scows. One scow was named "Captain Guleke", and 
one "Captain Smith". Lt. Governor Butch Otter and 
his friend, Salmon native, Mike Gwartney led the flotilla 
from the Shoup Bridge to Island Park in the "Captain 
Smith", expertly manned by Bob Smith and Steve Set- 
tles. Several Boise and Idaho Falls TV news programs 
sent crews to the area to cover the event. The after- 
noon float was highlighted by the "Salmon Queen" 
crashing into a pillar of the Salmon Bridge just as Salm- 
on radio announcer, Leo Marshall, was interviewing 
Judge Snook and Lt. Governor Otter. They were able 
to announce the comical mishap live. The only serious 
damage was to the crew's reputation, as no one was 
physically injured. 

Butch Otter then christened the "Captain Guleke" 
in a brief ceremony, which was followed by a sump- 
tuous dinner and lively dance near the Island Pavilion. 

The Flotilla continued downstream spending a night 
in North Fork before descending toward Shoup, where 
Smith and Settles guided the historic scows safely 
through the Pine Creek Rapids. People from through- 
out the state signed up to ride the scows for a portion 
of the trip. 

Don O'Neal was selected as Lemhi County's repre- 
sentative to serve as a Grand Marshall at the State 
Centennial Parade in Boise. Don O'Neal and the late 
Fred H. Snook, Sr. each received a Centennial Medal- 
lion from the State Centennial Commission. 

The Centennial emphasis shifted to Boise for the ac- 
tual Centennial on July 3, 1990. Some Lemhi County 
residents participated in the many Boise activities, but 
most stayed at home to participate in Salmon River 
Days and Salmon's Centennial Events. Many of the 
Boise events were televised. In Salmon, longtime res- 


idents, John C. Snook and his brother, Fred H. Snook, 
Sr. led Salmon's Centennial Parade as Grand Marshals. 

The Piecemaker Quilt Show displayed quilts dating 
back to the turn of the century plus many other heir- 
looms; Julia Randolph put on a Slavic Booth with au- 
thentic Slavic music, genealogies and information of 
Slavic culture; and MarRue Simmons presented a Walk- 
ing Tour of Historic Buildings. This was a guided tour 
of Salmon's most historic buildings. MarRue also helped 
published a brochure for the Walking Tour. 

Ciska Mosher was in charge of the Statehood Day 
Ceremony held at noon on July 3, 1990 at the Lemhi 
County Courthouse lawn. A city wide bell ringing began 
the ceremony which included the flag presentation, 
history, singing, dancing and a viewing of Lemhi Coun- 
ty's time capsule. 

A Grand Reunion of Salmon Schools was organized 
by Pat Fitzgerald. This reunion, for all alumni who at- 
tended any of the Salmon schools, featured lunch, din- 
ner and a Reunion dance. 

West One Bank presented a Spirit of the West Art 
Exhibit. This exhibit went statewide for several months. 
The exhibit was featured in Salmon for three days in 
September, 1990 under direction of Paula Guth of West 
One Bank. The exhibit was free to the public and also 
featured local talent performing on stage during an 
evening performance. 

The final organized Centennial event held in Lemhi 
County was the Centennial Ball which occurred in late 
October, 1990. Stefani Blayden organized this large 
event which celebrated Idaho's statehood through 
dance. The State also held a Centennial Ball in Boise. 
The University of Idaho Jazz Band performed at the 
Elks Hall while two groups performed at the LDS Stake 
Center and the Salmon High School. There was some- 
thing for everybody. 

The State Centennial was scheduled to end Decem- 
ber 31, 1990. In late December, there was a statewide 
event entitled. Weekend of Commitment. This event 
encouraged Idahoans to commit to a better future. All 
of the area churches were invited to participate with 
messages of hope, peace and unity within our com- 

As the Centennial Celebration came to an end, a 
small group began to form the Lemhi County History 
Book Committee. Its purpose was to finalize the Cen- 
tennial Celebration by gathering the most and the best 
information possible on the history of Lemhi County. 
The completion of this project celebrates, forever, 
Lemhi County's participation in the State Centennial. 

1903 - LJlysses. Mike Coan started down the river with two pack horses 
and in some way the pack got loose along the trail and spilled all his 
supplies for about a mile and one of his bronchos was not satisfied 
with that and jumped in the river and swam across leaving Mike on 
this side. 


by Dee Keirnes 

It was a summer afternoon, in 1965 I think. I had 
moved back to Salmon the year before and was work- 
ing in my father's barber shop. Tom Kessel from up 
around Leadore came in for a haircut and shave and 
of course his old shepherd dog "Shag" was with him. 
Shag was an easy going old dog that seemed to un- 
derstand most of what you said. If you asked him to 
shake hands he would reach up with his right hind foot, 
which made everyone laugh. 

Tom had been drinking a little, as he often did when 
he came to town and was in a jovial mood. He said 
they were in town to buy a new car. 

While I was shaving him I noticed one of the car 
salesman from the Ford garage go by and grin when 
he saw Tom. I think it was Dutch Morrison. I wondered 
what was up and, shortly after Tom left, here came 
Dutch to tell us about the strangest car deal he had 
ever made. 

It seems that Tom had been up there and looked at 
every new car they had on the lot. Even test drove 
some of them while Dutch rode in the back seat. Shag 
got to ride on the passenger side. Anyway, Tom couldn't 
seem to decide which one he liked best. Finally he went 
down the line and opened the passenger door on every 
one of them. Then, back out on the sidewalk in front 
of all the cars, he turned to Shag and said, "Well, which 
one of those damn things do you like best?" Shag trot- 
ted off down to a big Mercury station wagon, jumped 
up on the seat and just sat there panting. 

Tom said, "We'll take that one." 


— THE— 

Arbor Lodging House 

South of Coiinly Jnll, 

Beds, 25 aiul 50 Cents. 

A. A.S.MITH, rroprlolor. 

I,ogtinin Chlckons from l>R£niU«l 
tU>ck. wlU noil yoiina fowls from 

^X to J^a so X3Acla. 

Tlinjr Bra li.TmlKomo nml non-sellers, ond 
ni»re ihmi onllimry Inycri. I nni now rcody 
lo nil ordem for young foirls. 6'ome nnd sea 
for yourself. Ueuncry, Houlli Terroca 3t. 



by Fred Snook 

1940 to 1990 

Editor's note: This section reviews the gradual change that has taken 
place in Lemhi County in the past fifty years. This change, highlighted 
by several booms and busts, has moved our isolated community 
closer and closer toward the modern world. The section combines 
an overview narrative, many illustrative photos, and interesting top- 
ics. Although the focus is on the 1940 to 1990 time period, it was 
often necessary to go back before 1940 to cover the complete his- 
tory of an individual subject, or to show the contrast or change that 
has occurred. 

Many changes have occurred in Salmon and Lemhi 
County during the past fifty years. Most of these chang- 
es and growth have been slow and sometimes unnot- 
iced. People come back to visit and say, "The town 
hasn't changed at all", but change continues. Most of 
the change has been for the good, some for the bad. 
Salmon is still a very good place to raise your family; 
isolated and protected from some, not all, of the dan- 
gers of the real world. 

As America grew after World War II, so did Lemhi 
County. One of the main changes was in transporta- 
tion. When the G & P Railroad went out in 1939, the 
highway system was inadequate. During World War II, 
it was not possible to make many improvements, how- 
ever, after the war one of the main improvements was 
in highway transportation. A narrative history of Lemhi 
County, written in about 1949 by an unknown source 

Salmon, has a population of 3,400. Salmon is served 
by bus and truck lines from Missoula. Butte, Idaho Falls 
and Pocatello. By the end of this summer a 10 mile 
stretch of the road from Pocatello will be oiled giving 
Lemhi County its first oiled road leading (for ten miles) 
to the outside. It is expected that oiling of the roads to 
Missoula and Idaho Falls will be completed within the 
next three or four years. 

The roads were not completed that soon, but by the 
middle 1950's, the relocation of State Highway 28 from 
the back road to the old railroad right of way, up the 
middle of the Lemhi Valley, was completed. This pro- 
ject opened up the road to Idaho Falls, and what fifteen 
years before had been a two day trip by train, became 
a three to four hour trip by auto. 

Over the years, small improvements have continued 
on U.S. Highway 93. This north-south route that con- 
nects Mexico to Canada, running through Salmon's 
Main Street, was virtually forgotten when the interstate 
system was built in the 1960's and 1970's. Rather than 
improve the old two lane, mountainous, curving U.S. 
93 which leads from Missoula over Lost Trail Pass, to 
Salmon, and on to Challis and Twin Falls, Interstate 15 
diverted traffic from Missoula through Butte, Dillon and 
Monida Pass to Idaho Falls and Salt Lake City. 

In the past few years, Montana has made major im- 
provements to U.S. 93 including a three lane, open 
view grade to the top of Lost Trail Pass. Plans are now 
underway to upgrade the Idaho side of Lost Trail Pass. 
This will have immediate impact. First, an estimated 
three to five year construction period will provide jobs 
and revenue, and more and more traffic will resume 
use of U.S. 93. 

Growth periods affecting Lemhi County have includ- 
ed the Cobalt Boom, the Land Boom, the Noranda 

Nationally known gun writer and big game hunter, Elmer Keith 
helped put Salmon on the map, writing for more than 50 years. The 
recipient of the first Outstanding Handgunner of the Year Award, 
his autobiography, "Hell, I Was There!", is a must for any Keith 

1950 - a delegation from Lemhi County visits the State Capitol asking for funding 
for a paved highways. Fred H. Snook, County Commissioner; Ed Douglas, Mgr. 
Cobalt Mine; Max Hemmert, Salmon businessman; John W. Snook, former State 
Legislator; Stever Mahaffey Sr., rancher. 



Boom, and the Recreation Boom. The Cobalt period 
began in the late 1940's into the 1950's. The old Lemhi 
County general narrative referred to above states: 

Even today mining is one of the major industries. At 
the present time the Calera Mining Company is devel- 
oping a large mine in the Blackbird area. One hundred 
seventeen employees are employed. This mine will be 
one of the largest producers of cobalt in the United 

Cobalt boomed and Salmon boomed. Cougar Point 
Campground was a popular place for family picnics and 
community events during the 1950's. The Panther 
Creek and Morgan Creek roads were busy with traffic 
as well as Williams Creek. Then Cobalt closed, and 
Salmon partially closed for a few years. Cutbacks were 
made in the school system and some businesses closed, 
but the community survived and prepared for the next 

The Land Boom began in the middle 1960's and ex- 
ploded in the early 1970's. Ranchers close to town sold 
off properties for an unheard of $500 per acre, then 
soon $1,000 per acre. In a few years, land was $2,500 
per acre one year, and the same property was $3,500 
to $4,000 per acre the next year. People jumped on 
the band wagon, more land was subdivided, outside 
investors came in, eager for profits. Again the crash 
came. Too many lots for too few permanent people, 
and at the same time, the national economy dipped. 
Land prices fell, from $4,000 to $3,000, to about $2,000 
per acre with few buyers. All of the industries that had 
built up on the land sale income suffered; real estate 
offices, attorneys, title companies, and lending insti- 
tutions saw income decline. Some survived these lean 
years, others did not. 

To further fuel this fire, we need to review the Nor- 
anda Boom. Noranda Mining Company came to town 
in the late 1970's to reopen the Cobalt Mine. Many 
people were employed and many new people moved 
to Salmon. This increase in population and home buy- 
ers fueled the Land Boom. Noranda planned a thirty 
year life operation. But suddenly in the early 1980's 
they quietly shut down and left town. This collapse, 
further escalated the land sale decline, and definitely 
hurt Salmon. Many fine families had the leave the area. 
Others could not sell their Salmon homes in order to 
afford to move, and suffered economically. 

Throughout the last twenty years another gradual force 
was at work. A quiet retirement boom keeps growing 
with people from outside areas retiring to Lemhi County. 
The community of Elk Bend was developed by Penn Phil- 
lips of Southern California. Today over a hundred homes 
are located on this development alongside the Salmon 
River about twenty miles south of Salmon on U.S. 93. 

Other areas of the county have changed from agri- 
cultural areas to residential areas. Many homes are 
now located on Carrhen Creek, Fourth of July Creek, 
Tower Creek, Haynes Creek, Williams Creek and Per- 
reau Creek, Hughes Creek and the North Fork River. 
The valley floor area south of town is filling with homes 

centered around a development of the Mammon's dur- 
ing the 1960's and 1970's, which was unofficially nick- 
named Hammonville. South St Charles Street exten- 
sion has filled with homes and the old Yakovac ranch 
on Lover's Lane was subdivided into homesites. The 
lower Lemhi River area has many new homes carved 
out of former ranch land. The major developments of 
Bob Thomas' Valley View Heights and Ralston Adams' 
Sunset Heights, offered many scenic home locations 
on marginal agricultural land. 

The North Fork to Gibbonsville areas saw many new 
homes. The Ravndal Ranch at Hughes Creek was sub- 
divided, lots were platted on Sheep Creek, other ranch- 
es sold off parcels, and quietly the area has grown. 
Gibbonsville resident, Les Usher led a ten year battle 
to obtain legal title for the property owners of Gib- 
bonsville from the US Forest Service. Under the old 
system the home owners only had a government per- 
mit for their homes. The old town of Gibbonsville is a 
thing of peaceful beauty today. 

Along the Main River above North Fork, the residen- 
tial area of Holcombville was developed. Down the riv- 
er, the Forest Service burned down many of the old 
homes in an ill advised effort to make the river more 
scenic. The Tibbitts family developed the Colson Creek 
Ranch into a nice retreat and John Booker's Outpost 
became a downriver retreat for many Salmon residents 
for special barbecue events. 

In the 1950's the government began construction of 
a large dike along the Salmon River starting at the 
Salmon River Bridge. The dike has been expanded over 
the years and now runs upstream several miles pro- 
viding protection for the south side of Salmon's Main 
Street. Flooding, caused by winter ice jams still occurs 
on the north side of Salmon near the Lemhi River. In 
the 1980's, a dike was built along the lower end of the 
Lemhi River to try to protect this area from future 

The Deadwater area of the Salmon River located a 
few miles below North Fork has been a source of con- 
troversy. Many blame this area as the cause of the ice 
jams that threaten river area residents from North Fork 
to Salmon. Some have proposed to dredge out Dead- 
water to eliminate the dead current. Others oppose 
this idea, citing the fact that the Salmon River is a wild 
and scenic river and should be left undisturbed. 

The other gradual change has been in agriculture. 
Several new families moved to the area during this time 
period and replaced old time ranching families. Many 
ranches on the Lemhi and in the Pahsimeroi have re- 
mained in the same family for several generations. 

The commercial business grew. Historically, Salmon 
had only one bank; Idaho First National Bank, located 
on the corner of Center and Main Street. Their old bank 
building was torn down and a new facility built at the 
same location. In the early 1970's, First Security Bank 
built a new building at Shoup and Andrews. It was soon 
joined by Mountain States Savings, located across An- 


drews Street in the Herndon Motel Building. Next, East- 
ern Idaho Federal Credit Union opened as a one per- 
son, small office, and has now grown to a major op- 
eration. In an old issue of the Recorder Herald there 
is a news story, about the State Banking Commission 
denying an application for a new Salmon bank. The 
State explained that all of the old banks in Salmon had 
failed, except Idaho First National, and their opinion 
was that the community could not support more than 
one bank. What was right then, is wrong now. 

The Lemhi County Courthouse underwent major ex- 
pansion adding a new Sheriff's Department and ex- 
panding the first floor offices. 

In the early 1960's, the last of the old wooden side- 
walks on Main Street were replaced as the town mod- 
ernized. Today, some western communities are re- 
placing concrete sidewalks with old wooden board- 
walks. Main Street's appearance has changed. Two new 
buildings built by Prochko and Cook filled in the gap 
on the south side of Main Street in the 500 block and 
Jack Cook's sporting goods store filled in the old drive- 
way in the 400 block. Elsewhere, the hospital was pur- 
chasing additional ground in the 700 block. The col- 
lection of old homes and trees was replaced by a new 
green belt area, about a half a block long. 

The 900 and 1 100 blocks changed dramatically. Two 
old motels were demolished. Criddle's Drive Inn Motel 
and the Trail's End Motel were taken out and the areas 
cleaned off for future development. That development 
has never occurred, but no doubt will, someday. The 
removal of old buildings did change the appearance of 
"Old Main Street". This trend continued in the 1200 

This handsome building was built by W.W. Schultz. It was built in 
the colonial style with a hip roof and is adorned with four multi- 
colored, double tapered Ionic columns which support the heavy 
stone Lintel. The brick dentil corbling gives a continuous line effect 
across the top. It has broken pediment and neoclassical details un- 
der the eaves and a gabled dormer, with full eave return, flanked 
by ornamental metal finials. The brick and stone is from local 
sources. The 8 foot bronze statue of "Justice" stands serenely at 
the top of the dormer, placed on her lofty perch by an ordinary hay 

block. The old Pearl Bowen, John Deere Tractor deal- 
ership building was destroyed by fire, and almost all of 
the rest of the block has been cleaned off. 

The south side of the 900, 1000 and 1100 blocks 
also changed. The residential appearance remains in- 
tact, but most of the old homes are now businesses. 
This has helped preserve Salmon's small town flavor. 

There have been several attempts to organize the 
building of a big city mall at the edge of town, but the 
idea has never taken hold. 

Several of Salmon's old businesses have expanded. 
The McPherson Dry Goods Store is celebrating its 90th 
year of business. Over the years it has expanded by 
making the adjoining Bakery building a part of the store. 
Havemann Hardware added additional space when the 
Salmon Post Office moved from Main Street to the new 
brick building on Shoup Street. Saveway Market out- 
grew its Main Street location, and built a large grocery 
store on the north side of Shoup Street in an old res- 
idential area. 

The south side of Shoup Street in the 500 block 
changed, as all the old residential buildings were taken 
out to provide parking. Rexall Drug expanded, adding 
the Hallmark Store where Clinton's Shoe Store had 
been for years. Arfman's Department Store, moved 
from the old JC Penny Store across the street, to the 
old location of Saveway Market. B&B Grocery added 
the Pioneer Bakery and also expanded their operation 
to front onto the Shoup Street parking lot. 

After World War II came the real discovery of the gas- 
oline age in Lemhi County. It seemed that every inter- 
section had at least one gas station. Many of these old 
Main Street Service Stations have changed over the past 
years. The Club Bar was torn down to make room for a 
Chevron Station in the 200 block. The station on the 
west side of No. Center Street and Main Street was dis- 
continued when the Perry brothers built their new Chev- 
ron Station where the old Methodist Church used to be 
at Main and Church Streets. An old residence was moved 
on the south side of Main at Church Street to make way 
for Bernard's Conoco Service Station. Tom Reid's busy 
station at the intersection of No. Andrews and Main Street 
served for many years until being converted into a tire 
shop. Max Hemmert's old Texaco station at the NE cor- 
ner of Center and Main was replaced by a large Texaco 

D T ,1 '"; ^ ' *. ' •>»• 


»— - - 111 -mil!!! 

•salfsil/ n*''^" ^^^^''' 



The old Pioneer Ford Building on the south side of Main St. 
between Andrews and Church Streets, was remodeled to 
accomodate the present King's Department Store. 

station that has become V-l. The Amoco Station, owned 
by Chuck Kane was at Lillian and Main, where the Country 
Store is today. At the corner of Clark and Main was the 
V-l gas station. This building is now Farmer's Insurance. 
In the 1000 block was another gas station. This was also 
where Max Hemmert's Jeep dealership was located, later 
it was Arnold's Texaco Station. On Union Avenue, Jim 
Pope's Beeline Gas station operated for many years. It 
was later replaced by Joe Proksch with the large Prox 
Oil Station on Hwy. 93 South. 

Back in the center of town, the Pioneer Ford garage 
also had a large gas station deck with Phillips 66. The 
Pioneer Garage, developed by the Nichols family, was the 
hub of activity for many years. Their phone number was 
simply number 1. As the Pioneer building grew older and 
older, the Ford dealership was sold to a new fellow, Gary 
Anderson, who proposed to move the dealership out of 
the city limits to a location on Hwy. 93 South. "Ridicu- 
lous. It will never work", said old-timers. "The Ford ga- 
rage has always been in the middle of town, how can 
they move it", added others. But the move was made 
and has proved quite successful both for Gary Anderson 
and for the new tenants of the old Pioneer property. M.H. 
King Department Store purchased the property and re- 
constructed the old building into a new, modern Kings 

Other gas stations included Bob Stokes Co-op at the 
edge of town of Hwy. 93 north, a Maverick station near 
the present day City park, and Ed Wolfley's 93 Mini-Mart, 
which started in a small temporary building that has grown 
into a nice gas station/porting goods store. 

With the many gas stations were many car dealerships. 
Sam and Babe Weber's Valley Chevrolet was purchased 
by Marlin Blayden. 

Marlin and his son John have expanded over the years 
to serve all General Motors vehicles; one of the few deal- 
erships in the nation", authorized to service and sell every 
type of GM auto. Meeks Motors, located on So. Andrews 
and Van Dreff, which had Buick, Pontiac and GMC trucks, 
sold out to Quality Motors and became a parts house. 


o a 

The Herndon Hotel 

Max Hemmert Jeep dealership was one of the largest in 
the northwest. Almost every rancher in the valley had a 
Jeep four wheel drive pickup. Chris's Motors, located at 
So. St. Charles and Van Dreff, sold Nash Ramblers and 
there was a dealership located on North St. Charles sell- 
ing Imperials and Chrysler. In the late 1950's, Jack Cook 
and Frank Stahl sold Dodge cars and Dodge Power Wag- 
on pickups at Salmon Motors, located where the A to Z 
Feed Store is today, on Shoup Street. Dale Skinner built 
the Quonset design building on Hwy. 93 South to sell 
Ford tractors. Mercury cars, and the popular Interna- 
tional Scout four wheel drive units. Eli and Jack Smith 
opened Smitty's Auto Sales with Plymouth-Dodge cars 
on Hwy. 93 South in the building that is now Economy 
Supply. Today, only two, dealerships remain; Quality Mo- 
tors and Gary Anderson Auto Sales, which has the deal- 
ership on Ford-Lincoln and Chrysler-Dodge-Plymouth ve- 

Changes have come in the Hotel business also, over 
the years. The Shenon Hotel became the Pixton Hotel, 
and later the Herndon Hotel. Additional units were add- 
ed on Church Street and then on Shoup Street, to 
become the Herndon Hotel and Courts. The Hotel busi- 
ness era ended. First, the Lemhi Hotel was destroyed 
by fire in 1962, and second, the modern traveler pre- 
ferred newer motels over the old-time hotels. The 


Herndon Hotel closed and the Herndon Courts were 
converted to commercial space. The Motel Deluxe was 
built on Church Street and the Suncrest on Hwy 93 
South. As the Trail's End and Drive Inn Motels were 
removed, two new motels were built across the bridge 
on Hwy. 93 North. The Stagecoach Inn is a very fine, 
spacious facility built by Nep Lynch at the location of 
the old Dunks Army Surplus Store and Cabins, which 
were a few old log cabins located just below the Salmon 
River Bridge. The Stagecoach Inn was soon joined by 
the Wagons West Motel. 

Hotel and motel rooms continue to be a problem in 
Salmon, and it is either feast or famine. Most of the 
year there are many rooms available, but during the 
summer months and special events, rooms are scarce. 
The low total number of rooms does limit the possibility 
of major conventions or activities, but presently the 
total year round demand is not sufficient to justify more 
lodging space. Today four motels and one bed and 
breakfast unit serve Salmon. 

Social habits changed. After prohibition ended, 
Salmon had a large number of watering holes. This 
continued into the 1950's until restrictions and social 
changes began the decline of the bar business. The 
State law changed making hard liquor licenses outside 
of incorporated towns very difficult to obtain. This law 
led to the death of such establishments as the Lamar 
Club and the Rainbow Club, both located near Salmon, 
but outside of the city limits. The old Rat Race saloon 
at Carmen continued as a beer bar. In Salmon, Main 
Street featured a long list of bars. The Club, The Buck- 
horn, The Smokehouse, The Silver Spur in the Lemhi 
Hotel, The Lantern, The Crescent Club, The Mint, The 
Main, The Owl Club, The Elks Club, The Shady Nook, 
and Art's Bar. In the late 1950's the legislature passed 
a new law establishing a quota on how many liquor 
licenses a town could have. This quota was based on 
population and Salmon's quota was three! However, 
grandfather licenses could continue. Charles Herndon 
remodeled the Herndon Hotel to include the old Salm- 
on River Inn, to obtain a license only days before the 
quota system began. 

The Club Bar was removed to make way for the 
Chevron Station. The Buckhorn was removed to make 
room for The Smoke House parking lot. The Smoke 
House dropped their liquor permit. The Silver Spur 
burned down and the license was transferred. The old 
Crescent Club moved to a new location and became 
the Timberline. Art's Bar closed, followed by The Mint. 
Today, only the Salmon River Inn, Timberline, Owl Club, 
Lantern and Shady Nook remain in business. 

Recreation facilities became a reality. Salmon had 
been one of the last communities without a golf course, 
when a small, private course sprang up on the Salmon 
River at Lake Creek. It was later replaced by the Salm- 
on City Golf Course which is part of the City Park. The 
City Park project was made possible by the goodwill 
of Mr. and Mrs. Gar Hodges. They were the owners of 

a ranch situated at the edge of Salmon on Highway 
28. The Hodges had many other opportunities to sell 
their property, but worked with the City in entering 
into a long term sale to the City, at a very reasonable 
price, with very reasonable terms. The City Council had 
the foresight to jump at the opportunity, and the deal 
was struck. The School District had purchased a part 
of the Park property for the high school location. Then 
it was decided to not build the high school at that 
location, so that property has also been incorporated 
into the total park system. The community stepped 
forward and took the initiative. The Golf Association 
was formed and through their efforts a beautiful golf 
course was constructed. The Rotary Club constructed 
two pavilions in the vicinity of the old Hodges home 
and orchard, which is now a popular playground and 
eating area of the park. Salmon attorney, Jordan Smith 
organized a fund drive to build a new City Swimming 
Pool, while other groups have constructed new tennis 
courts and many softball and baseball fields. The Salm- 
on City Park is truly something that our community 
can take pride in. Perhaps, someday Mr. and Mrs. 
Hodges will receive the recognition they deserve for 
making this possible. 

The School District had planned to build the new 
Salmon High School at the present park area. They 
purchased land from the Hodges for the new school, 
but the community rightfully objected to the location, 
which was beyond walking distance of most of the com- 
munity. Good things often come out of bad, and that 
happened here. The School District traded their prop- 
erty at the Park to the County in return for the old 
Lemhi County Fairgrounds location, located just across 
from the other school buildings on Highway 93 South. 

The problem of a location with more space for a new 
fairgrounds was solved when Salmon residents, Lavan 
and Pat Hunsaker offered to give the County acreage 
at the end of their ranch, about three miles north of 
Salmon on Highway 93, in return for certain construc- 
tion work to be done on the Hunsaker's property. The 
Lemhi County Fair Board has done an excellent job 
over these past fifteen years in developing the new 
fairgrounds, with the construction of a racetrack, a 
covered grandstand, indoor arena, boxstalls, 4-h build- 
ings, and other display buildings. The Lemhi County 
Fairgrounds are considered to be the finest small coun- 
ty fairgrounds in the State of Idaho. 

So the complicated three way switch resulted in more 
acreage for the park system, the perfect location for 
the Salmon High School, and a fine new fairgrounds 

People always complain that there is nothing for 
young people to do in Salmon. This is simply not true. 
Any young person who has the initiative to be involved, 
can be in more activities than he or she has time for. 
Today, there are Little League baseball teams, softball 
leagues, golf, football, tennis, swimming, Lifetime Sports 
Activities through the High School, gymnastics, power 


lifting, many school sports activities, very active 4-h 
programs. Little Britches Rodeo, High School Rodeo, 
Scouting activities, church youth groups, plus the many 
activities our location offers for hunting, fishing and 
outside events. 

Salmon and Leadore High Schools both have many 
athletic events, and these games are a treasured social 
activity for many people in both communities. 

Salmon High School has had a number of fine boys' 
basketball teams over the years, but the only team to 
win the State Basketball Championship was the 1964 
team. They started back in the Brooklyn School in the 
fifth grade under Coach Sassman, then progressed 
through Junior High School, Freshman and Junior Var- 
sity under Coach Terry Armstrong, and then their Var- 
sity years under Coach Dean Stokes. Salmon played 
at the highest level in the State, and first showed po- 
tential in 1962 when Salmon beat Idaho Falls High 
School for the District Championship. 

1S64 Basketball Team - Front: Buck Stout, Fred Snook, Chuck Jones 
Second: Ron Sorenson, Rick Neyman, Bill Whiting, Lonnie Schultz 
Back: Jack Sorenson, Van Jolly, Ted Crumbey, John Tracey, Bob 
Gutzman, Jordan Smith, Dennis Moodie, Don Wolf. 

1964 was the first year of the State A-2 classification 
for schools from 300 to 1,000 and Salmon was ready. 
At the State tournament, Salmon won their first two 
games. The Savages then played their arch rival and 
conference foe, Bonneville High School. The game was 
32 minutes of intense basketball. Every possession was 
an epic struggle; neither team could pull away or take 
command. Several Savage starters fouled out, and the 
entire team had to pull together. Every player came 
through and late in the game, Jordan Smith sank the 
winning shot as the Salmon Savages became the first 
A-2 State Basketball Champions. Bob Gutzman and Jack 
Sorenson were named to the All State team. Coach 
Dean Stokes continued for many years as Salmon High 
School Basketball and won more games than any coach 
before or since at Salmon High School. Since leaving 
coaching he has had a successful career in insurance 

and real estate. Bob Gutzman went on to play basket- 
ball at Trinity College in Connecticut, and is now a school 
administrator back east. Von Jolley earned his doc- 
torate degree and taught at Brigham Young University; 
Don Wolf received a degree in education and teaches 
in the Boise area, where Dennis Moody has a beam 
plant, and Ted Crumley is with Boise Cascade. Bill Whit- 
ing is in Meridian, and Lonnie Schultz was in St. An- 
thony. Jordan Smith is an attorney in Salmon. Jack 
Sorenson resides in Salmon where he competed in Sal- 
mon's Softball leagues for many years. Fred Snook 
played football and track at Western Montana College 
before returning to Salmon, where teammates John 
Tracy (ranching) and Rick Neyman (labor) also reside. 
Both team managers. Chuck Jones (BLM) and Buck 
Stout are in the Boise area. 

Horses helped settle the west, and it is interesting 
to review the changing role of the horse during the 
past fifty years, from a necessary animal to a recre- 
ational animal. 

Horses have always been important in Lemhi Coun- 
ty. First, for transportation; either by stagecoach or 
horseback. The railroad replaced the stagecoach and 
horses for cross country trips, unless you were like 
John W. Snook, who once rode his new, unbroke stal- 
lion home to Baker from Armstead, Montana, rather 
than pay the G & P's "unreasonable livestock fare". 
The gasoline age came and horses went, but there has 
always been a need for horses in agricultural Lemhi 

Tractors replaced horses in the haying operations, 
and by the 1950's only a few Lemhi County ranchers 
continued with horse power. Lloyd Clark of Leadore 
still does so in 1992. Ranchers, however, still need 
good saddle horses to rotate cattle on the range and 
in their day to day cattle operations. 

As the every day need for horses decreased, the 
recreational use of horses increased. The Salmon River 
Posse Club, the Salmon Salmonettes, and Rancho Kids 
riding groups were organized in the 1950's. Many busi- 
nessmen and their families joined with their ranching 
friends in these fun filled activities. Many other com- 
munities had posse clubs, and there was a State Posse 
Organization with statewide competitions. After a few 
years, the thrill of this new activity wore off, and the 
group disbanded. A reunion dinner was held a few years 
ago at the 28 Club and a complete history was pre- 
sented by member. Jack McKinney. 

Organized horse racing was always part of the Lemhi 
County Fair. In the 1950's there were many horse rac- 
ing enthusiasts in Salmon. A change in the Fair Circuit 
schedule basically eliminated Salmon and racing was 
dropped. The most popular local race horse ever in 
Lemhi County was the legendary New Moon who won 
over a hundred races. New Moon was one of the first 
registered quarter horses to come to Lemhi County. 
For a quarter mile, on the half mile track at the old 
Fairgrounds, he was virtually unbeatable. It was com- 


New Moon, legendary local race horse of the 1950's, shown wining 
at the Ravalli Co. Fair. 

mon for New Moon to win two races in one afternoon. 
He was even matched against cars driven by Dr. Walt 
Blackadar and Max Hemmert, but would prevail for a 
quarter of a mile. At age fifteen, he was matched against 
high school sprint star, Don Lemons, in a feature race 
at the Fair. Even with a fifteen yard head start in a fifty 
yard race, he proved no match for New Moon. 

There was no horse racing in Salmon for years and 
years. Then the Lemhi County Fair Board reinstated 
Saddle Horse Races as part of the Fair. Although not 
professional, these races have provided many thrilling 
finishes as, "Down the stretch they come." 

In the early 1970's the Salmon Chariot Club was 
formed. They ran their first chariot races on the Lea- 
dore Airport runway. The Championship race was run 
on a roadgraded strip through the sagebrush on Steve 
Mahaffey's Pattee Creek property. Later a track was 
built east of the County Airport and Chariot races were 
run almost every Sunday from December to March. As 
many as twenty-five local teams competed. Competi- 
tion was keen, and many high priced horses were 
brought in. Teams participated in State and National 
Finals, and chariot racing was the talk of the town at 
Jack's Barber Shop. As the economy tightened, the 
club dwindled, moved its location to the new Fair- 
grounds, and finally disbanded in the 1980's. 

Two other horse groups replaced the Chariot As- 
sociation. The Backcountry Horsemen were organized 
in the middle 1970's. This group takes organized rides 
throughout the county, takes on worthwhile activities 
to improve backcountry riding, and regularly partici- 
pates in local parades. Another adult horse group is 
the Salmon Roping Club. This group conducts regular 
team roping activities, sponsors the Western Playday 
during the 4th of July Holidays, and holds social events 
at the Ranch. The Leadore Roping Association was ac- 
tive in the 1970's and built the Leadore Indoor Arena. 
Later the group disbanded and the arena was sold to 
Lemhi County. Wally Yule supervised the dismantling 

of the large arena building, which was reconstructed 
at the new Lemhi County Fairgrounds. 

Law Enforcement has been modernized in recent years. 
The old system was for a telephone operator to turn on 
the light on top of the Shoup Building, in order to tell the 
City Police to go to a phone and call the operator for a 
message. This system ended about 1970, plus or minus. 
A twenty-four hour dispatch center and jail was put into 
operation. The Sheriff's Department changed from Sher- 
iff Bill Baker and one Deputy to numerous deputies; the 
City Police, from Billie Lewis and one night watchman to 
a six man force. An Idaho State Police Officer was as- 
signed to Salmon. Game Warden, Mike Wilkins was re- 
placed by several Conservation Officers, the Outfitters 
and Guides hired an officer, and the Forest Service and 
BLM hired law enforcement officers. 

Another major change in the economy of Lemhi 
County is the increase of government employees. The 
US Forest Service and Bureau of Land Management 
staffs have grown from a few employees each to major 
employers. The same is true of the State Department 
of Fish and Game, the State Department of Health and 
Welfare, State Employment, Soil Conservation Service. 
Besides the year round employees, many residents are 
dependent on their summer government employment. 

The other economic area that continues to grow is 
tourism. Floating on the Salmon River and the Middle 
Fork is big business. In the 1960's these float trips 
started growing in popularity. Soon, the Middle Fork 
had more people than it could handle, and the Forest 
Service had to establish a permit system for certain 
areas of the rivers. Other areas still remain open for 
the general public to float. Professional outfitters and 
guides are required to have licenses from the State 
Outfitters and Guides Board. Many tourists come 
through Salmon on their way to float the river. Also, 
the flying services at the Lemhi County Airport are 
quite busy in the summer, flying floating trips into the 
Middle Fork. 

In 1992 Salmon celebrates its Centennial Year. The 
community continues to change and grow; at a very slow 
rate. Our pace of life is slower than our large city cousins, 
we don't fight traffic, we know most of our neighbors 
and do not have any major crime problems. It is a good 
place to live. 

One source of future economy that has not been 
tapped is a historical center/convention center. Many 
have suggested that a Sacajawea Historical Center be 
built in or near Salmon. This could provide information 
about Sacajawea, Lewis and Clark, the Lemhi Indians, 
Fort Lemhi, Chief Tendoy, Leesburg and the many min- 
ing ghost towns, a general museum, an Elmer Keith 
museum, plus a Chamber of Commerce information 
center and a convention center big enough to attract 
groups to Salmon. The Buffalo Bill Historical Center in 
Cody, Wyoming has been very successful for many 
years, and the Salmon area is far more scenic and 
interesting than Cody. Perhaps, this will someday be- 


come a reality. 

The future? No one can say for sure. Dangers come 
and dangers go, but the largest threats to our lifestyle 
now are, major expansion and the change of the eco- 
nomic base. Some people fear Salmon will eventually 
become another Jackson Hole, Wyoming, with the re- 
sulting influx of many people and major lifestyle changes. 
The other problem is with agriculture. Ranching, the larg- 
est economic force in Lemhi County, is now under attack 
from certain groups regarding grazing of the public range. 
Most Lemhi County ranchers use public grazing in their 
operation, and if this public grazing is eliminated many 
small ranchers would have to sell. There would be two 
results: Some larger ranches would buy their neighbor's 
ranch to provide enough grazing to continue to operate. 
Other ranches that cannot continue would be sold for 
subdivision or ranchettes. There is not much private 
ground in Lemhi County. More than ninety percent of the 
County is owned by the government. The after-effects 
of eliminating many of the ranches from the small amount 
of private ground available for agriculture would be the 
largest change ever in the economy of Lemhi County. 
Will this happen? I hope not. 

Let us pray that the next fifty years brings Lemhi 
County as much slow growth history as the past fifty 

Salmon Chamber of Commerce visit to Cobalt - 1949 or 1950. Joe 
Pixton, J. Christensen, Ervin Dunn, Dr. Peter South, Fred Snook, 
Edwinna Nichols, Hap Huber, Raymond White, Ed Douglas, jess Fulk- 
erson, R. P. Stevens, Florence Martin. Back: Bill Hanmer, Paul 
McPherson, Art Withington, Clint Quesnel, Billie Lewis, Gordon Wolf, 
--, Ed Smith, --, Bill Perry, Lewis Bernard, Frank Cammack, Larry 
McGivney, --, --, Boyd Andrews, Charles Goodman, Clay Merritt, Jim- 
mie Miller, Maurice Cochran, Ed Foss, Carlos Livingston, Harold 
Neyman, Max Hemmert, C. Walker Lyon, Walter Harris, Frank Over- 
cast, Bob March, Helen Hammer, Joe Herndon, ■-, Milt Havemann, 
Mrs. Pelton, Murd McNicoll, ■■. 


Main Street - Salmon. Id • 1940 

A parade on Main Street in the 1940's 

u, I 




Clyde Starr, state legislator, and Lucille Tway Herndon, hard at 
work, early 1940's. 

The parade continues. 

2nd Lt. Fred Lowell Brough - 1947 He went 
to school in Salmon until entering the serv- 



Nine of the oldest men in Lemhi County in 1940 - average age 
92 years: Lew Ramey, Smokey Harris, Bill Figley, John Weaver, 

Bill Shoup, John Coles, Art Withington, Pete Wasacho, Seth Ball. 

photo courtesy of Dee Keirnes 

On the back of this picture is written: 'This picture 
belongs to Roy E. Moore. I knew all these men when 
I was a young man and growing up in Salmon. 

"John Weaver was a neighbor living just across the 
river in an old log house with a thatch roof. As a 
little kid I was fascinated about the grass and flowers 
growing on the roof. 

"Smokey Harris worked for the State Road 
Department as a grader operator which was pulled 
by a steam engine and later on (when available) by a 
hard rubber tired truck. The truck was driven by a 
man named Ira Gable, who should have been in this 
picture too. 

"Lew Ramey owned a ranch just out of town. His 
son and I were in the Navy together. 

"Bill Figley worked for many of the ranchers and 
worked in the mines. He also drove stage from Idaho 
Falls and Red Rock, Montana. Those days stages 
were horse drawn. My uncle Ora Cockrell also drove 
stage with Mr. Figley. 

"John Coles and Seth Ball were both old time 
ranchers in Lemhi County, and I worked some for 
both. Bill Shoup was a pioneer and related to Col. 
Shoup. Art Withington, old time rancher, sheriff, and 
gambler. Pete Wasacho, miner and ranch hand." 

Dale Skinner Farm Equipment Co. 

1904 - Travel to Thunder Mountain: ... In Roosevelt there are three 
general stores, six saloons and . . . forty-five houses. Prices are out of 
sight. Sugar is ^50 a sack and it costs ^5 to look at the hole card. 

1952 - Every motorist is urged to watch his speedometer and reduce 
his speed to the maximum now allowed by law - 35 mph. 

1952 - A White Leghorn, owned by J. A. Hanson, has been crowned 
the champion egg layer of the world. 


*•*'»♦ , 

In 1958 the Mountain View Motel stood at the NW corner of 
Main & Challis. It later became the Trails End Motel. 

George & Grace Nagel Monaghan in 1950 at their cabin high up 
on the bar hill. 

J. Randolph photo 

"Men At Work"-The south side of Main Street just west of 
Andrews in 1955. 


"Men Working" again as Christmas decorations go up on Main & 
Center Street. 


Kester Cockreli and one of many lambs, March 1969. 

Bob Johnson photo 

In March 1956 this was Tom Reid's Mobil Station at the corner of Main and Andrews Street. Present home of J-D Tires. 


Frederick C. Lyon, C. Walker Lyon, Hon. J. Blaine Anderson, Fred H. Snook, Sr., Hon. Arnold T. Beebe, Fred Snook, Jr., at a ceremony 
honoring Fred Snook, Sr. & C. Walker Lyon for serving over 50 years each as Salmon attorneys. 1983. 

Eager youngsters watch as "Big John Strong's Circus" comes to town. 


Loulla T. Carpenter, Edna Livingston and Mae Mulkey. 

In 1955 the Salmon Bakery was a thriving business. Here Marilyn 
Ihle Bodily & Gertrude Ihle are ready to serve customers. 

Harold Gilpin - October 1955. 


Walter Ihle and Melvin Pontius - 1955. 

Salmon Bread 
Goes to Washington 

By request of Congressman Paul Schaffer of 
Michigan, the Salmon Bakery has sent by Air-Mail, 
Potato Bread to Washington, to participate in a 
program for using the surplus potatoes. We are 
proud to be recognized as one of the leading Idaho 
Bakeries. So to help the program along we urge you 

You will find ir in every slore in Sa!mon 
and vicinity. 

The Salmon Bakery 

Past Masters of the Carmen Grange and wives ■ Front: Laurita 
Black, Mae Gutzman, Ruth Larson, Leitha Slavin, Ethel 
McFarland, Mae Webb, Janice Slavin. Second row: Mildred 
Brown, Shane Brown, Ted Slavin, Harold Black, Harry Briggs, Earl 
(Hooley) Larson, Ernest Neal, John Gutzman, John Webb. 


Recent aerial view of Salmon and vicinity looking NE. 

Dale Ford photo 

Recent aerial view of Salmon and vicinity looking SW. 

Dale Ford photo 



The British historian Macaulay said, "The history of a country is best told 
in a record of the lives of its people." There are countless wonderful stories 
of earlier times in Lemhi County, and we are grateful to all those who have 
helped to record so many of them. 

A glance at the staff credits page will show that a number of people helped 
to produce these volumes, but over the course of the two years required to 
accomplish the publication of the books, one person has held the project 
together. That person is Magistrate Judge Fred Snook. Without his determi- 
nation, research and writing, to say nothing of his unfailing enthusiasm, oc- 
casionally in the face of disappointment, none of us would have come together 
to do our part. 

Originally this history was intended to be written in one volume, however, 
it soon became evident that one volume could not comfortably hold the mass 
of material collected about the area and its people. Indeed, two volumes were 
found to be inadequate, and the book became a three volume set. 

There will be those who feel that certain important events, places or people 
have been omitted, and there will be others who will argue with the material 
presented. To these people let me say, "We did our very best to record, as 
accurately as possible, not only the earliest people and times, but to relate 
those times to the present." Each person's memory of a single event varies 
to a greater or lesser degree, and with that in mind we ask that you be tolerant 
of seeming inconsistencies in the telling of our history. 

It was our feeling that the stories of progress in the county through the 
years make it important to include accounts of present day people as well as 
the pioneers. No generation stands alone, and we will all become a part of 
our history one day. History is, after all, an endless stream of individual lives; 
each one linked to countless others, and all affected by the events of their 
time. Very soon tomorrow will be yesterday. 

Marilyn M. Alford 

Assistant Chairman 

Lemhi County History Committee 




Volume I 

Abbot(t), Edwin K. 

128, 192, 196, 

222, 242 
Adams 117, 156 
Adams, Buck 262 
Adams, George 169 
Adams, Henry, Col. 107 
Adams, Paul 217 
Aikens, "Babe" 208 
Aikens, Dorothy 117, 

Aikens, Emma 208 
Aikens, Lee 208 
Aikens, Stella 117 
Aikens, Varnie 117,208 
Aikens, Virgil 117 
Ainsworth, David 226, 

Albertson, Nellie 181, 

Albertson, Horace 169 
Alder family 114 
Aldous 217 
Aldous, Eleanor 217 
Aldous, Teresa 118 
Alexander, R, R. 122 
Allan, Frank 169 
Allan, John F. 169 
Allen 22 
Allen family 119 
Allen, George Leiand 

Alihands, Bemard 169 
Allison, Frank 151 
Allison, John F. 169 
Alphin 253 
Amar, Barbara 257 
Amar, Kimberly 257 
Amar, Sheryl 256-257 
Ames, George 246 
Ames, Lucy Webster 

Ames, Ted 200 
Amonson, A. C. 225 
Amonson family 119, 

Amonson, Jean Simon- 
son 117 
Amonson, Mrs. 261 
Amonson, Peter 14, 21, 

24, 29, 165, 169, 

Anderson, Frank Wallace 

Anderson, Gary 257 
Anderson, Geneal 254 
Anderson, George 189 
Anderson, George D. 

109, 132-133 
Anderson, J. Blame 277 
Anderson, J. N. 214 
Anderson, Joe 174 
Anderson, Margaret 

Bauer 133 
Anderson, R. A. 214 
Anderson, Rose Works 

Anderson, William C. 31, 

36, 190, 216 
Andrews, Boyd 271 
Andrews, Daisy 87 
Andrews, Frank 242 
Andrews, Martha 257 
Andrews N. I. 13, 14, 

82, 87, 165 
Andrews, Nellie 131 
Andrews, Noran I. (Hay- 

nes) 173 
Andrews, Norman I., 

Mrs. 202 
Andrews, Norman I. 

202, 207 
Andrews, Thomas K. 

24, 35, 102 
Andrews, W. H. 14, 28, 

Andrews, W. J. 18 
Andrews, William H. 216 
Andrus, Cecil Gov. 73, 

218, 261 
Andrus family 119 
Anglin 132 
Anglin, Bill 229 
Anglin, Kelly 132, 230 
Anglin, Viola 132, 229- 

Ankrum, Sheila 257 
Armstrong family 114 
Armstrong, Percy 149 
Armstrong, Terry 269 
Amett 169 
Arriwite, Ben 58 
Arriwite, Bill 58 
Arriwite, Coburn 58 
Arriwite, Elvina 58 
Arriwite, Hattie 60 
Arriwite, Irene Nappo 55 
Arriwite, Leo 58, 60 
Arriwite, Lillian 58 
Arriwite, Sadie 58 
Atkins, Thomas J. 216, 



Babcock, F. A. 188 
Baer, Frank 44 
Bailey, Robert G. 72 
Baker, Allen 208 
Baker, Darrell 157 
Baker family 113, 116, 

Baker, William (Bill) 218- 

219, 259, 270 
Baker, William. R. 169 
Ball family 113 

Ball, Seth A. 13, 124, 

219, 274 
Ball, Thomas H. 217 
Ball, Wayne 157 

Ballinger, Zera W. 133 
Bandurraga, LeRoy, 

Rev. 185 
Banks, Bennie 133 
Banks, Dick 244 
Bannock, John 83 
Barber, Ada 226 

Barbet 239 
Barclay, Charles 222 
Barkes, Coleen 256 
Barnes, Al 164 
Barnett family 119 
Barrack, Alexander 

(Sandy) 177 
Barrack, Alexander 14, 

Barrack, Alta 201 
Barrack family 113, 119 
Barrack, John 165, 201 
Barrack, John 165 
Barrack, Josephine 201 
Barrett, Gertrude M. 

Barry, Henry P. 219 
Barsalou family 119 
Barsalou, Frank 243 
Bart(e)l, Angelic 102 
Bart(e)l, Tolbert 102 
Bart(e)l, Rena 102 
Bartlett, Richard 106 
Bartlett, Thomasl06 
Barton 10 
Barton, Eloise 115 
Barton family 114 
Barton, Lester 115 
Barzee family 119 
Bates family 119 
Bates, William 170 
Bauer, Clarence 113 
Bauman family 110 
Baumert, Bill 276 
Beach, Charlie 142, 

Beagle, Al 170 
Beagle, Bill 170 
Bean, Annis, Mrs. 236 
Bear, George 183 
Beason, A. W. 219 
Seattle, Ellen 161 
Beattie family 113 
Beattie, James 161, 

165, 207 
Beattie, Will 242 
Beattie, Bert M. 214 
Beatty, Willie 204 
Beaversack, Elmira 60 
Beck, Billy 151 
Beck, Dan 165 
Beck family 120 
Beebe, Arnold T. 277 
Beedle, Al 151 
Beers, Charles A. 218, 

Beers, Charley 33 
Beers, T. 0. 157 
Bell, Lois 209 
Bell, Robert N. 68, 74, 

Bell, Vem 215 
Bellamy, Clio 144, 156 
Bellamy, F. W. 219 
Bellamy, Frank 31, 140, 

156, 219 
Beller, Florin 244 
Beller, 0. F. 214 
Beller, Steve 119, 262 
Bemis, Charles 72-73 

Bemis, Polly 66, 72-73 
Benedict, Ernest 119 
Benedict, Helen 131 
Benedict, Margaret 

Swift 190 
Benedict, Marian 131 
Benedict, T. R. 33 
Beneze, Mark, Rev. 184 
Benjamin family 116 
Benjamin, Lucille Ben- 
son 159 
Benjamin, Mr. 116 
Bennett, Ned 150 
Benoit, Pat 157 
Benson, Henry 244 
Bergeron, Abe 214 
Bernard, Lewis 271 
Berntsen, John, Mrs. 

Berntsen, John 151, 

Berridge, Isabelle 118 
Bevan family 114 
Biddle, Nicolas 4 
Bielby family 120 
Bien, Frank 133 
Bills, Larry 232 
Binning, Gordon 106 
Birdseye, James W. 29, 

170, 222 
Bisson, Lois W. 236, 

Bisson, Roy 157, 236 
Black family 120 
Black, Harold 279 
Black, Laurita 279 
Black, Val 243 
Blackadar, Walter, Dr. 
101, 103, 236, 270 
Blackburn, Challis 21 
Blackburn, Tom 21 
Biasmgame, D. N. 214 
Blasingame, H. J. 214 
Blayden, John 267 
Blayden, Marlin 267 
Blayden, Ruth 257, 262 
Blayden, Stefani 263 
Blood family 116, 118 
Bloom, Charley 187 
Bodily, Marilyn Ihle 278 
Boggs, Joseph 159 
Bohannon family 89, 

113, 114 
Bohannon, Isaiah 170 
Bohney, J. D. (Joe) 37, 

88, 156 
Boise Sam 69 
Bolander, E. C. 236 
Boiander, Irene 112, 

115, 236 
Bolton, Rose 161 
Bonner, F. B. 181 
Bonneville, Capt 5, 64, 

Bontecon, James 133 
Boomer, A. H. 170 
Boomer, H. H. 47 
Booth, J. E. 38 
Boots, Aria 217-218, 


Boots, Terry 119 
Bosch, Herb 134 
Bourdon, Michel 5 
Bourne, Peter, Fr. 252, 

Bowditch, George 244 
Bowles, Corwin 245 
Boyd, Cornelius A. 218 
Boyd, William 159 
Boyle, Claude 215 
Boyle, Maggie 30 
Boyle, Michael 170 
Boyle, Thomas 70 
Boyle, Tommy 227, 229 
Bradley, Herbert 157 
Bradshaw, Claire 113 
Bradshaw, Clyde 113 
Bradshaw, Dick 113 
Bray, Mark 170 
Brazelton, J. M. 214 
Brenneman, Beulah 

226, 256 
Brenneman, Orville, Mrs. 

Bridger, Jim 64 
Briggs, Ardis 256 
Briggs, Gertrude 279 
Briggs, Harry 279 
Briney, E. 11 
Briney, W. A. 170, 217 
Broadhead family 119 
Brog, Jean 256-257 
Brog, Paul 243 
Brough, Fred 24, 156, 

Brough, Fred Lowell 

Brough, John 24, 27, 

Brousseau, James E. 

Brown, Bill 24 
Brown, D. H. (Shorty) 

Brown, Doris Webb 140 
Brown, Emily 181 
Brown family 1 15 
Brown, George 242 
Brown, George K. 222 
Brown, Helen 131 
Brown, J. W. 218 
Brown, Joseph D. 217 
Brown, Joshua 24, 35 
Brown, Mildred 279 
Brown, Minor A. 216, 

Brown, Scott 140, 238 
Brown, Shane 279 
Brown, W. F. 26 
Brown, W. S. (Bill), Jr. 

Brown, Walter Scott 

Brown, William J. 157 
Bruce, A. T. 171 
Bruce, Mr. 114, 118 
Bryan, W. J. 14 
Bryant, Billy 242 
Bryon, George 13 
Bu Kee 6, 74-75 
Buchanon, Mrs. 103 
Bucklin, Jessie 84 
Budge, Alfred 218 
Buker, Mr. 149 
Bull, Pierce J. 13 

Bundy, Jack 26 
Burch family 115 
Burgraf family 120 
Burgreen, Martin 164 
Burk, W. H. 28 
Burleigh, H. J. 218 
Burleigh, Henry J. 72 
Burnham, Alta Barrack 

Burns 171 
Burtenshaw 233 
Buster, Cathy 243 
Buster family 116 
Buster, Pug 136 
Buster, Richard (Dick) 

Butler, Gerald 222, 

243, 276 
Butschke, Frank 124 
Butterfield, William G. 

214, 215 
Buttermilk Jim 51 
Butts, Festus 18, 218- 


Caldwell, Monte 260 
Call, Dave 219, 262 
Call family 119 
Calvin, Mary 134-135 
Calvin, Mary C. 133 
Cameahwait, Chief 1, 4, 

51, 58 105, 110, 

180, 232 
Cameron, Kinney 150 
Cammack, Frank 271 
Campbell, Arthur 124 
Campbell, Jim 73 
Campbell, Myrtle 117 
Campbell, Nancy Jane 

Campbell, Thomas 248 
Cannon, Bessie Moore 

79, 202 
Cannon, Bill 78-79 
Cannon, Billie 114 
Cannon, Joe 78 
Cannon, Mary 133 
Cannon, William J. (Bill) 

79 223, 242, 243, 

Caples, J. W. 28 
Caples, James W. (Jim) 

115 217, 261 
Caples, Phyllis 21 1,227 
Capps family 113 
Carey, John 73 
Carl, Alice 201 
Carl, Ann 209 
Carl, Anna 201 
Carl, Fred 221, 222, 

Carl, Herman 201 
Carlson 115 
Carlson, Bessie 115 


Bob 116 
Doug 248 
Selway 214 
Duncan 214 
Benjamin 171 
family 112 
Martha J. 171 
Bob 137 
Don 156 

Carnes, Donald 137 
Carnes, J. P. 156 
Carpenter, Estelle, Mrs. 

Carpenter, Loula T. 

161, 278 
Carr, Belle 44 
Carr, Nat 200 
Carson, Kit 165 
Casey, Barton B. 133 
Casey, Doug 222, 248 
Casey, Elizabeth 248 
Casey family 114, 116 
Casey, Frank T. 133, 

Casey, Lillian 187 
Casterlin, Don 79 
Casterlin, Erie H. 218, 

223, 224, 244 
Catey, Charles 6 
Catey, Rebecca Ann 6, 

Cavaness, R. B. 183 
Chaffin, Wade 157 
Challis, A. P. 216, 217 
Chamberlain 239 
Chamberlain, Charles G. 

8, 18 217, 231 
Chamberlain, George 

171, 229 
Chamberlain, Mrs. 103 
Chandler, Elsie 119 
Chandler family 113, 

Chandler, Louise 105 
Chandler, Martin 105- 

Chandler, Vern 97, 131 
Chaney, Glen 159 
Chapman, Dan T. 247 
Charbonneau, Jean Bap- 

tiste 4-5 
Charbonneau, Lisette 5 
Charbonneau, Pomp(y) 

Charbonneau, Toussaint 

Charley 69 

Chase, Dan 158, 242 
Chase, Emeline Steven 

Chase, Fred 131 
Chase, Hal H. 217 
Chase, Helen 122 
Chase, Josiah E. 38, 

161, 218 
Cheney, Arthur 106 
Cheney, Matilda 106 
Cheney, Ray 261 
Cheney, Tillie 106 
Chicken Nose 51, 53 
Chin Lee 72 
China Jack 30, 71 
Ching Quong 71, 189 
Chorn, Amy 257 
Chrissman 251 
Christensen, J. 271 
Christensen, Morris 154 
Christensen, Hacksaw 

Tom 136-137 
Christian family 119 
Chury, A. C. 72 
Clark, A. D.151 
Clark, Bill 231 
Clark, Carl 149 

Clark, David J. 183 
Clark family 113 
Clark, John 217 
Clark, Lloyd 234, 269 
Clark, Richard, Dr. 262 
Clark, William, Capt. 1- 

4, 51, 58, 59, 100. 

105, 139, 159, 165, 

174, 180, 228, 230, 

232, 237, 261, 270 
Clarke, J. H. 175 
Claussen, Maria 119 
Clawson, E. H. 214 
Clayton, Beulah 122, 

Clayton, Grace 201 
Clemmens family 119 
Clemow, George 33 
Cleveland, Solomm J. 

Cleveland, Thomas 189 
Clough, John P. 217 
Clough, Lucy 181 
Coan, Mike 263 
Coates, Bert 248 
Cochran, Betty J. 257 
Cochran, Maurice 156- 

157 243, 271, 276 
Cochrane 24 
Cockrell, Beverly 261- 

Cockrell, Charles Wash- 
ington 47 
Cockrell family 113 
Cockrell, Kester 276 
Cockrell, Ora 248, 274 
Cockrell, Ray 261 
Coghan, George 133 
Coiner family 115, 119 
Coiner, Hugh 222 
Coiner, V. A. 217 
Coiner, Vern 248 
Colby, Keno 63 
Coleman family 115 
Coles family 120 
Coles, John 274 
Collins, Billy 164 
Collins, William 164 
Colson 171 
Colter, John 3 
Colvin, H. E. 222 
Colvin, Ray 243 
Combs, Dale 183 
Combs, Dame 16-17, 

Combs- Stauffer, Ramon- 

a 227 
Condie, Clarence 214 
Conley 115 
Conley, Cort 73 
Connor, Tim 21, 189 
Connors, Tim 218-219 
Conroy family 118 
Cook family 120 
Cook, J. A. 8 
Cook, Jack 120, 266- 

Cook, Kim 262 
Cooper, J. Newt 171 
Cope family 118 
Copeland, Kyle 119 
Cordova, Tina 258 
Corrigan family 114, 

Corum, Earl, Mrs. 244 


Corum, Rose 158 
Cote, Joseph 5 
Cottom family 113 
Cottom, Morris 119 
Courier, Charley 16-17 
Cowen, Frederick J. 27, 

Cox family 119 
Craig, Jack 121 
Craigue, William H, 28, 

Grain, Joe 13, 38 
Cram, Rice 214 
Cramer, Jack 171, 174 
Cramer, Kathleen 227 
Crandall, Fred 222 
Crawford, Holbrook, 

Mrs. 46 
Crazy Jack 75 
Crehan, J. H. 94 
Criderman 172 
Crofts family 114 
Cronk, James 171 
Cronkrite, George W. 

Crosby, Michael 262 
Grow Old Man 51, 58 
Gruikshank, Alexander 

Crumley, Ted 269 
Cruzatte, Pierre 1 
Cubitt, Charles 164 
Culver, Buck 150 


Dahle, Voyd 243 
Daily, Eve 90 
Daly 171 

Daniels, Dorothy 115 
Daniels, Edgar 115 
Daniels family 115 
Daniels, Seth 97 
Danilson, W. H. 52 
Darnutzer 239 
Darnutzer, Chris 231 
Darnutzer, Lena 19 
David 172 
David, Caleb 217 
Davidson, Roland H. 

187, 217 
Davis 24 

Davis, Anna B, 158 
Davis, Dan 172 
Davis, Daniel, Rev. 184 
Davis, J. W. 14, 172 
Davis, Jay 244 
Dawson 106 
Dawson, Ruby 209 
Dean, Georgeien 133 
DeCora family 114 
DeCora, Shirley 131 
Decoria, John 134 
Deep Water, Lucy 63 
Degen, Joseph 172 
deKalb, Gregoria 188 
Delong, Mavis 261 
DeMark, Frank 157 
Demick, Louis 214 
Demoss family 112 
Dempsey 183 
Denney, Thompson 85 
Denny, Bonita 118 
Denny, Elvina 131 
Denny, Everett 118 

Denny family 115 
Denny, Gilmore 118 
Denton, Joe 187 
Deriar, Johnl72 
DeWolf, Edward 164 
Dickens, Sue 257 
Digles, Clara 120 
Dillard, Ralph 156 
Dillon, Ben K. 124, 232 
Ditta-cony-diva 62 
Dodge, R. R. 32 
Doebler, Bertha 161 
Doebler, Charles 222 
Doebler, William G. 221, 

Donlan, Francis 114 
Donnelly, EInora 120 
Donnelly, James 172 
Doty family 119 
Douglas, Ed 264, 271 
Dove, Timothy 217 
Downing family 114 
Doyle, Wilma 256 
Drake, Merle 248 
Drouillard, George 1 
Dryer, Roy L. 209 
Duncan, Hugh, Rev. 

161, 180 
Dunkin, John 214 
Dunlap Family 89 
Dunlap, Robert 24, 25, 

29, 217-218 
Dunn, Ervin 271 
Dunton, Fred P. 217 
Dunton, Willard 133, 

Durand, Helen 227 
Durand, Roy 223, 243 
Dutch Charley 150 

Eagle, Rosetta 60 
Eby, E. T. 188 
Eby, Lucien 164 
Edersall family 242 
Edwards, Anna 133 
Edwards, Bob 11 
Edwards, Corinne 200 
Edwards, Eddie E. 217 
Edwards, Edgar S. 13, 

14, 24, 27, 63, 70, 

165, 190, 207, 217 
Edwards, Eugene 157 
Edwards, Frank 200 
Edwards, Gertrude 200 
Edwards, Guy 29, 218, 

Edwards, Janice 200 
Edwards, Lois 200 
Edwards, Ray 244 
Edwards, Susan Cox 

Edwards, William L. 133 
Egbert, Del 157 
Egge, James 215, 219 
Elder, Ethan 204 
Elder family 113 
Elder, Newton 204 
Elder, Thomas 72, 120, 

Eldridge family 114, 

Elliott, Lew 209 
Ellis, Alvin 145 

Ellis, Bessie 211 
Ellis, Boisel88 
Ellis family 112, 115 
Ellis, George 16, 231 
Ellis, Kathy 257 
Ellis, Mae Louise 120 
Ellis, Wilson 18, 131, 

188, 231 
Ellsworth, George 259 
Ellsworth, James 217, 

225, 261 
Emerson, Marian 227 
England family 113, 

England, Jim 75 
Engle, Alcinda 13 
Ennis, Jack 172 
Ericsson, Gary 262 
Ernst, Charles 151 
Ernst, Charles, Mrs. 

Evans, Chipsl71 
Evans, Isaac 18, 217 
Evarts family 116 
Everson, John 172 

Fadness, Roberta 257 
Fahey, Jeremiah 133, 

Falconbury, Lynn 150 
Falkner, W. H. 22 
Falls, Lorenzo 172, 231 
Faltham, Lot 124 
Fane, Jasper 222 
Fannin, Baby Joe 169 
Fannin, Joe 169 
Fannin, Nellie 169 
Faraday, Sandra 159 
Farnsworth, William 22 
Farquhar, Phyllis 257 
Faulkner, Marjean 131 
Fayle, Bill 231 
Fayle, W. H. 217 
Fenn, Frank E., Maj. 249 
Ferguson, A. E. 222 
Figley, Bill 274 
Fin(n)ell, J. G. 218-219 
Finlayson, Phoebe Ann 

Finnegan, Thomas 229 
Finster, Jacob 8, 14, 25 
Finstur(Feinsteur), Jacob 

Fisher, Fred 53 
Fisher, Harry B. 244 
Fisher, John B. 33 
Fitch 90 
Fitzgerald, Emma P. 

Fitzgerald, Milan 183 
Fitzgerald, Pat 261, 

Fitzpatrick, James 251- 

Fitzpatrick, Joe 156 
Flynn, John 23 
Fong Kee 30 
Foo, Ah 75 
Ford, Albert H. 172, 

Ford, Henry 173 
Forney, Henry 172 
Forris, W. A. 165 

Fortney, Harvey 156 
Foss, Ed 271 
Fosterson, Frank 188 
Fowler, H. B. 70 
Fowler, William 209 
Fox, Charles 229 
Fox, Charles, Mrs. 229 
Francis, Grace Kinsbury 

Frazee 242 

Frazee family 116, 118 
Frazee, Guy 214, 229 
Frazee, Irene 132 
Frazier, Emerson 219 
Frazier, Sheriff 138 
Freel, Dave 262 
Freeman, James 172 
French 24, 28 
French Joe 231 
Frey family 117 
Frost, H. E. 38 
Frost-Kane, Mertia 161 
Fryberger, Dates 226 
Fulkerson, Jess 271 
Fuller, James K. 24, 35, 

Fullmer, Willard A. 131 
Furey, Sherman F. Jr. 

218, 222, 248 
Furey, Sherman III 218 
Furness, Sherrie 261 

Gable, Ira 274 
Gage family 114, 116 
Gant, John 173 
Gardener, Erie Stanley 

Gass, Patrick, Sgt. 2-3 
Gattin brothers 22 
Gautier family 116 
Gaver, Cady 134 
Gaver, J. J. 134 
Gaver, John 134 
Geertson family 113 
Geertson, Lars C. 173, 

191 194, 198 
Gentle, Edna Sims 119 
George, Breechcloth 

(Billie) 55 
George, Camille 55 
George, Cora 55, 61, 

George, Emma 57 
George, Emma Lu 60 
George, Weeto Wats 55 
George, Willie Jr. 56, 60 
George, Willie Sr. 51, 

Gertson, I. C. 165 
Gertson, Ward 165 
Gibbon, John, Col. 173 
Gibbon, John, Gen. 108 
Gibbs, John 173 
Gibson, Jack 52 
Gibson, Lucille 257 
Gies, Isadora 251, 252 
Gies, Richard 251 
Gilbert, Charley F, 187 
Gilbreath, Earl L. 218 
Gill, Wilbur 156 
Gilmer, J. R. 89 
Gilmer, John T.{Jack) 



Gilpin, Harold 278 
Gilson, J. J. 217 
Girton, Carrie 13 
Girton, Carrie Green 13 
Girton, Charles 13 
Girton, Dixon 13 
Girton, Elizabeth 13 
Girton, James 13 
Girton, Lottie 13 
Girton, T. Ward 7, 12, 

Girton, Wilson 13 
Glanzer, Janice 257 
Glarieus, Bishop 181 
Glavin, Gladys 113 
Glavin, Marion 113 
Glendenning 181 
Glendenning, James 8, 

23, 33, 216, 226 
Glennon, L. E. 124, 

222, 225 
Glennon, Mrs. 11 
Goddard, Geraldine 206 
Goddard, T. R. 214 
Godfrey, Herb 229 
Godfrey, Vivian 229 
Goggins, John R., Dr. 

Gooch, Warren 106 
Goodard family 119 
Goodeli family 113 
Goodell, Jessie 158-159 
Goodeli, Phillip 113 
Goodman, Bill 183 
Goodman, Charles 271 
Goodrich, Ethel 120 
Goodwin family 116 
Gorley, James 173 
Gott, Bettye 256 
Gott, Donald 113 
Gott, Francis 113 
Gough, Laura Chorn 

Gough, Merelda 257 
Gould, Agnes 61, 62 
Gould, Austin 62 
Grant, Johnny 64 
Gray, Bonnie 257 
Grayot, Don 156-157 
Green, Albert 16-17, 22, 

GresI, Peter, Fr. 181- 

Grey, Zane 107, 153 
Grieber, Hilliard 260 
Grimes, H. J. 242 
Groll, Bonnie 261 
Groom, Hattie 183 
Grooms, Mrs. 89 
Gross, George V. 217 
Gross, W. D. 143 
Grouse Pete 52 
Grove family 119 
Groves, S. A., Mrs. 22 
Grubb, George 217 
Grubb, Georgie 188 
Guallupe, A. C. 167 
Guleke, Catherine 149 
Guleke, Harry, Capt. 30, 

69, 136, 143, 146, 

148-149, 166, 260, 

Gupton, Sam 184 
Guth, Kaye 261 
Guth, Paula 263 

Gutzman, Bob 269 
Gutzman, John 173, 

Gutzman, Mae 279 
Guyaz family 261 
Guyton, Edward 222 
Gwartney, Bob 243 
Gwartney, L. N. (Mick) 

192, 222, 223, 224 
Gwartney, Mike 262 


Hacksaw Tom 136-137 
Hagel, Bob 149 
Haggin, J. B. 173 
Hale family 114 
Hall family 119 
Hall, Francis R., Jr. 218 
Hall, Frank 172 
Hallock, Esther 257 
Hamilton family 115, 

Hamilton, Mildred 183 
Hamlin, Madora Meeks 

Hammer, May 55 
Hammerean 173 
Hamp, Oren 173 
Hank, William J. 214 
Hanmer, Charles F., Dr. 

33, 86, 101, 124, 

193, 197, 222, 248 
Hanmer, Edwin J. 224 
Hanmer, Helen 271 
Hanmer, W. F. (Bill) 24, 

248, 271 
Hansbrough, George F. 

Hanson, Alice K. 133 
Hanson, Harold 133 
Harbor, Vicki 261 
Hard 188 

Harden, Jeanne 137 
Harden, Vernon 136, 

137, 138 
Harder, Charles 135, 

Harder, Rennie 135, 

Harding, Susan 201 
Hardy, Racine L. 133 
Hargraves family 113 
Harlow, Harley E. 214 
Harriman, Averill 153 
Harrington, J. A. 23 
Harris, Smokey 274 
Harris, Snookie 256 
Harris, Tony 214 
Harris, Virgil 157 
Harris, Walter 271 
Hart, Minnie 226 
Hart, W. B., Dr. (Doc) 

39, 149 
Hatcher, Glen 185 
Hauff, Patricia A. 222 
Havemann, F. G. 242 
Havemann, Frank H. 11, 

Havemann, Fred 131 
Havemann, Milt 271 
Havens, Harold 183 
Hawkins, Shelly 256 
Hawley, D. B. 15 
Hawley, Denny 216 

Hawley, E. R. 173 
Hayden family 113 
Hayden, James 173 
Hayden, Jim (James) 

16- 17, 22 
Haynes, H. F. 143 
Haynes, Hiram F. 217 
Heath, Benjamin L. 18, 

216, 217 
Heckendorf, Carl, DVM 

Heglund, Alford 164 
Heidemann, Evelyn 257 
Heidemann, Harold 261 
Heidner, Ethel. M. 183 
Heidt, Lena Dellen 108- 

109, 133 
Hellman, Adam 173 
Hellman family 116 
Hemmert, John 157 
Hemmert, Max 24, 243, 

248, 264, 266, 270- 

Hemstead, Hazel 115 
Henderlider, Robert 224 
Henderson, John 157 
Herbert, E. W. 164 
Herman, Tern 257 
Herndon, Betty Lou 250 
Herndon, Charles 218, 

243, 268 
Herndon, James A. 128, 

218, 226, 250 
Herndon, Joe 24, 25, 

183 243, 271 
Herndon, John 250 
Herndon, John Charles 

Herndon, Lucille Tway 

250, 273 
Herndon, Millicent 226 
Herndon, Roy B. 131, 

217, 224 
Hewitson, Marmaduke 

Hewlett, R. G. 188 
Hibbs family 114, 119 
Hibbs, Jim 139 
Hikson family 117 
Hill, Emerson 32, 220 
Hill, George 165 
Hill, John 200 
Hillman, Roger 119 
Hines, Augusta 161, 

Hines, Gary 262 
Hinkle, Lena 13 
Hirshey, Ann Carl 209 
Hissmell, J. C. 219 
Hitesman family 118 
Hixson, Myrtle 209 
Hobb, R. E. 218 
Hobbs, Alice 218, 245 
Hobbs, Glenn 245 
Hockensmith, James H. 

165, 173 202, 207, 

Hockensmith, James H., 

Mrs. 202 
Hodges, Audrey 209 
Hodges, Gar 268 
Hodges, Gar, Mrs. 268 
Hoffman family 115 
Hoffman, Merle 236 
Hoffman, Roy 233 

Hogan, John 217-218 

Hogle 173 

Holberg, Thomas H. 

Holbert, Homer 131 
Holbrook 24 
Holbrook family 112, 

113, 114, 116, 117, 

Holbrook, John 182 
Holbrook, Will 182 
Holcomb, B. E. 214 
Holcomb family 114 
Holgate, Harry 243 
Holland, William A. 216 
Hooper family 118 
Hornback, Anthony 14 
Hornbeck, Anthony 161 
Hornbeck, Margaret 

Horton, James 202, 

Houver, Joe 215 
Howard, Gen. 83, 171 
Howard, Helen 256 
Howe family 118 
Howell, George 224 
Hoy, Shirley 218 
Hubbard, E. L., Dr. 33, 

103, 203 
Hubbard, E. L., Mrs. 

Hubbard, Tom 24 
Huber, Hap 271 
Hudelson, Greta 118 
Hudson family 114 
Huggins, Flora 122 
Huggins, Margaret 120 
Hughes, Barney 174 
Hughes, George 188 
Hughes, Robert B. 219 
Hughes, Taylor 188 
Hulihan, John 228 
Hulihan, Patty 228 
Hull, Charles M. 217 
Hull, Charles Robert 188 
Hull family 118 
Hull, Joseph 174 
Hungate, Tom 11 
Hunsaker, Pat 268 
Hurst, George 189 
Husaker, Lavan 268 


Ibach, Benjamin F. 216 
Ibach family 116 
Igou, John 217-218 
Igou, Logue 229 
Igou, OraL. 132 
Ihle, Gertrude 278 
Ihle, Walter 279 
Indian Tribes: 
Bannock 6, 71 
Blackfeet 1, 3, 5, 166 
Flathead 4 
Hidatsa 4 
Lemhi 4, 51-59, 185, 

Mandan 4 
Minnetree 4 
Nez Perce 1, 5, 6, 16, 

17, 21, 22, 64, 71, 

108, 166, 171, 175, 




Omaha 4 
Pakeek 110 
Sheepeater 12, 55, 71, 

166, 185 
Shoshone(i) 1, 34, 6, 

51-59, 105, 166, 

Snake 5 
Infanger 261 
Inf anger family 116 
Infanger, Ray E. 224 
Innes, Gilbert 156 
Irvin, Francis 144 
Irvin, Ralph 144, 244 
Isley, Robert 218-219 

Jakovac, David 118 
Jakovac, Gayle 209 
Jakovac, Ramona 118 
Jakovac, William 157 
James, Frank and Jesse 

James, Neal 222 
Jarvis family 119 
Jeanjaquet, E. H. 27, 

Jenkins, A. P. 216 
Jenkins, E. J. 217 
Jeppson, Lemuel 182 
Jewell, J. P. 120, 222 
Jewell, John 117 
Jewett, Emma 208 
Jewett, Wesley 208 
Johns 239 

Johns, R. H. 18, 217 
Johnson, "Shoeshoe" 

Johnson 106, 140 
Johnson, Art 208 
Johnson, Bob 261 
Johnson, David B. 131 
Johnson, Edward 219 
Johnson, Esther 257 
Johnson family 120 
Johnson, George F. 131 
Johnson, I. C. 165 
Johnson, Mac 185 
Johnson, Pearl 208 
Johnson, Rattlesnake 

Johnson, Richard 13 
Johnson, Sheriff 121 
Johnson, Zack, Dr. 101, 

102, 156 
Johnston, Millard 214 
Jolly, Van 269 
Jones, Chuck 269 
Jones, Dei 222, 243 
Jones family 118, 119 
Jones, Hiram J. 222 
Jones, Martin 72 
Jones, Mike 132 
Jones, Phyllis 131, 132 
Jones, Ruffan, Rev. 182 
Jones, Sam 228 
Jones, W. B. 72 
Jones, Willis 150 
Jordan, John 164 
Joseph, Chief 16, 23, 

35, 64 


Kadletz, Bill 200 
Kadletz, Emmett 206 
Kadletz family 113, 114 
Kadletz, John W. 174, 

Kadletz, Mabel 111, 

Kadletz, Miss 200 
Kadletz, Olive 201 
Kadletz, Will 44, 86 
Kane, Barbara 119 
Kane, Charles B. 216, 

Kane, Chuck 266 
Kane, Thomas 242 
Kaufman, Clarence 150 
Kearsley, Merle 133 
Keele, Eunice 183 
Keele, Wilfred 183 
Keim, Maria 187 
Keirnes, Donna 257 
Keith, Elmer 138, 149, 

221, 222, 264 
Kellogg, James 113, 

Kellogg, Verna, Mrs. 

Kelly, Harry 27, 216 
Keni-botts, Johnson 51 
Kennedy, Mack 164 
Kenney, Dwight J. 217 
Kenney, George A., Dr. 

10, 24, 

28, 35, 86, 100-103, 

174, 222 
Kerin, Frank 223, 243 
Kerr, Jim 174 
KesI 10 

KesI, Elmer 118 
KesI family 119 
Kessel, Tom 263 
Ketchum, Dave 71 
Ketchum, Ella 226 
Ketchum, Jim 11 
Keys, A. L., Mrs. 209 
Ki, Ah 72 

Kierman, Thomas 23 
Kiessling, Richard, Rev. 

Kildare, Maurice 188 
Kilpatrick family 116 
Kimball, Ethel 16 
King, A. D. 181 
King, Connie 201 
Kingsbury, Adele 152 
Kingsbury, George W. 

Kingsbury, H. E. 154 
Kirk, Armstead L. 217 
Kirkham, John E. 214 
Kirkham, Margaret Shar- 
key 13 
Kirkpatrick family 114 
Kirkpatrick, Orion E. 

11, 13, 126-130, 

Kirtley, Charles L. 222 
Kirtley, Charles L., Dr. 

Kirtley, Frank 35 
Kirtley, James L., Jr. 

Kirtley, James L. Sr. 13, 

24, 33, 34, 120, 

161, 174,207,224, 

Kirtley, Mary 161 
Kirtley, Pat 209 
Kirtley, Rose C, Mrs. 

Klein, Harold 187 
Kleinkenheimer, Pete 73 
Klinger, Lucien 131 
Klingler, Ken 243 
Klingler, Virginia 255 
Knapp, John 215 
Knock, Edna 113 
Koester, Bill 243 
Kohl, Betty 159 
Kohl family 115 
Kriley, Carl J. 243 
Kroeger, Fred 260 
Kunter, W. 0. 156 
Kuntz, John 164 
Kuppers, Francis, Fr. 

Kurry, Albert 130, 150 
Kurry, Albert, Mrs. 150- 

Kurry, Henry 130, 150 
Kurry, Herman 8 

Labiche, Francois, Pvt. 

LaFevers, French 8 
Lakes, Arthur 252 
Lamb, Norman A. 251, 

Lambert, Ed 96 
Lambeth, Dave 117 
Lambeth, Jennie 117 
Lambeth, John 117 
Lambeth, Laura 117 
LaMunyan, Bill 113 
LaMunyan, E. F. 214 
LaMunyan, George 250 
LaMunyan, Williston J. 

Langsdorf, Jessie M. 

Langston, Phillip G. 185 
Lapp, 0. C. 251 
Larson, Earl (Hooley) 

276, 279 

Larson, Hooley 156-157 

Larson, Ruth 279 

Laughlin, Joe 229 

Lawson, Hana 107 

Layton, Charles 188- 

La^-ton, Roy 188 

Leacock, Abner 169- 

Leacock, Clara 10 

Leacock, Pearl 201 

Leavit, Dr. 19 

Lee, Andy 1 50 

Lee, Charles 174, 187 

Lee family 115 

Lee, Frank Charles 214 

Lee, J. D., Dr. 107 

Lee, Lila 209 

Lee Wing 70 

Leesburg 70th Anniver- 
sary Attendence 125 

Leiande, Laura 102 

Lelande, Lucy 102 

Leiande, Mabel 102 

Lelande, Rachel 102 
Leiande, Thelma 102 
Lemble, J. D. 219 
Lemhi Numa Divo 62 
Lemons, Don 270 
Lewis, Cougar Dave 

Lewis, Harry 180 
Lewis, Meriwether, Capt 

1-4, 51, 58, 59, 

100, 105, 159,165, 

174, 180, 185, 228, 


Lewis, W. J. (Billy) 243, 

270- 271 
Li, Ah 72 
Lind, Cora 247 
Lindsey, Archie E. 214 
Ling family 119 
Ling, Veola 118 
Ling, Vonda 118 
Lipe, Charles 65 
Lipe, Charles 55, 200, 

Lipe, Chuck 97 . 
Lipe family 115 
Lipe, Harvey 97, 104 
Lipe, Jacob 55 
Lipe, Jake 200 
Lipe, Robert W. 214 
Lish family 114, 115, 

Literal, M. R. (Bob) 215, 

Little, R. B. 94 
Livingston, Carlos 271 
Livingston, Edna 278 
Lockland, Joe ('Tom') 

Long, Bertha 73 
Long, Charles 217 
Long, John 216 
Longhurst, Lyie 262 
Look Fai 72 
Loucks, Bob 261 
Love, Frank 150 
Loveless, John P. 214 
Loveless, Wayne 223 
Luderman, William 189 
Ludwig, Arthur C. 13, 

Lum Coy 70 
Lum How 75 
Luttig, John C. 5 
Lykens, Col. 233 
Lyn, Jasper 10 
Lynch, Nep 268 
Lyon, C. Walker 156, 

271, 277 
Lyon, Ed 45 
Lyon, Frederick C. 

218, 277 
Lyon, Jasper 11 


MacKenzie, Donald 5, 

MacNab, A. J. 14 
Magee, Red 46 
Maguire, Don 174 
Mahaffee family 114, 

Mahaffey family 118 


Mahaffey, James 219 
Mahaffey, Steve 231, 

248, 270 
Mahaffey, Steve, Sr. 

176, 264 
Mahoney, Alice, Mrs. 8, 

10-11, 124 
Mahoney, Delia 11 
Mahoney, Ezra 174 
Mahoney family 114, 

Mahoney, Jim 157 
Major Jim 83, 84, 110 
Malcolm family 113 
Manasco, Colston W. 

159, 160 
Manful!, Charles Roy 

Mansfield, Maurice, Bro. 

March, Bob 271 
Marley family 118 
Marshall family 113, 

Marshall, Leo 262 
Marsing, Nels 0. 171 
Martin, Donald E. 117, 

219 220, 223 
Martin, Florence 271 
Martin, George (Bally) 

13, 14 
Martin, George A. (Bal- 

dy) 169 
Martin, Isabelle 120 
Martindale, Tom 152 
Martinelli, James C. 31, 

Martinelly, James 226 
Martinely, Sam 72 
Marvin family 116 
Massie, Henry 174 
Mathewson, Chester B. 

Mathewson, Chester G. 

157, 158 
Mathis, IdaB, 133 
Mattewson, C. G. 224 
Matthews, Arlen 115 
Matthews, Vernon 115 
Matthews, Warren 115 
Matuchia 72 
Matutsi 74 
Mayfield, A. A. 186 
McArthur family 119 
McAfee, Dale 157 
McBride, Kenneth 131 
McBride, Maurine 226 
McBride, Robert W. 224 
McCaleb, Anna B. 81, 

83, 161, 181, 261 
McCaleb, Anna Boyd 

Vernon 23,24 
McCaleb, Hope 23, 83, 

McCaleb, Hugh 23, 83, 

McCaleb, Jesse 23, 

159, 181, 217-219, 

McCail, F. A. 218, 223 
McCall, Frank A, 131 
McCardell 222 
McCamey 188 
McCarthy, James 251, 


McClaren, Johnny 37 
McClung, Charles 222 
McConnel, William 0. 26 
McCracken, C. H. 94 
McCracken family 115 
McCracken, Frank P. 

McCracken, William E. 

133, 135 
McCrea, Earl H. 217 
McCullough, John 189 
McCutcheon, W. A. 94 
McDermite, Dawn 119 
McDermott, Reginald 

McDevitt family 113, 

McDevitt, Neal 174 
McDonald 24 
McDonald, Alice 244 
McDonald, Elizabeth 

McDonald, Finnan 5 
McDonald, John 218 
McDonald, John E. 217 
McDonald, John W. 188 
McDonald, Vem 215 
McDowton family 114 
McElvain, Mapel Jones 

McFarland, A. H., Dr. 

McFarland, Arch 157, 

182, 236 
McFarland, Dave 157 
McFarland, Druciolla 

McFarland, Ethel 279 
McFarland family 119 
McFarland, Harold 279 
McFarland, Tamara 119 
McFarland, Thomas 182 
McFrederick, Betty 149 
McFrederick, Gladys 

McFrederick, Glen 243 
McFrederick, Hazel 209 
McFrederick, Hazel, 

Mrs. 149 
McFrederick, Jimmy 

McGarvey, Tom 7, 12, 

14, 15, 174 
McGillivary, Angus 189 
McGivney, Larry 156, 

McGoldrick, Ray 222 
McGraw, Eva 132 
McKay, Thomas 5 
McKay, William 41 
McKillop, Archibald 251 
McKillop, John 251 
McKim 174 
McKinney, Cassie 246 
McKinney family 115 
McKinney, Helen 224 
McKinney, Jack 156, 

233, 269 
McKinney, John 214, 

216, 233, 246 
McKinney, Minnie 39 
McKinney, Peter 39, 97, 

192-193 196, 197, 

202, 216-217, 246 
McKinney, Rose 246 

McKinney, Sam 216, 

217, 236 
McLane, Shorty 187 
McNab, A. J. 35, 158, 

165, 217 
McNab, Christie 145 
McNeai, Hugh 1 
McNee, Barbara 257 
McNicoll, Barbara 161 
McNicoll, M. M. 35, 244 
McNicoll, Murd 271 
McNicoll, Robert 35, 

161, 165 
McNirney, Dan 174 
McNutt, David 7-8, 30, 

71, 165 
McPheeters, Herb B. 

McPherson, M.M. Jack 

McPherson, M. 14, 24, 

29, 35, 84, 131, 

165, 217-218, 225 
McPherson, Murd 121, 

McPherson, Murdock 

202, 207 
McPherson, Myra 31, 

McPherson, Paul 271 
McQuade, Henry 223 
McTaggart, John 189 
Means, Frank 164 
Meitzler, George W. 218 
Meredith, Benjamin F. 

Merritt, Ada Chase 

25,38-39, 161, 

196, 218 
Merritt, Adrian A. 246 
Merritt, Allen C. 14, 15, 

25-35, 38, 87, 112, 

196, 222, 242 
Merritt, Clay 271 
Merritt, Emma 25, 38 
Merritt, Henry Clay 25, 

Merritt, Milt 153 
Metz, Charlie 151 
Metzinger, George 140 
Meyers, B. F., Hon. 175 
Meyers, Ron 214 
Miers, Mike 165 
Mildon, Doreen 257 
Miller, Barry 227 
Miller, Bill 222 
Miller, Bruce 184 
Miller, C. R. 188 
Miller, Dave 188 
Miller family 113 
Miller, Frank C. 218, 

222, 248 
Miller, Frank, Mrs. 226 
Miller, Jimmie 271 
Miller, John 219 
Miller, Teddy 115 
Minert, Eli 13, 15, 165 

172, 207, 218 
Mink, Joe 60 
Mmtzer 85 
Mintzer, Clara 161 
Mmtzer, Olin W. 35, 38, 

Mitchell, Billy 150 
Mitchell, Charles 208 

Mitchell, Fred 208 
Mitchell, George 23 
Mitchell, Leopal 208 
Mitchell, Norene 208 
Moan, Andrews 164 
Mogg, Fred 175 
Mohr, Rudolph 216 
Monaghan, George 275 
Monaghan, Grace Nagel 

Monahan, Barney 164 
Monasco, C. W. 217 
Monasco, Cal 23 
Monk, George H. 222 
Monks, Rachel Weaver 

Montgomery family 118 
Moodie, Dennis 269 
Moodie, Joseph 171 
Moodie, Martha 257 
Moodie, William 164 
Moore, Ann 256 
Moore, Bessie 202, 203 
Moore, Lillian 203 
Moore, Lora 203 
Moore, Marion 13 
Moore, Olive 201, 203 
Moore, Reuben 201 
Moore, Robert 1 70 
Moore, Roy E. 274 
Morgan 106 
Morgan, John 175, 178 
Morgan, John L. 8, 10, 

24, 35 
Morgan, Newt 188 

Morman Missionaries 6, 

64, 180 
Morphey, Corliss R. 

216, 217 
Morphey, Margaret 226- 

Morphey, Margaret Ball 

Morphey, Richard 217 
Morphey, Rose 257 
Morphy, Mamie 132 
Morrell family 114 
Morrill, Zella 201 
Morrison, Dutch 263 
Morrison, Mrs. 115 
Morrow, J. B. 231 
Morrow, Jack 159 
Morrow, W. 217 
Morse 175 
Morton, Robert, Mrs. 

Morton, Tern 222 
Mosher, Cisca 263 
Moss, H. E. 8 
Mottman, Emil 252 
Moyer 173 
Moyer, Charles 175 
Muenkres family 113 
Mulder, Fanny 101 
Mulder, John L., Dr. 101 

Mulder, John, Mrs. 256 
Mulkey, A. 158 
Mulkey Burrel 260 
Mulkey, Doyle 248 
Mulkey, Edith 120 
Mulkey, Elijah 7-8, 12, 

13, 165, 175 
Mulkey family 113, 114, 

115, 116 


Mulkey, Irene C. 132 
Mulkey, Joe 219 
Mulkey, Mae 111, 278 
Mulkey, Marion 13 
Mulkey, Mrs. 72 
Mulkey, Selway Lysle 

179, 188 
Mulkey, Thomas B. 157 
Mulkey, W. L. 158 
Mulkey, William L. 219, 

Mullen, Mr. 122 
Murdock, Mrs. 226 
Murdock, R. M. 27, 192 
Murphey, A. E., Dr. 86 

100-101, 103 
Murphey, Laura B. 131 
Murray, James 164 
Murray, John 189 
Musgrove, H. P., Maj. 

Myers, Fred 186 
Myers, Roy, Rev. 184 
Myers, Socrates A. 190 
Mylander, Harry 115 


Nappo, Joe 110 
Nash, Joseph 164 
Nashold, Egbert 26, 63, 

Nathoy, Lalu (Polly) 72 
Navo, Alfred 55 
Navo, Bill 55 
Navo, Camille 58 
Navo, Charlie 55 
Navo, Richard 55 
Navo, Zuni 55 
Neal, Ernest 279 
Neal, Janice 227 
Nebeker, Joe 243 
Needham, J. M. 44 
Negus family 119 
Neiman family 115 
Neison, Patricia 133 
Nelson, Ernest 242 
Nelson, Jack 222 
Nelson, LaVerne 157 
Nelson, Maude E. 247 
Nepthkin, Freeman 130 
Nepthkin, Freeman, Mrs. 

Neugebauer, Debbie 

Neugebauer, Richard H., 

Rev. 184 
Neyman, Harold 221, 

222 223, 243, 271 
Neyman, Rick 269 
Nichols, De WittL. 156, 

222, 224 
Nichols, Edwina 156, 

Nichols family 119, 267 
Nichols, Ralph 175,217 
Nichols, Ralph A. 84, 90 
Nielsen, Helen 247 
Niemann, F. William 

217, 234 
Niemann, Earl 124 
Niemann, F. W., Mrs. 

210, 229 
Nighswander, James M. 

133, 217 

Nilsson, Margaret 209 
Nobel, James 13 
Noble family 116 
Noble, George W. 133 
Noble, James 157 
Norfolk, W. H.242 
North, Fora A. 120 
Noteware 181 


O'Brien, William H. 218 
O'Callahan, Catherine 

O'Connell, William 181 
O'Conner, Belle 261 
O'Conner, Frank 75, 

O'Neal, Don M. 217, 

O'Neal, Edward 231 
O'Neal family 114, 116, 

O'Neal, Lynette 132 
O'Neil, Edward 159 
Oberg, Pearl 187 
O'Connell, Dan 31 
Odell, Geraldine God- 

dard 206 
Ogden 64 
Ogden, Peter 165 
Oliver, George 107,248 
Olsen, Torben, Rev. 156 
Olson, Vergil 259 
Oltmer, William 217 
Orcott, William 159 
Orn, Ezra 172 
Orr, Tern A. 257 
Ostrander, John W. 217 
Otter, Butch, Lt, Gov. 

Overcast, Frank 271 
Owens, Beverly 256 
Oyler, Max 149 

Paddison, L. F. 251 
Padgham, George W. 

Padgham, Lillian 226 
Palmer, Adeline 115 
Palmer family 115, 119 
Palmer, Georgia 115 
Palmer, Jessie 115 
Palmer, John 115 
Palmer, Sarah 115 
Palmer, Virginia 115 
Pambrun (Pambruin), 

Thomas 64 
Pambrun, Alex 64 
Pambrun, Thomas (Pier- 
re) 64 
Pandoah, Charles 53 
Pandoah, Daniel 53 
Pandoah, Fannie Silver 

51, 53 
Pandoah, Grace Grouse 

Papetti, Eddie 156 
Park family 119 
Parker 176 
Parker, Samuel, Rev. 5, 

Parks 176 

Parmenter family 120 
Parsons, Mary 119 
Pattee family 114 
Pattee, Fred 132, 229, 

Pattee, Joe 125 
Pattee, Joe, Mrs. 46 
Pattee, Joseph 81, 110, 

125 156, 176 
Pattee, Paul 156 
Pattee, Phoebe Snook 

Pattee, Sheriff 71 
Patterson, Eleanor Med- 

ell 72 
Patterson famiiyll4 
Pattison, A. W. 158 
Pattison, Ross 176 
Paul, Mr. 260 
Paul, Rhonda 257 
Payne, Ed 176 
Pearson family 119 
Pearson, Harriet 257 
Pearson, Jimmy 119 
Peck, E. 157 
Pedros, Peggy 133 
Pedrow, Garry 133 
Peebles, Gus 139 
Pegoga, Cora 56 
Pelton 35 
Pelton, Mrs. 271 
Perreau, John 176 
Perry, Bill 223, 266, 

Perry, Bob 266 
Perry, Lizzie 83 
Peterson 253 
Peterson, Arthur 182 
Peterson, Dorothy 253 
Peterson, James E. 182 
Peterson, Kimberly 257 
Peterson, Lucille 209 
Peterson, William 222, 

Peterson, William 21, 

Petoosey 70 
Petrowski, Josi 44 
Phelan, Lawrence W. 

Phillips, Fred 217 
Phillips, Fred 7-8, 24, 

Phillips, Gomer 35 
Phillips, Mark 243 
Phillips, Ralph 214 
Pierce, Clair 132 
Pierce, Edward G. 187 
Pierce, Johnl76 
Pierce, Mary Ames 246, 

Pierce, Ray 229 
Pierce, W. F. 187, 246 
Pierce, Warren 229 
Pinkie, Charles 164 
Pioneer, Sam James 

Piu, Ah 71 
Pixton, Joe 271 
Pollard, Frank (Francis) 

M. 24, 5, 112, 122- 

123, 158, 76, 181, 

182, 217 
Pollard, Sophrona 158 
Pollard, William 29 

Pomp(y) 4 
Pone, Ah 72 
Pontius, Melvin 279 
Ponzo, Phoebe 61-62 
Poovey, David, Rev. 184 
Pope, Emma 158 
Pope family 114, 119 
Pope, Horace 124 
Pope, Thomas 13, 131, 

158 165, 207, 217 
Popejoy family 114 
Porter, A. C. 44 
Porter, Bennett W. 252 
Porter family 117 
Porter, Irene 44 
Porter, Mrs. 44 
Porterfield, Joe 200 
Potter, Sheriff 72 
Potter, William H. 161, 

Pound, Thomas 229 
Powers family 119 
Prader, Andrew 251 
Prange, Luke 227 
Pratt, Gerone 8 
Pratt, Jerome 176 
Pratt, Neff 101 
Preston, Mrs. 226 
Prestwich family 114, 

Price, B. F. 216 
Price, Fannie 112 
Prince, Lorton 13, 129 
Proksch, Joe 266 
Proksch, Joe 30 
Prosser, Stanely 214 
Pruitt, Bill 243 
Pruvan, John 176 
Puette, William H. 220 
Pugh family 116, 117 
Putt, Charles 176 
Pyeatt, Anna Belle 12 
Pyeatt, Don 113 
Pyeatt family 113, 114, 

116 117, 119 
Pyeatt, John 214 
Pyeatt, Lloyd 156 
Pyeatt, Margaret 209 
Pyeatt, Margaret Snyder 

Pyeatt, Thomas 83, 85, 

Pyeatt, W. B. 13 
Pyeatte, Riley 260 

Quanda, Adrian 119 
Quarles, A. J. 236 
Quarles, G. B. 27, 34, 

167 220, 236 
Quarles, R. P. 27 
Quesnel, Barbara 132, 

Quesnel, Clint 25, 229, 

Quinan, Mark 189 


Rackham, Dorothy 145 
Rackham, H. A. 214 
Rafferty, Wanda 256 
Rainey, Bert 187 
Rainey, Joseph 23 


Rairden, W. 235 
Ramey, Bob 150 
Ramey, John 15 
Ramey, John S. 171, 

Ramey, Lee 124 
Ramey, Lewis F. 219, 

224, 274 
Ramey, Lou 124, 166 
Ramey, Louis F. 216 
Ramey, Thelma 159 
Ramey, Walter 155 
Ramsden, Mr. 112 
Ramsey, Lewis 131 
Rand, John 155 
Rand, Mabel 53 
Rand, Margaret 218 
Rand, Phillip 126, 131, 

Randolph, E. E. 125 
Randolph, Fred 11 
Randolph, Fred W. 217, 

Randolph, John E. 214 
Randolph, Julia 164, 

189 261-262, 263 
Randolph, Mr. 11 
Randolph, Virginia 11 
Rankin, John K.218 
Rapp, Joseph 7, 12, 14, 

165, 176 
Rasor, Clarence 27 
Rathbun, Dad 229 
Rav(a)ndal, Jerry 107, 

Ravndal, Clara 138 
Ravndal, Eric 107 
Ravndal, Eric, Mrs. 107 
Ravndal, Gerald B. 236 
Ravndal, Velma 236 
Reberg, Emil 151 
Reddington family 113, 

Reddington, John 119 
Reddington, Milt 85 
Reddington, Sadie 85 
Redwine 1 1 7 
Redwine, H. G. 34 
Redwine, Hyram G. 199, 

224, 225 
Reed, Beth 256 
Reed, Don C. 223, 225 

Reed, Elizabeth 111, 

183, 244 
Reed, J. C. 162 
Rees, Alice R. 132 
Rees family 113 
Rees, Gillihan 83 
Rees, John 222 
Rees, John E. 5, 110, 

126, 217 218, 222, 

224, 244 
Rees, Robert G. 177, 

Reese, Bert 132 
Reese, Eleanor Steele 

35, 249 
Reese, Emmett 39, 232 
Reese, Evan J. 219 
Reese, John 229 
Reid, Tom 276 
Reingold, Mel 262 
Reneau (Renaud), Jules 

170, 174 

Reno, J. Frank 187 
Reno, Seaver 187 
Reno, Willie 187 
Reynolds, Nellie 122 
Rhodes, Freddy 119 
Ricketts, Curtis 113 
Rider, Thomas 165 
Riding, J. M. 187 
Rigby, Wilmer 261-262 
Riggan 82 
Riggan family 114 
Riggan, Francis A. 181 
Ringie, William 177 
Rippey, Addie 102 
Rippey family 113 
Ritchey, Mary Boyle 278 
Ritchey, William 278 
Roach, Richard 164 
Robbins, Helen 187 
Roberts, Bo, Deputy 

Roberts, Curtis 11 
Robertson, Eunice 226 
Robertson, Irvin 220- 

Robie, Linda 257 
Robinson, J. S. P. 216 
Rockwell 262 
Rood, Willard 115, 136 
Rose, Bertha 103 
Rose, Fred 142 
Rose, Fred, Mrs. 142 
Rose, Wiley J. 222 
Rosennau, Terry 184 
Rosin, Jerry 261 
Roske family 118 
Ross 187 
Ross, A. S. 89 
Ross, Alexander 5, 165 
Ross, C. Ben, Gov. 124, 

Royer, Curtis R. 258 
Royer, John H. 258 
Royer, Minnie Ray 258 
Running Bear, Chief 55, 

Russell, Emma 85, 86 
Rustin, Charles B., Capt. 

Rutledge, Pat 187 
Ryan, Isobelle 120 

Sacajawea 1, 4-5, 51, 

58, 105, 110, 230, 

Safely, J. C. 73 
Salzer 177 
Sam, Ah 79 
Sandi(er)land 189 
Sandiland, Sarahl83 
Sandiland(s), George 

63, 148 
Santee, Laurie 257 
Sassman, Oren 111, 

Sassman, Winnie 115, 

Sawyer, Lillie 55 
Scanlon, John 133 
Scarborough, Norma 

Stone 133 
Schafer, Don 227 
Schneider, Paul 261- 

Schnieder, Zolene 119 
Schultz 29 
Schultz, Albert 183 
Schultz, Clarence 123 
Schultz, Dave 117 
Schultz, David 29, 123, 

Schultz, Dora 117, 123 
Schultz family 116, 119 
Schultz, Florence 117, 

Schultz, Jessie 117, 

Schultz, John 122 
Schultz, Lonnie 269 
Schultz, W. W., Mrs. 

Schultz, W. W. 112, 

122-123, 266 
Schwartz, Frank A. 214 
Schwartz, H. 174 
Scoble, Tom 119 
Scott, Laura Toiman 

Scott, Lynn 218 
Scovei, Al 1 1 
Searle family 113 
Seat, Charles 164 
Seaweard, S. H. 217 
Seghers, Charles, A- 

Bishop 180 
Selmer, Dan (or Ben) 

Settles, Steve 262 
Seward, Lewis 140 
Shanafelt family 116 
Shanafelt, Viola 117 
Sharkey, Adele 12 
Sharkey, Anna B. 158, 

Sharkey, Barney 13, 

Sharkey, Charles 12 
Sharkey, Claire 12 
Sharkey, Edwardl2 
Sharkey family 114 
Sharkey, Frank B. 6, 7, 

12-13, 13, 82, 95, 

125, 158, 161 165, 

202, 216, 231 
Sharkey, Helen 12 
Sharkey, Margaret 12 
Sharkey, Mary 12 
Sharkey, Olive 12 
Sharkey, William 12 
Shaw, Lloyd 214, 216 
Shaw, Mrs. 138 
Shaw, Roy 138 
Shear, Alfred 187 
Shear, Jacob 187 
Shear, Pete 187 
Sheepsking, Nessie 53 
Sheldon, R. K. 177 
Shenon, Fred 39 
Shenon, Kenneth 39 
Shenon, Mrs. 206 
Shenon, Philip J. 39 
Shenon, Philip 39-40, 

Shepherd, Warren 177 
Shepp, Charles 73 
Sherman, Charley 151 
Sherretts, Linda 256 
Shiefer, Fred 73 

Shields, John 1 
Shiner, Gloria 187 
Shipton, Elizabeth 13 
Shoemaker, S. B. 187 
Shoo-woo-koo, Chief 6 
Shoup, Bill 274 
Shoup, Dick 138 
Shoup familyll4 
Shoup, George E. 14, 

15, 20 21,239,244 
Shoup, George L., Mrs. 

46, 54 
Shoup, George L. (the 

younger) 200 
Shoup, George Laird, 

Col. 16-17, 18-20. 

22, 23, 32, 33, 54, 

69, 82, 84, 110, 

159, 161, 165-166, 

177, 181, 190, 216, 

226, 250, 261, 274 
Shoup, James 19, 24 
Shoup, James M. 216, 

217, 225 
Shoup, Johnathan 19 
Shoup, Laura 19 
Shoup, Lena 19 
Shoup, Margaret 19 
Shoup, Margaret (the 

younger) 200 
Shoup, Susie Edwards 

Shoup, W. C. 14 
Shoup, W. H. 14, 242 
Shoup, Walter C. 19, 

214, 225 
Shoup, Will 121, 125 
Shoup, William 19, 54, 

Shuk, J. S. 222 
Shumate, Gene 256 
Shunk, Edward 8 
Shurtliff family 114 
Silver, Archie 53 
Silver, Fannie Pandoah 

51, 53 54, 58, 60, 

Silver, Toenip 53, 54, 

Silver, Tom 52 
Simmonds, Robert 222 
Simmonds, William W. 

(Billy) 217 
Simmons, MarRue 263 
Simons, Delos 24, 35 
Simpson, Charles 217 
Sims, Edna 118 
Sims, Elizabeth M. 120 
Sims, Harry 118 
Sims, Howard 58, 183, 

Sims, J. H. 225 
Sims, Marjorie Burnham 

75, 112, 183, 243, 

Sinclair, John C. 218 
Sinclair, Roy D., Dr. 

101, 223 
Sing, Charlie 69 
Sing Chow (Mary) 74 
Sing Kee 71 
Sing Lee 30 
Skelton, Joe 23 
Skinner, Dale 267 
Skinner, Judy 257 


Skinner, Ray 236 
Slack, Jerry 8 
Slater, Sarah 44 
Slavin, Chris 257 
Slavin, Daniel 115 
Slavin, Evelyn 115 
Slavin family 115 
Slavin, Janice 279 
Slavin, Leitha 279 
Slavin, Milton A. 220- 

221, 243 
Slavin, Milton C. 205, 

Slavin, Ted 224, 279 
Smith, A. A. (Al) 71. 

183, 228 
Smith, Bob 97, 163 
Smith, Bob 262 
Smith, Brian 184 
Smith, Dale 256 
Smith, Dennis 177 
Smith, Don I., Rev. 183 
Smith, Ed W. 271 
Smith, Ell 97, 163, 267 
Smith, Ellen Gleason 

Smith, Fae 131 
Smith, Frank 188 
Smith, Gene 229 
Smith, Irene 117 
Smith, Jack 174, 267 
Smith, Jedediah 5 
Smith, Jordan P. 218, 

Smith, Mark 119 
Smith, Marsha 256, 257 
Smith, Nate 175 
Smith, Perry 215 
Smith, Renee 256 
Smith, Ross 243 
Smith, Sam 157 
Smith, Thomas S., Elder 

Smith, Vicky 257 
Smith, William 217 
Smith, William 7, 12, 

Smith, William B, 165 
Smith, William C. 110, 

Smith, Wils 34, 71 
Smout, W. T. 177 
Snag, Chief 51, 110 
Snell, Ebenezer 172, 

Snodgrass family 114 
Snook, Charles W. 

(Charlie) 16 24, 35, 

58, 110, 141 
Snook, Charlotte 145, 

Snook, Connie 209 
Snook, Elizabeth 130, 

164, 257 
Snook, Emily 145 
Snook family 114, 232, 

Snook, Fred H. (Sr.) 

34, 58, 114, 156, 

206, 216, 218, 

223, 236, 259, 

262-263, 264, 

271, 277 
Snook, Fred (Jr.) 58, 

218, 220-221, 

243, 248, 261- 

262, 269, 277 
Snook, John C. 160, 

224, 263 
Snook, John, Mrs. 46 
Snook, John W. 35, 58, 

165 224, 236, 264, 

Snook, John Wals 16- 

17, 24, 25 34, 35, 

145, 156, 218. 219 
Snook, Phoebe 35, 46 
Snook, Quinton 216, 

Snook, Willa 145 
Snyder 21, 253, 262 
Snyder, Charles F. 217 
Sobczak, Olga K. 257 
Sorenson, J. C. 224 
Sorenson, Jack 269 
Sorenson, Ron 269 
Soule, H. Manson 214 
Soule, Kester 122 
Soule, Manson 122 
South, Peter, Dr. 271 
Spahn, Carl 21 
Spahn, K(C)arl 0. 225, 

Spahn, Mrs. 46 
Spayd 209 

Spayd, Charles H. 188 
Spaydes, Charles 217 
Splittslosser, Ernest 

Spotted Bear 55 
Springer, Kay 249 
St Clair, W. W. 229 
St Clair, Wallace 155, 

Stahl, Dave 219 
Stahl, David 0. 188 
Stahl, Frank 267 
Stalker, Bob 44 
Stanger family 119 
Stanton, John C. 188 
Stapleton, Wash 173 
Stark, John 164 
Starr, Clyde 224-225, 

246, 273 
Steel, George 32, 33 
Steel, Jack 30 
Steen, William Heber 

Steeples. Emmett 243 
Stem, Henry 178 
Stem, Otto 164 
Stem, Ray 141 
Stemmer, J. H. 140 
Stenersen, Annisa 257 
Stenersen, Lisa 257 
Stenersen, Penny 257 
Stenersen, Sue 257 
Stenersen, Suzette 257 
Stenerson family 116 
Stephenishen, Ed 214 
Stephens, Evan 125, 

Stephenson 186 
Stephenson, A. M. 21, 

Stephenson, Mrs. 186 
Stesak, William 164 
Stevens, Anna 161 
Stevens, Dwight 156 
Stevens Family 115 

Stevens, Isaac 161 
Stevens, R. P. 271 
Stevens. Thomas 229 
Stevenson, A. M. 174, 

Stevenson, Jack 243 
Stevenson, M. M. 80, 

81, 84, 85 
Stevenson, M. M., Mrs. 

84. 85, 87 
Stewart, Matthew W. 

Stine, Ala 103 
Stinson, Bob 51 
Stinson, Buck 110 
Stocker, Bob 85 
Stoddard, Grace 132 
Stokes, Bob 245 
Stokes, Dean 269 
Stokes, Dick 245 
Stokes, Earl 245 
Stokes, H. Earl 183 
Stokes, Jean 131 
Stokes, Len 245 
Stokes, Robert 183 
Stone, Allen 133 
Stone, Norma B. 133 
Stone, W. F. 94 
Stone, Wilbur F. 217 
Stout, Buck 269 
Stratton, Owen T., Sen. 

Stratton, Owen T., Dr. 

86, 101-3 
Stricklan, Beulah 145 
Strom, John 187 
Stroud 154 

Stroud, Alta Maud 187 
Stroud, Bess E. 120 
Stroud, Elijah 80, 83, 

Stroud, Elmer 214 
Stroud, Everett 156 
Stroud family 115 
Stroud, Jennie B. 187 
Stroud, John 80, 83 
Stroud, John D. 187 
Stroud, John Elbert 187 
Stroud. Laura Belle 187 
Stroud, Sheriff 155 
Stroud, Thomas J. 218 
Stroud, Urania D. 187 
Studebaker family 113 
Sturmer family 1 19 
Sullivan, Nellie 102 
Summers, Fred 215 
Summers, H. L. 224 
Summers, Harry L. 216 
Suydam, Elias 63, 137 
Swanson, Bernard 118 
Swanson family 119 
Swanson, George 116 
Swanson, Gladys 117 
Swanson, Oscar 118 
Swanson. Vincent 118 
Swift, Keneth 156 
Swift, Owen 224 
Swinney, H. J. 244 
Swinyer, Lillie 119. 131 
Symms, Steve, Sen. 

Ta Gwah Wee 51, 53 

Tabor, Thomas T. 95 
Talbot, Bishop 181 
Taliaferro, Arthur 189 
Tapscott, Norma 261 
Tapscott, Tom 261 
Taylor, Ben 44 
Taylor, Bob 178. 236 
Taylor, Chauncey 243 
Taylor, Janet Nelson 

Taylor, T. J. 242 
Taylor, Thomas J. 219 
Taylor, William 229 
Tendoy, Chief 16. 50- 
52. 53, 58, 63, 64, 
84, 86, 110, 129, 
186, 270 
Tendoy, Emma 56 
Tendoy, Jack 17, 52-53, 

Tendoy, Jim 55 
Tendoy, Roy 55 
Terry, Ferrell 142, 260 
Thatcher, Preston 223 
Thomas 106 
Thomas, Kelly 119 
Thomas, Reba 236 
Thompson, Elmer E. 

Thompson. Larry 119 
Thornhill, E. B. 28, 222 
Thrasher, Ralph 166 
Tibbitts family 265 
Tifan 71 
Tihee 52 

Tin Doi (see Chief Ten- 
Tin-navo 62 
Tingley 24 

Tingley. Ira 218, 239 
Tingley, Vernon 120 
Tingo, Maggie 62 
Tissidimit 52 
Tobias 106 

Tobias family 116, 117 
Tobias, Helen 260 
Tobias, Solon S. 178 
Tobin, Thomas 164 
Toby 1-3 
Toopompy (Too-Pompi) 

52, 57 
Tormey, John 178 
Tracey, John 269 
Trebar. William 23 
Trego. Byrd 126 
Tripp7, 12, 14 
Trowbridge, Austin 136 
Trowbridge, Austin, Mrs. 

Trowbridge, Charlie 102 
Trowbridge family 114 
Trowbridge, Warren 1 1 3 
Tucker, Elmer 90 
Tucker, Grover 90 
Tumidja, John 110 
Tumidja. John. Mrs. 110 
Turner. Ernest 258-259 
Turner family 118 
Turner, Fred 164 
Turner, Mary 236, 257- 

Turner, Mary Royer 

258- 259 
Turner, Nathaniel L. 178 
Tuttle, Bishop 180, 181 


Tuttle, E. H. 18, 216 
Tweedy family 119 
Twist, Richard M. 164 
Two Bits 110 
Ty Ho 71 
Tyler 84 
Tyler, John 51 


Udy, Elizabeth 89 
Udy, George Carl 89 
Umpleby, J. B. 162 
Ungefug, Larry J. 131 
Usher, Bob 265 

Vale, Ed 121 

Van Almelo 113 

Van der Donet, Rev. 181 

Van Norden 161 
Van Orsdale 82 
Van Orsdel, William 180 
Van Overen, Mona 261- 

Vanderlip, Jay Vee 122 
Vandeventor, Dick, Rev. 

Vandreff 12, 14, 29, 

Varin, Edith 133 
Vaughan, James A, 242 
Vaught, Milford 248 
Venable, Ed 229 
Vergis, William M. 188 
Vernon, Belle 81 
Vessel, David 187 
Vezina, David 187 
Vezina, Eliza 187 
Viel, Fred 192, 196, 

216, 222 
Vier, James 178 
Vincent, L. E., Rev. 216 
Virgil 24 
Volter, Gus 178 
Vose, Oliver V. 131 
Vottler, Gustaffl89 


Waddington, John 116 
Waddington, Nels Watts 

Wade, Daniel 178 
Wade, Henry 178 
Wade, Walter 150 
Waetzig family 116 
Waetzig, Mr. 116 
Wah, Ah 71 
Wah Sing 30, 68, 69, 

71, 74 
Walarbis, Henry 132 
Walchh, Charles 243 
Walchh family 118 
Walchli, Vicky 119 
Walchly, Charles 223 
Walker, Bert 34 
Wallace, William 178 
Waller, Mane 150 
Walston, George 38 
Wang Ho 71 
Wantomy, Frank 51 
Ward, Chester 0. 214 
Ward, Lynn 157 

Warjack, Martha 60 
Warner, Will 242 
Warner, William L. 28 
Wasacho, Pete 274 
Washakie 110 
Water, Harry S. 217, 


Waterman 259 
Waters, Harry 124 
Watkins, Ethel G. 120 
Watson, Enos 21 
Watson, William 214 
Walters, Ron 262 
Waugh, Alec 178 
Wayman, George Jr. 

Weaver, John 274 
Webb 243 
Webb, John 279 
Webb, Mae 279 
Weber, Dan 132 
Weber, June 132 
Weber, L. F. 217 
Weber, Sam 243 
Webster, J. B. 214 
Weenee, Lily 61 
Weese, Simon P. 11 
Weigand, Jack 217 
Welch 12, 14 
Welch, Golden 157 
Welch, James 229 
Wells, Jude 179 
Welsh, John 15 
Welsh, William 15 
Wendover, Wesley 188 
Wentz, Emma 161 
Wentz, George 31, 33, 

159, 161, 165, 181. 

Wenzig, Ida 115 
West, Jim 121 
West, LaRae 257 
Westfall family 119 
Wheeland, Leiand, Col. 

Wheeler, Forrest 131 
Wheeler, J. W. 8 
Wheeler John 24, 35 
Whiddoson, Ed 260 
Whimpy family 112 
Whing family 114 
Whitcomb, Enoch W. 

130, 218 224-225 
White Bear 55 
White, Emma 161 
White family 115 
White, Fred 27, 207 
White, Harry 179 
White, J. H. 242 
White, Monteville 161 
White, R. W. 27 
White, Raymond 271 
White, RussW. 27, 210, 

White, William C. 217- 

Whiteside, C. E. 214 
Whiting, Bill 269 
Whitman 64 
Whitsett, E. C. 18, 218 
Whitsett, Robert 214 
Whittaker, Cal 116 
Whittaker, Calvin 131 
Whittaker, Carol 116 
Whittaker, Floyd 248 

Whitwell, Earl 87 
Whitwell, Gladys 87 
Whitwell, Laura 87, 122 
Whitwell, Nora Yeanan 

Whitwell, William C, Dr. 

27, 44, 81, 85-87, 

100-101, 103, 160, 

161. 222, 225 
Whitworth, Judd 233 
Whitworth, Karen 262 
Whitworth, Scott 233 
Wickham, R. E. 224 
Widdowson, E. A. 187 
Wiederrick, Alberta 217 
Wiederrick family 119 
Wiederrick, Robert 244 
Wiederrick, Robert E. 

Wiegand family 113 
Wilkie, Frank 187 
Wilkins, Mike 270 
William, Murray 222 
Williams, Cap 24, 242 
Williams family 118 
Williams, Harry 260 
Williams, Henry 179 
Williams, Henry V. (Bro- 

cho) 173 
Williams, Josie 247 
Williams, Levi 164 
Williamson, Ruth 132 
Williamson, William J. 

Wilson 106 
Wilson, "Puddin River" 

176, 179 
Wilson, Jed 53, 54, 58 
Wilson, Robert 217 
Wilson, William 150-154 
Wimpey, William James 

Wing Lee 30, 69 
Wing Sing 69 
Winterowd, F. B., Mrs. 

Winterowd, Grace 133 
Wishard, S. E., Rev. 185 
Withmgton, Art 271, 

Withmgton family 113 
Withmgton, L. P. 165 
Withmgton, Lester P. 

30, 105 179, 231, 

Witteborg 106 
Wo (Who) Hop 70, 75 
Wolf, Don 269 
Wolf, Gordon 271 
Wolfe, Aden 261 
Wolfe, Barbara 261 
Wolfe, Ed 188 
Wolfley, Carmen 243 
Wolfley, Edgar 243 
Wolfley, Kim 243 
Wolfley, Monty 243 
Wolfsahn 157 
Wong Yu Lung 75 
Wood, J. D. 216 
Wood, Newton B. 133 
Woods, J. D. 23 
Woods, Mrs. 114 
Woozley, W. C. 217 
Work, John 164 
Workman, Ammi 189 

Wornek family 119 
Worthing family 119 
Wright, Brandling 226 
Wright, Brandling, Mrs. 

Wnght, Gary 171 
Wright, Frank S. Jr. 

(Doc) 11, 214 
Wright, Franks., Dr. 28, 

64, 86, 100-101, 

119, 179 
Wright, J. H. 12 
Wright, Jon 262 
Wright, Rodolph 132, 


Yan Kee 30 
Yant, Del 140 
Yeanan, Arthur 87 
Yeanan, Edwin 80 
Yeanan, Elizabeth 80 
Yeanan, Emma R. 224, 

Yeanan family 113, 

115, 116, 117, 118 
Yeanan, George F. 80, 

83, 98, 179, 225, 

Yeanan, George, Mrs. 

Yeanan, George W. 216- 

Yeanan, Jacob 80, 174, 

Yeanan, Jane 86 
Yeanan, John 80, 83, 

Yeanan, Joseph 80, 82, 

Yeanan, Kenneth 97 
Yeanan, Mollie 175 
Yeanan, Thomas, Mrs. 

Yeanan, Thomas 80, 

81,84,86,98, 106, 

Yeanan, Zeph 80, 83, 

Yellow Bear 55 
Yen, Ah 30 
Ying, Susan 72 
York 1 
Young, Barbara 185, 

255, 261-262 
Young, Brigham 64, 

Young family 115 
Young Kee 70 
Young, Richard M. 157, 

159, 255 
Young, Samuel 31, 219 
Young White Bear 55 
Youngstrom, Fred 183 
Yule, Wally 270 
Yum Quoy 72 

Zeigler, Carl 243 
Zeigler family 114, 119 
Zeigler, W. L. 251